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Esperance Munganyinka, Paolo Margaria, Samar Sheat, Elijah M Ateka, Fred Tairo, Joseph Ndunguru, Stephan Winter
BACKGROUND: Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has a viral aetiology and is caused by viruses belonging to the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae), Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Molecular and serological methods are available for detection, discrimination and quantification of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in infected plants. However, precise determination of the viral RNA localization in infected host tissues is still not possible pending appropriate methods...
August 14, 2018: Virology Journal
Ming Zhang, Li Xie, Zhou Wang, Xiaoli Lu, Qi Zhou
Efficient removal of bio-recalcitrant dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colorants is essential for discharging or reusing the distillery wastewater. The present work adopted a novel microbubble system - Fe(III)-coagulant-modified colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) in flotation as tertiary treatment of the bio-chemically treated cassava distillery wastewater. Approximately 93% of bio-recalcitrant color and around 79% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were removed at the initial pH of 9.0 and 7.1, individually. The modified CGAs exhibited strong ability of complexation and electrostatic attraction of the polyanions of DOM and colorants...
August 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
B G S Irie, K V Asse, N J Kadiane, N Kofi, C Nda-Koffi, B Ogondon, S Kouadio, K E Kouame, Y Brouh
A 2-year-old child was accompanied by his parents to the pediatric emergency room for refusal to eat, trismus and generalized contractures four days after the application of a traditional topical treatment (Cassava leaves) on lesions of a severe thermal burn. A temperature of 38̊C, a heart rate of 114 beats/min, and a blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg were recorded. The tetanus vaccination was not up to date. The diagnosis of tetanus was immediately suggested. Antitetanus serum (immunoglobulin), an antibiotic (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), and a myorelaxant (benzodiazepine) were administered...
August 6, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Huiping Xia, Tingting Kou, Ke Liu, Qunyu Gao, Guihong Fang
The recrystallization behavior of starch microspheres (SMs) prepared by temperature cycling in aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was investigated. The SMs were carried out under the temperature-cycled treatment at 4°C, 30°C or 4/30°C for 2 to 20 days. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the crystalline structure of SMs were different from that of degraded cassava starch. Compared to degraded cassava starch, the relative crystallinity of SMs under different temperature decreased, and the increase in relative crystallinity with the storage time was observed...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Arega D Alene, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Joseph Rusike, Ricardo Labarta, Bernardo Creamer, Martha Del Río, Hernan Ceballos, Luis Augusto Becerra
It is widely recognized that increasing agricultural production to the levels needed to feed an expanding world population requires sharply increased public investment in research and development and widespread adoption of new technologies, but funding for national and international agricultural research has rather declined in recent years. In this situation, priority setting has become increasingly important for allocating scarce research resources among competing needs to achieve greater impacts. Using partial equilibrium economic surplus models and poverty impact simulations, this paper assesses cassava research priorities in Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, and Asia based on the potential economic and poverty reduction impacts of alternative research and technology options...
2018: PloS One
Malinee Intanoo, Mallika B Kongkeitkajorn, Virote Pattarajinda, John K Bernard, Todd R Callaway, Witaya Suriyasathaporn, Yupin Phasuk
AIMS: To obtain yeast and bacteria from ruminal fluids that possess aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) detoxifying ability for use in animal feed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sources of isolation were ruminal fluids of three non-fistulated dairy cows, fed with diets containing cassava pulp, rice straw, or distillery yeast sludge. The isolation was carried out to screen for the isolates that were active in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Three yeast and 3 bacteria isolates were selected...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Andressa Gabardo Granza, Polyanna Silveira Hornung, Acacio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski, Alessandro Nogueira, Egon Schnitzler, Ivo Mottin Demiate
The objective of this study was to develop a formulation that can retard staling/retrogradation of cheese breads without compromising their texture and expansion properties. During baking the dough expands and becomes soft, with lower density. Binary mixtures of cassava starch (Native + Oxidized) and with guar gum (Oxidized + Guar Gum) as well as a ternary mixture (Native + Oxidized + Guar Gum) were prepared. The mixtures were analyzed for freeze-thaw stability, expansion, pasting, thermal structural and retrogradation properties...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Cláudia Leites Luchese, Julia Menegotto Frick Pavoni, Nicole Zagonel Dos Santos, Luci Kelin Quines, Liliane Damaris Pollo, Jordana Corralo Spada, Isabel Cristina Tessaro
Starch and chitosan are biodegradable polymers from renewable sources that can be used to overcome the serious environmental problem caused by improper disposal of synthetic plastic materials, non-biodegradable, derived from petroleum sources. The starch-chitosan based films manufactured allow improving the better characteristics of each one, adding their good characteristics and compensating for some limitations. In this work, it was studied: two sources of starch (corn and cassava), two different modes of chitosan addition (chitosan blended in the starch filmogenic solution and chitosan as coating), and the effect of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hongyu Jiang, Yu Qin, S I Gadow, Akihiro Ohnishi, Naoshi Fujimoto, Yu-You Li
The two-stage hythane fermentation of cassava residue low in protein, rich in iron, and deficient in nickel and cobalt, resulted in failure after long-term operation, showing a radical decrease in methane production along with an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation in the second stage. Based on the gap between theoretical demand and existing content of nutrients, the effect of their additions on hythane fermentation was validated in the repeated batch experiment and continuous experiment. The proliferation of hydrolysis bacteria, acidogens, and hydrogen producing bacteria and methanogens was guaranteed by sufficient N (0...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
Piengtawan Tappiban, Supajit Sraphet, Nattaya Srisawad, Duncan R Smith, Kanokporn Triwitayakorn
Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (or XAM) is a serious disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with CBB infection were identified in the F1 progenies of a cross between the "Huay Bong 60" and "Hanatee" cassava cultivars. The phenotype of disease severity was observed at 7, 10, and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). A total of 12 QTL were identified, of which 5, 6, and 1 were detected in 7, 10, and 12 DAI samples, respectively...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Amanda P De Souza, Stephen P Long
Despite the vast importance of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) for smallholder farmers in Africa, yields per unit land area have not increased over the past 55 years. Genetic engineering or breeding for increased photosynthetic efficiency may represent a new approach. This requires the understanding of limitations to photosynthesis within existing germplasm. Here, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf carbon and nitrogen content, and nonstructural carbohydrates content and growth were analyzed in four high-yielding and farm-preferred African cultivars: two landraces (TME 7, TME 419) and two improved lines (TMS 98/0581 and TMS 30572)...
