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Meng-Bin Ruan, Yi-Ling Yang, Kai-Mian Li, Xin Guo, Bin Wang, Xiao-Ling Yu, Ming Peng
BACKGROUND: CC-type glutaredoxins (GRXs) are plant-specific glutaredoxin, play regulatory roles in response of biotic and abiotic stress. However, it is not clear whether the CC-type GRXs are involve in drought response in cassava (Manihot esculenta), an important tropical tuber root crop. RESULTS: Herein, genome-wide analysis identified 18 CC-type GRXs in the cassava genome, of which six (namely MeGRXC3, C4, C7, C14, C15, and C18) were induced by drought stress in leaves of two cassava cultivars Argentina 7 (Arg7) and South China 124 (SC124)...
December 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Fuqiang Wang, Haihua Wang, Sennan Li, Xiaoping Diao
The present study revealed the role of earthworm (EW)-effective microorganisms (EM) in converting sewage sludge and cassava dregs into a valuable product. Sewage sludge was toxic to earthworm, therefore it was mixed with cassava dregs in the proportions 80:20 on dry weight basis. Treatments included mixed substrate inoculated vs. not inoculated with EM and treated with or without earthworms. The pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and C: N ratio decreased from the initial in the range of 17.43-18.46%, 25...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Charity Mutegi, Tesfamicheal Wossen, Joseph Atehnkeng, Nsharwasi Léon Nabahungu, Emmanuel Njukwe, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Aflatoxins are noxious secondary metabolites, of certain fungal species, found in food and feed. Contamination of a commodity with aflatoxins is associated with production and storage losses, and subsequently less food availability. Aflatoxins can also pose human health risks and represent a barrier to the development of trade, in both domestic and international markets. In this study, samples of cassava, maize, groundnut, beans, soybean, sorghum and milk, and their processed products were collected from local markets in Burundi and Eastern DRC...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Louis Bengyella
The Cochliobolus genus consist of over 55 species among which the 5 most devastating are Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Crocus sativus and Cochliobolus lunatus causing damages in sorghum, wheat, rice, maize, cassava and soybean estimated at over 10 billion USD per annum worldwide. The dynamic pathogenicity of Cochliobolus species and the plethora of infected hosts is determined by the evolution of virulence determinants such as the velvet-like B protein (VelB)...
December 1, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Zengyong Li, Ying Liu, Chuanfu Liu, Shubin Wu, Weiqi Wei
The conversion of cellulose into sorbitol has been recognized as one of most promising biomass valorization routes for the production of high added-value chemicals. In this work, Sulfonic acid-functionalized carbonized cassava dregs supported ruthenium bifunctional catalyst (Ru/CCD-SO3 H) was prepared. The Ru/CCD-SO3 H catalyst was employed for direct conversion of cellulose into sorbitol in a neutral aqueous solution. A sorbitol yield of 63.8% could be obtained at 180 °C for 10 h. The acidic sites and metal hydrogenation sites of the Ru/CCD-SO3 H catalyst played an important role in hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose...
November 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kyria Boundy-Mills, Nardrapee Karuna, L Antonio Garay, Julian M Lopez, Calvin Yee, Alex Hitomi, Audry K Nishi, Lauren L Enriquez, Christopher Roberts, David E Block, Tina Jeoh
BACKGROUND: Cassava leaves are an abundant global agricultural residue because the roots are a major source of dietary carbohydrates. Although cassava leaves are high in protein, the protein is not bioavailable. This work aimed to convert cassava leaves to a bioavailable protein-rich animal feed ingredient using high-protein yeasts. RESULTS: The structural protein (~200 g kg-1 d.b.) from sun-dried cassava leaves were solubilized by mild alkali pretreatment, and the resulting cassava leaf hydrolysate (CLH) was used to screen for growth of 46 high protein yeasts from 30 species...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
C R A Duff-Farrier, D R Mbanzibwa, S Nanyiti, H Bunawan, J L Pablo-Rodriguez, K R Tomlinson, A M James, T Alicai, S E Seal, A M Bailey, G D Foster
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has major impacts on yield and quality of the tuberous roots of cassava in Eastern and Central Arica. At least two Potyviridae species cause the disease: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Cloned viral genome sequences known as infectious clones (ICs) have been important in the study of other viruses, both as a means of standardising infectious material and characterising viral gene function. IC construction is often technically challenging for Potyviridae due to sequence instability in E...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Zhi Zou, Jiali Zhu, Xicai Zhang
Dof proteins comprise a plant-specific transcription factor family involved in regulation of many plant processes. Despite their diverse roles, little information is available in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae), the sixth major staple crop in the world. This study presents the first genome-wide identification of Dof family genes in cassava, resulting in 45 family members that are unevenly distributed across 17 out of the 18 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis assigned these genes into eight groups representing four subfamilies...
