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Soeun Jeon, Kyungho Cho, Gina Ok, Sukho Lee, Hyon Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of weight loss practices on nutritional status, bone health, and injury history among Korean professional jockeys. METHODS: Forty-three male jockeys completed a questionnaire to assess their weight loss practices. Of these, 10 jockeys were selected for in-depth assessment of their nutritional status, bone health, and injury history. RESULTS: The questionnaires revealed that 81...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Maya Cohn Adulamy, Varda Shalev
The use of big data is in its first years of entering the medical world. Big data research enables analysis of very large volumes of data, identifying patterns and findings which traditional statistical methods cannot handle. The diagnosis of colorectal cancer is often missed due to people's non-adherence to the occult fecal blood screening tool. We describe the case of a patient that led to the development of a novel big data algorithm to diagnose colorectal cancer. A 70 year old, previously healthy man, was diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer and succumbed to his illness...
October 2018: Harefuah
Dalia Weitzman, Gideon Koren
INTRODUCTION: One of the most widely used methods for estimating patient adherence to drug therapy is the use of proportion of days covered (PDC), which is based on the assumption that patients who chronically purchase a drug do actually consume it. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether PDC reflect adherence based on steady state levels of lithium. METHODS: Using data on over 2000 patients on lithium in steady state, we correlated PDC with lithium steady state serum concentrations...
October 2018: Harefuah
Jumpei Kondo, Tomoya Ekawa, Hiroko Endo, Kanami Yamazaki, Norio Tanaka, Yoji Kukita, Hiroaki Okuyama, Jiro Okami, Fumio Imamura, Masayuki Ohue, Kikuya Kato, Taisei Nomura, Arihiro Kohara, Seiichi Mori, Shingo Dan, Masahiro Inoue
Patient-derived cancer organoid culture is an important live material that reflects clinical heterogeneity. However, the limited amount of organoids available for each case as well as the considerable amount of time and cost to expand in vitro makes it impractical to perform high-throughput drug screening using organoid cultures from multiple patients. Here, we report an advanced system for the high-throughput screening of 2427 drugs using the cancer tissue-originated spheroid (CTOS) method. In this system, we apply the CTOS method in an ex vivo platform from xenograft tumors, using machines to handle CTOSs and reagents, and testing a CTOS reference panel of multiple CTOS lines for the hit drugs...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Yukiko Matsuo, Tsutomu Yoshida, Kazuya Yamashita, Yukitoshi Satoh
BACKGROUND: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a useful cytopathological method, and LBC lung adenocarcinoma specimens may be used for genetic analysis in the near future. In the current study, the authors determined whether LBC specimens can be used for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines that were fixed in LBC preservation solution using 2 protocols (one for cultured cells and one for tissues) of a DNA extraction kit...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Stacy A Trent, Zachary J Jarou, Edward P Havranek, Adit A Ginde, Jason S Haukoos
OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the treatment of pneumonia and sepsis have existed for many years with multiple studies suggesting improved patient outcomes. Despite their importance, little is known about variation in emergency department (ED) adherence to these CPGs. Our objectives were to estimate variation in ED adherence across CPGs for pneumonia and sepsis, and identify patient, provider, and environmental factors associated with adherence. METHODS: Design: Multicenter retrospective study using standard medical record review methods...
October 21, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Yuntian Zhang, Robert L Judson
Digital holographic cytometry (DHC) and other methods of quantitative phase imaging permit extended time-lapse imaging of mammalian cells in the absence of induced cellular toxicity. Manufactured DHC platforms equipped with semi-automated image acquisition, segmentation, and analysis software packages (or modules) for assessing cell behavior are now commercially available. When housed in mammalian cell incubators these cytometers offer the potential to monitor and quantify a range of cellular behaviors without disrupting routine culture...
October 21, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Lauren Thaxton, Antonella Lavelanet
BACKGROUND: Extending contraceptive implant duration of use increases accessibility by maximizing the lifetime of devices. OBJECTIVES: To review the contraceptive efficacy during extended use of progestin implants. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles in any language, 1996-2017, utilizing terms for devices and contraceptive efficacy. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies were included; abstracts, posters, and presentations were excluded...
October 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Zafer Sahin, Merve Ertas, Ceysu Bender, Emre F Bülbül, Barkin Berk, Sevde N Biltekin, Leyla Yurttaş, Şeref Demirayak
Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery After acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft, it is reabsorbed or deactivated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the mid-20th century proved that cognitive dysfunctions are associated with cholinergic neurotransmission. Drugs, such as tacrine, rivastigmine, donepezil, and galantamine are known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. However, these drugs have limited use in advanced AD and dementia. Recently, the anticholinesterase activity of various heterocyclic-framed compounds, including piperazine derivatives, has been investigated, and compounds with similar effects to known drugs have been identified...
October 21, 2018: Drug Development Research
Leila Ferguson, Masaki Futamura, Efstratios Vakirlis, Reiji Kojima, Hatoko Sasaki, Amanda Roberts, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Eczema is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is frequently associated with atopic conditions, including asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) have a corticosteroid-sparing role in asthma, but their role in eczema remains controversial. Currently available topical therapies for eczema are often poorly tolerated, and use of systemic agents is restricted by their adverse effect profile. A review of alternative treatments was therefore warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the possible benefits and harms of leukotriene receptor antagonists for eczema...
