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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318027/review-alternative-and-novel-feeds-for-ruminants-nutritive-value-product-quality-and-environmental-aspects
#1
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, M Rinne, M Lamminen, C Mapato, T Ampapon, M Wanapat, A Vanhatalo
Ruminant-based food production faces currently multiple challenges such as environmental emissions, climate change and accelerating food-feed-fuel competition for arable land. Therefore, more sustainable feed production is needed together with the exploitation of novel resources. In addition to numerous food industry (milling, sugar, starch, alcohol or plant oil) side streams already in use, new ones such as vegetable and fruit residues are explored, but their conservation is challenging and production often seasonal...
October 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311147/occurrence-of-aflatoxins-in-rice-and-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-products-meal-bread-produced-in-guyana
#2
Donna M Morrison, David R Ledoux, Lambert F B Chester, Coretta A N Samuels
A survey was conducted on Guyana's main staple foods, rice, cassava meal and cassava bread to determine the presence and concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for concurrence. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus and can be a health risk to humans and animals. Results were compared with European Union Commission (EUC) maximum levels of total aflatoxins of 10 μg/kg...
October 11, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303418/process-design-and-optimization-of-bioethanol-production-from-cassava-bagasse-using-statistical-design-and-genetic-algorithm
#3
Selvaraju Sivamani, Rajoo Baskar
Bioethanol production from agro-industrial residues is gaining attention because of the limited production of starch grains and sugarcane, and food-fuel conflict. The aim of the present study is to maximize the bioethanol production using cassava bagasse as a feedstock. Enzymatic liquefaction, by α-amylase, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), using glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 2427, was investigated for bioethanol production from cassava bagasse. The factors influencing ethanol production process were identified and screened for significant factors using Plackett-Burman design...
October 10, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300388/african-cassava-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-cassava-colonization-preferences-and-control-implications
#4
Andrew Kalyebi, Sarina Macfadyen, Hazel Parry, Wee Tek Tay, Paul De Barro, John Colvin
Cassava is a staple food for people across sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last 20 years, there has been an increased frequency of outbreaks and crop damage in this region caused by the cassava-adapted Bemisia tabaci putative species. Little is known about when and why B. tabaci adults move and colonize new cassava crops, especially in farming systems that contain a mixture of cultivar types and plant ages. Here, we assessed experimentally whether the age and variety of cassava affected the density of B. tabaci...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288545/fungal-bacterial-and-archaeal-diversity-in-soils-beneath-native-and-introduced-plants-in-fiji-south-pacific
#5
Gian Maria Niccolò Benucci, Victor Bonito, Gregory Bonito
The Fiji Islands is an archipelago of more than 330 islands located in the tropics of the South Pacific Ocean. Microbial diversity and biogeography in this region is still not understood. Here, we present the first molecular characterization of fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities in soils from different habitats within the largest Fijian island, Viti Levu. Soil samples were collected from under native vegetation in maritime-, forest-, stream-, grassland-, and casuarina-dominated habitats, as well as from under the introduced agricultural crops sugarcane, cassava, pine, and mahogany...
October 4, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287003/effect-of-chemical-modification-with-citric-acid-on-the-physicochemical-properties-and-resistant-starch-formation-in-different-starches
#6
Rema Remya, Alummoottil N Jyothi, Janardanan Sreekumar
Potato, cassava, sweet potato, banana and lentil starches were modified with citric acid (CA) with the main objective of enhancing the resistant starch (RS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) fractions and to compare starches of diverse botanical origins. The percentage CA substitution of modified starches ranged from 3.84 to 15.06 and showed similar type of XRD patterns, but with variation in intensity and percentage crystallinity. The peaks around 1705 cm-1 and 1150 cm-1 in FT-IR spectra of modified starches confirmed the presence of CA group...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286695/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-mind-gene-involved-in-plastid-division-in-cassava
#7
Lei Ke, Liang-Jing Cao, Meng-Ting Geng, Cong-Cong Wang, Yuan Yao, Yu Xiao, Wu Huang, Rui-Mei Li, Yi Min, Jian-Chun Guo
Cassava is a tropical crop known for its starchy root and excellent properties. Considering that starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast is affected by its division, it appears conceivable that the regulation of plastid division plays an important role in starch accumulation. As a member of the Min system genes, MinD participated in the spatial regulation of the position of the plastid division site.In our studies, sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis showed that MeMinD has been highly conserved during the evolutionary process...