November 22, 2018: Gene
Sumaeth Chavadej, Tasanee Wangmor, Kiatchai Maitriwong, Pongchai Chaichirawiwat, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Patcharee Intanoo
In this research, the separate production of hydrogen (H2 ) and methane (CH4 ) from cassava wastewater with added cassava residue was investigated using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under thermophilic temperature (55 °C) in a continuous mode of operation and steady state condition. The two-stage UASB system was operated under an optimum chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 10.29 kg/m3 d (based on the total volume of both bioreactors) of the cassava wastewater with different concentrations of added cassava residue...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Mathias Cherbuin, Felix Zelder, Walter Karlen
This paper describes the detection of endogenous cyanide using corrin-based CyanoKit technologies in combination with a smartphone readout device. When applied to the detection of cyanide in water, this method demonstrates high repeatability and discriminative power with a limit of blank of 0.074 ppm and an instrument limit of detection of 0.13 ppm. Quantification of endogenous cyanide in cassava and bitter almond extracts with the smartphone readout is in excellent agreement with independent analyses using traditional spectrophotometric detection...
November 21, 2018: Analyst
Isarawut Prasertsung, Korkiet Aroonraj, Khanita Kamwilaisak, Nagahiro Saito, Siriporn Damrongsakkul
The cassava starch processing plays an important role in food industries. During starch processing stage, a large amount of cassava starch waste (CSW) which mainly contains lost starch product and solid residue such as cassava bagasse are produced. Starch and cassava bagasse can be hydrolyzed into fermentable sugar such as glucose. In the present study, the solution plasma process (SPP) is used to treat CSW to prepare reducing sugar. The investigated parameters are treatment time, solvent concentration, applied pulsed frequency, and CSW concentration...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sureeporn Boonna, Agnès Rolland-Sabaté, Denis Lourdin, Sunanta Tongta
This work investigates the macromolecular structure of native and amylomaltase (AM) treated cassava starch at various reaction times. AM-treated starches showed lower amylose content compared to their parental starch. Long chain proportions (DP 25-80) increased with reaction time up to 4 h and then slightly decreased at 24 h. Macromolecular and fine structure of AM-treated starches for 5 min (AM5min) and 4 h (AM4 h) were characterized more deeply by using HPSEC-MALLS and H1 NMR combined with β-amylolysis and MALDI-TOF-MS...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tian Yan Yun, Ren Jun Feng, Deng Bo Zhou, Yue Yun Pan, Yu Feng Chen, Fei Wang, Li Yan Yin, Yin Dong Zhang, Jiang Hui Xie
Streptomyces species 1-14 isolated from cassava rhizosphere soil were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Of the 63 strains tested, thirteen exhibited potent antibacterial properties and were further screened against eight fungal pathogens. The strain that showed maximum inhibition against all of the test pathogens was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Streptomyces sp. 1-14, was selected for further studies. Through the propagation of Streptomyces sp...