May 2018: Food and Energy Security
Michael A Gomez, Z Daniel Lin, Theodore Moll, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Luke Hayden, Kelley Renninger, Getu Beyene, Nigel J Taylor, J Carrington, B Staskawicz, R Bart
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is a major constraint on cassava yields in East and Central Africa and threatens production in West Africa. CBSD is caused by two species of positive sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Potyviridae, genus Ipomovirus: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Diseases caused by the family Potyviridae require the interaction of viral genome-linked protein (VPg) and host eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) isoforms...
July 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Naraporn Glanpracha, B M N Basnayake, Eldon R Rene, Piet N L Lens, Ajit P Annachhatre
Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) and pig manure (PM) under cyanide inhibition conditions was investigated and modeled. Batch experiments were performed with initial cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 10 mg/L. Cyanide acclimatized sludge from an anaerobic co-digester treating cyanide-containing CP and PM was used as the seed sludge (inoculum). Cyanide degradation during anaerobic digestion consisted of an initial lag phase, followed by a cyanide degradation phase. After a short sludge acclimatization period of less than 3 days, the anaerobic sludge was able to degrade cyanide, indicating that the sludge inhibition due to cyanide was reversible...
July 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Qin Liu, Hui-Jie Dang, Yuan-Hang Wu, Min Li, Yin-Hua Chen, Xiao-Lei Niu, Kai-Mian Li, Li-Juan Luo
BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of sequencing technologies, increasing amount of genomic information has been accumulated. To clone genes for further functional studies in large scale, a cheap, fast and efficient cloning vector is desired. RESULTS: A bifunctional vector pXST has been constructed. The pXST vector harbors a XcmI-ccdB-XcmI cassette and restriction site SmaI. Digestion the vector with XcmI generates a single thymidine (T) overhang at 3' end which facilitates TA cloning, and SmaI gives blunt end that enables the blunt-end ligation...
July 13, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Wenbin Liao, Shuxia Li, Cheng Lu, Ming Peng
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been reported to regulate the plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Many plant GSTs exhibited the roles on promoting tolerance to drought stress, oxidative stress and plant hormones. The biological function of GSTs has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to exogenous environmental stresses. However, their regulation function under exogenous environmental stresses regulating leaf abscission in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) remained unknown...
July 13, 2018: BMC Genetics
Charoonsri Chusak, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Praew Chantarasinlapin, Varanya Techasukthavorn, Sirichai Adisakwattana
This study aimed to assess the effect of the Clitoria ternatea L. flower extract (CTE), on the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase, in vitro starch hydrolysis, and predicted the glycemic index of different type of flours including potato, cassava, rice, corn, wheat, and glutinous rice flour. The application in a bakery product prepared from flour and CTE was also determined. The results demonstrated that the 1% and 2% (w/v) CTE inhibited the pancreatic α-amylase activity by using all flours as a substrate...
July 2, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Michael Osei Adu, Paul Agu Asare, Elvis Asare-Bediako, Godwin Amenorpe, Frank Kwekucher Ackah, Emmanuel Afutu, Mishael Nyarko Amoah, David Oscar Yawson
The development of cassava genotypes with root system traits that increase soil resource acquisition could increase yields on infertile soils but there are relatively few work that has quantified cassava root system architecture (RSA). We used an easily adaptable and inexpensive protocol to: (i) measure genotypic variation for RSA and shoot traits of a range of cassava genotypes; and (ii) identify candidate variables that contribute the largest share of variance. Cassava genotypes were grown in soil-filled pots, maintained at 70% field capacity...
June 2018: Heliyon
Rahim Romba, Olivier Gnankine, Samuel Fogné Drabo, Fidèle Tiendrebeogo, Hélène Henri, Laurence Mouton, Fabrice Vavre
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide and particularly in Africa. It is a complex of cryptic species, which is extremely polyphagous with hundreds of host plants identified around the world. Previous surveys in western Africa indicated the presence of two biotypes of the invasive MED species (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) living in sympatry with the African species SSA and ASL. This situation constitutes one of the rare cases of local coexistence of various genetic entities within the B...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Grodji Albarin Gbogouri, Patrick Aubin Dakia, Souleymane Traore, Kouakou Brou
The socio-demographic features and eating pattern were assessed on 156 Ivorian students (18-34 years) from Nangui Abrogoua University. The study population was made of randomly selected students who were willing to participate to the survey. The semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption pattern and 24-h dietary recall to document the dietary intake. Results showed that 88% of the respondents were not used to having breakfast, while 87.70% and 94...
July 9, 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Daniel Okitundu, Dieudonne Mumba, Michael J Boivin, Thorkild Tylleskär, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Angola, Cameroun, and most recently in Zambia. The main clinical picture consists of a symmetrical, permanent and irreversible spastic paraparesis (motor neuron disease) with no signs of sensory or genitourinary impairments...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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