October 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anroop Nair, Mohamed Aly Morsy, Shery Jacob
Preclinical Research & Development Appropriate translation and determination of the maximum recommended starting dose in human is a vital task in new drug development and research. Allometric scaling is the most frequently used approach for dose extrapolation based on normalization of dose-to-body surface area. Misinterpretation of allometric dose conversion and safety factor application can lead to major problems in calculating maximum recommended safe starting dose in first-in-human clinical trials. Therefore, dose translation always necessitates careful consideration of body surface area, pharmacological, physiological and anatomical factors, pharmacokinetic parameters, metabolic function, receptor, and life span...
October 21, 2018: Drug Development Research
Mojtaba Amiri, Ali Mohammad Haji Shabani, Shayessteh Dadfarnia, Sodeh Sadjadi
In the present study, for the first time, the magnetic graphene oxide was simultaneously functionalized and reduced with the aim of imidazole-based L-histidine amino acid (rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine). The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The synthesized rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine nanosheets were implied for solid phase extraction of ultra-trace amounts of Zn2+ , Cu2+ , and Mn2+ from biological samples prior to ICP-OES determination...
October 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
A Corradini, G Campochiaro, M Gialdini, M Rebuzzi, P Baudi
PURPOSE: Glenoid fractures occur as a result of direct impact of the humeral head against the glenoid rim following high-energy trauma. They frequently involve one-third of the glenoid surface with an oblique fracture rim from 2 to 6-7 o'clock, and they must not be confused with bony Bankart lesions. In medium-age patients, they are frequently associated with acute cuff tear while in older patients with chronic cuff tear: These conditions increase the instability of the shoulder if not treated...
October 2018: Musculoskeletal Surgery
Dionissis Latinopoulos, Chrysoula Ntislidou, Ifigenia Kagalou
Despite hydromorphological pressure assessment is required by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), there is not one commonly accepted method for this purpose. The extent of habitat alteration and naturalness loss is a major issue especially for heavily modified water bodies (HMWBs) in terms of their maximum ecological potential designation. In this research, a broadly used methodology in Central and Northern Europe, Lake Habitat Survey (LHS), is tested for the first time in Greece in two natural urban shallow lakes to estimate the extent of habitat modification and hydromorphological alteration...
October 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sandro Huenchuguala, Birgitta Sjödin, Bengt Mannervik, Juan Segura-Aguilar
Aminochrome induces neurotoxic alpha-synuclein oligomer formation relevant to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress produces aminochrome from dopamine, but conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione transferase M2-2 significantly decreases aminochrome-induced toxicity and alpha-synuclein oligomer formation. Notably, in the presence of the aminochrome-glutathione conjugate, previously unknown species of alpha-synuclein oligomers are formed. These aminochrome-glutathione oligomers of alpha-synuclein differ from formerly characterized oligomers and (i) have high molecular weight, and are stable and SDS-resistant, as determined by the Western blot method, (ii) show positive NBT-quinone-protein staining, which indicates the formation of alpha-synuclein adducts containing aminochrome...
October 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Elena F Jacobson, Emmanuel S Tzanakakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ever since the reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), scientists have been trying to determine if hiPSCs can give rise to progeny akin to native terminally differentiated cells as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) do. Many different somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed via a variety of methods. In this review, we will discuss recent studies comparing hiPSCs and hESCs and their ability to differentiate to desired cell types as well as explore diabetes disease models...
October 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Mark Real, Michele S Barnhill, Cory Higley, Jessica Rosenberg, James H Lewis
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), herbal-induced liver injury, and herbal and dietary supplement (HDS)-induced liver injury are an important aspect of drug safety. Knowledge regarding responsible drugs, mechanisms, risk factors, and the diagnostic tools to detect liver injury have continued to grow in the past year. This review highlights what we considered the most significant publications from among more than 1800 articles relating to liver injury from medications, herbal products, and dietary supplements in 2017 and 2018...
October 20, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Mahdi Eskandarlou, Alireza Nemati, Mohammad Ali Seif-Rabiei
PURPOSE: We aimed to introduce a new surgical method for open appendectomy including a right groin incision with adipocutaneous flap and to compare its feasibility, safety, and cosmetic outcomes with classic McBurney's incision. METHODS: Patients with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis who were candidates for appendectomy surgery at General Surgery Department, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2016 and 2017, were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical study...
October 20, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Gee Su Yang, Sreelakshmy Kumar, Susan G Dorsey, Angela R Starkweather, Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon
PURPOSE: Psychoneurological (PN) symptoms, such as anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and pain, are highly prevalent in breast cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to differential symptom susceptibility. We aimed to systematically review associations between genetic polymorphisms and PN symptoms during or after cancer treatment for early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six eligible articles published until October 2017 were identified in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and additional records...
October 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Marjolein Versteeg, Floris M van Blankenstein, Hein Putter, Paul Steendijk
Comprehension of physiology is essential for development of clinical reasoning. However, medical students often struggle to understand physiological concepts. Interactive learning through Peer instruction (PI) is known to stimulate students' comprehension, but its relative efficacy and working mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated if and how PI could optimize comprehension of physiological concepts and transfer relative to Self-explanation (SE) which is considered a lower-order type of overt learning...
October 20, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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