October 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267819/effects-of-sucrose-isomalt-and-maltodextrin-on-microstructural-thermal-pasting-and-textural-properties-of-wheat-and-cassava-starch-gel
#8
Kiana Pourmohammadi, Elahe Abedi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Luisa Torri
This study investigated the effect of different levels (4, 8 and 12%) of sucrose, isomalt and maltodextrin on the microstructural, water absorption, physico-chemical, thermal and textural characteristics of wheat and cassava starch gels, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rapid visco analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and texture profile analysis. According to SEM analysis, cassava granules were more impressed than wheat starch in the presence of isomalt > sucrose > maltodextrin...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264765/lung-function-abnormalities-among-garri-processing-workers-in-ogbomoso-nigeria
#9
Taofeek Oloyede, Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde, Jamiu A Adeniran, Moses O Tanimowo, Emmanuel Ademola Fawibe, Alakija Kazeem Salami
Background: Local production of garri (cassava crisps) is associated with air pollution and consequently lung function abnormalities among garri processing workers. This study was aimed at describing lung function abnormalities among Nigerians engaged in cassava crisps (garri) processing. Methods: A total of 351 workers and 351 controls were recruited at garri factories in Ogbomoso, Nigeria by multistage random sampling technique. Lung functional abnormalities were defined according to standardised European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines...
July 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258604/incidence-and-farmers-knowledge-of-aflatoxin-contamination-and-control-in-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo
#10
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Tesfamicheal Wossen, Nsharwasi L Nabahungu, Charity Mutegi, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Despite efforts to reduce aflatoxin contamination and associated mycotoxin poisoning, the phenomenon continues to pose a public health threat in food and feed commodity chains. In this study, 300 samples of cassava, maize, and groundnut were collected from farmers' households in Eastern DRC and analyzed for incidence of aflatoxins. In addition, the farmers' level of knowledge of the causes and consequences of contamination and the measures for prevention were also examined by administering questionnaires to a cross section of 150 farmers...
September 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257607/overexpression-of-mine-gene-affects-the-plastid-division-in-cassava
#11
Cong-Cong Wang, Lei Ke, Liang-Jing Cao, Yuan Yao, Meng-Ting Geng, Ying Wang, Yu Xiao, Wu Huang, Xiao-Han Liu, Peng Cao, Jian-Chun Guo, Yi Min
The MinE protein plays an important role in plastid division. In this study, the MinE gene was isolated from the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genome. We isolated high quality and quantity protoplasts and succeed in performing the transient expression of the GFP-fused Manihot esculenta MinE (MeMinE) protein in cassava mesophyll protoplasts. The transient expression of MeMinE-GFP in cassava protoplasts showed that the MeMinE protein was located in the chloroplast. Due to the abnormal division of chloroplasts, overexpression of MeMinE proteins in cassava mesophyll protoplasts could result in fewer and smaller chloroplasts...
September 27, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250493/a-method-for-real-time-classification-of-insect-vectors-of-mosaic-and-brown-streak-disease-in-cassava-plants-for-future-implementation-within-a-low-cost-handheld-in-field-multispectral-imaging-sensor
#12
Joseph Fennell, Charles Veys, Jose Dingle, Joachim Nwezeobi, Sharon van Brunschot, John Colvin, Bruce Grieve
Background: The paper introduces a multispectral imaging system and data-processing approach for the identification and discrimination of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species of the destructive crop pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci . This investigation and the corresponding system design, was undertaken in two phases under controlled laboratory conditions. The first exploited a prototype benchtop variant of the proposed sensor system to analyse four cryptic species of whitefly reared under similar conditions...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249206/genome-wide-diversity-in-temporal-and-regional-populations-of-the-betabaculovirus-erinnyis-ello-granulovirus-erelgv
#13
A F Brito, F L Melo, D M P Ardisson-Araújo, W Sihler, M L Souza, B M Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Erinnyis ello granulovirus (ErelGV) is a betabaculovirus infecting caterpillars of the sphingid moth E. ello ello (cassava hornworm), an important pest of cassava crops (Manihot esculenta). In this study, the genome of seven field isolates of the virus ErelGV were deep sequenced and their inter- and intrapopulational sequence diversity were analyzed. RESULTS: No events of gene gain/loss or translocations were observed, and indels were mainly found within highly repetitive regions (direct repeats, drs)...