2018: PloS One
Paulo Henrique G A DE Oliveira, Ana Claudia O Barbosa, Rafael P Diniz, Eder J DE Oliveira, Claudia F Ferreira
The objective of the present work was to use MAS in self-pollinated cassava populations for obtaining individuals with high inbreeding (f) aimed at rapid development of partial inbred lines. Three progenies (F0222, F1378 and F1662) were self-pollinated, generating a total of 233 S1 individuals. The progenies and the S1 individuals were evaluated in the seedlings and clonal evaluation trials (CETs). In the CET, plants were evaluated for the following traits: plant height (PH), root dry matter content (DMC), above ground yield (AGY), root (RY) and starch yield (SY)...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Wuyan Wang, Carmen E Hostettler, Fred F Damberger, Jens Kossmann, James R Lloyd, Samuel C Zeeman
Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop used as a foodstuff and as a starch source in industry. Starch functional properties are influenced by many structural features including the relative amounts of the two glucan polymers amylopectin and amylose, the branched structure of amylopectin, starch granule size and the presence of covalent modifications. Starch phosphorylation, where phosphates are linked either to the C3 or C6 carbon atoms of amylopectin glucosyl residues, is a naturally occurring modification known to be important for starch remobilization...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yujue Wang, Weifeng Cao, Jianquan Luo, Benkun Qi, Yinhua Wan
The aim of this study was to establish a simplified operational process for lactic acid (LA) production by Bacillus coagulans IPE22 from inedible starchy biomass with open fermentation method. First, 29.47 mU/mg specific amylase activity was detected in direct batch fermentation from soluble starch, but the activity of the produced amylase was too low for effective production of LA. Then seven batches from 72 g/L soluble starch were conducted without sterilization. It was found that one step simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF) with the addition of mesothermal α-amylase and glucoamylase was the optimal mode with LA concentration, yield and productivity of 68...
October 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Luping Zeng, Xianke Lin, Fei Zhou, Junhao Qin, Huashou Li
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercropped with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has good complementary effects in time and space. In the field plot test, the land equivalent ratio (LER) of cassava-peanut intercropping system was 1.43, showing obvious intercropping yield advantage. Compared with monocropping, Cd contents in the roots of cassava and seeds of peanut were significantly reduced by 20.00% and 31.67%, respectively (p < 0.05). Under the unit area of hectare, compared with monocropping of cassava and peanut, the bioconcentration amount (BCA) of Cd in the intercropping system increased significantly by 24...
October 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alfred Ozimati, Robert Kawuki, Williams Esuma, Ismail Siraj Kayondo, Marnin Wolfe, Roberto Lozano, Ismail Rabbi, Peter Kulakow, Jean-Luc Jannink
Cassava production in the central, southern and eastern parts of Africa is under threat by cassava brown streak virus (CBSV). Yield losses of up to 100% occur in cases of severe infections of edible roots. Easy illegal movement of planting materials across African countries, and long-range movement of the virus vector ( Bemisia tabaci ) may facilitate spread of CBSV to West Africa. Thus, effort to pre-emptively breed for CBSD resistance in W. Africa is critical. Genomic selection (GS) has become the main approach for cassava breeding, as costs of genotyping per sample have declined...
October 29, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Prapit Wongtiem, Aunu Rauf, Anchana Thancharoen, George E Heimpel, Nhung T T Le, Muhammad Zainal Fanani, Geoff M Gurr, Jonathan G Lundgren, Dharani D Burra, Leo K Palao, Glenn Hyman, Ignazio Graziosi, Vi X Le, Matthew J W Cock, Teja Tscharntke, Steve D Wratten, Liem V Nguyen, Minsheng You, Yanhui Lu, Johannes W Ketelaar, Georg Goergen, Peter Neuenschwander
Biological control, a globally-important ecosystem service, can provide long-term and broad-scale suppression of invasive pests, weeds and pathogens in natural, urban and agricultural environments. Following (few) historic cases that led to sizeable environmental up-sets, the discipline of arthropod biological control has-over the past decades-evolved and matured. Now, by deliberately taking into account the ecological risks associated with the planned introduction of insect natural enemies, immense environmental and societal benefits can be gained...
2018: PeerJ
Leonardo Silva Souza, Rafael Parreira Diniz, Reizaluamar de Jesus Neves, Alfredo Augusto Cunha Alves, Eder Jorge de Oliveira
In cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz), transferring genes via genetic breeding depends on crosses between contrasting progenitors, which is often limited by the low flowering rate of many genotypes. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting on floral induction of cassava. For this, three genotypes were used: 1) BRS Formosa: a genotype with low flowering rate; 2) BGM0823: a genotype with high flowering rate; and 3) FLA05-02: a genotype of M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia with high flowering rate...
October 20, 2018: Scientia Horticulturae
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