September 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246091/data-on-the-rheological-behavior-of-cassava-starch-paste-using-different-models
#14
Modupe Elizabeth Ojewumi, Kayode Gbolahan Oyeyemi, Moses Eterigho Emetere, Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi
Proper selection of rheological models is very important in flow characterization. These models are often used to evaluate parameters that help in the characterization of food samples. Rheological models also provide flow predictions for extreme conditions where the flow nature of the fluid cannot be determined, hence the need for appropriate selection of rheological models. The principal aim of this study is to suggest a rheological model that best characterize the rheological behavior of native cassava starch and to determine the effect of state variables like temperature and concentration on the accuracy of rheological models...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243102/whitefly-transmitted-viruses-threatening-cassava-production-in-africa
#15
REVIEW
Alana Lynn Jacobson, Siobain Duffy, Peter Sseruwagi
Emerging plant viruses are one of the greatest problems facing crop production worldwide, and have severe consequences in the developing world where subsistence farming is a major source of food production, and knowledge and resources for management are limited. In Africa, evolution of two viral disease complexes, cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) (Geminiviridae) and cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) (Potyviridae), have resulted in severe pandemics that continue to spread and threaten cassava production...
September 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240990/cloning-of-the-full-length-isoamylase3-gene-from-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-ku50-and-its-heterologous-expression-in-e-coli
#16
Pawinee Panpetch, Robert A Field, Tipaporn Limpaseni
Isoamylase (EC.3.2.1.68), an essential enzyme in starch metabolism, catalyses the cleavage of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages of branched α-polyglucans such as beta-limit dextrin and amylopectin, but not pullulan. Three different isoamylase isoforms have been reported in plants and algae. We herein report on the first success in preparation of full-length isoamylase3 gene (MeISA3) of cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz 'KU50' from 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5' RACE). The MeISA3 was cloned to pET21b and expressed in E...
September 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236678/preparation-of-starch-dough-using-damaged-cassava-starch-induced-by-mechanical-activation-to-develop-staple-foods-application-in-crackers
#17
Rong Liu, Weidong Sun, Yanjuan Zhang, Zuqiang Huang, Huayu Hu, Mengyao Zhao
This study focused on evaluating the feasibility of using damaged cassava starch (DCS) to exploit staple foods. Cassava starch was subjected to damage induced by mechanical activation to obtain DCS with various degrees of damage. The increase in damage level of cassava starch led to a slight increase in amylose content and reduction in crystallinity. Damage level exerted a major influence on the pasting properties and interaction between DCS and water. SEM analysis showed that DCS tended to cohere together to form a unique dough structure in the presence of water when damage level was not less than 11...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235813/mephd1-as-a-phd-finger-protein-negatively-regulates-adp-glucose-pyrophosphorylase-small-subunit1a-gene-in-cassava
#18
Ping'an Ma, Xin Chen, Chen Liu, Zhiqiang Xia, Yu Song, Changying Zeng, Youzhi Li, Wenquan Wang
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is an important enzyme in the starch synthesis pathway. Its enzyme activity can determine the efficiency of starch biosynthesis. Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the main staple crop worldwide and has a high starch content in its storage root. However, the inner regulatory mechanism of AGPase gene family is unclear. MePHD1 ; a plant homeodomain transcription factor; was isolated through a yeast one-hybrid screening using the promoter of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit1a ( MeAGPS1a ) as bait, and cassava storage root cDNA library as prey...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225203/efficient-enrichment-cloning-of-tal-effector-genes-from-xanthomonas
#19
T T Tran, H Doucouré, M Hutin, L M Jaimes Niño, B Szurek, S Cunnac, R Koebnik
Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads use a type III secretion system to translocate Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors into eukaryotic host cells where they act as transcription factors. Target genes are induced upon binding of a TAL effector to double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner. DNA binding is governed by a highly repetitive protein domain, which consists of an array of nearly identical repeats of ca. 102 base pairs. Many species and pathovars of Xanthomonas , including pathogens of rice, cereals, cassava, citrus and cotton, encode multiple TAL effectors in their genomes...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223320/enhanced-removal-of-bio-refractory-dissolved-organic-matter-from-cassava-distillery-wastewater-by-powdered-activated-carbon-ballasted-coagulation-detailed-study-of-separation-characteristics-and-mechanisms
#20
Ming Zhang, Yu Chen, Li Xie, Qi Zhou
Efficient removal of bio-refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colorants is essential for discharging or reusing the distillery wastewater. An important part of recalcitrant DOM still exists in the effluent of regular coagulation though the ferric coagulant has been found to be effective in decoloration. The present work adopted powdered activated carbon (PAC) as ballasting agent to achieve robust separation effect and efficiency of bio-refractory DOM from the bio-chemically treated cassava distillery wastewater (BTDWW)...
November 2018: Chemosphere
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