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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542982/a-new-subspecies-of-heliconius-hermathena-nymphalidae-heliconiinae-from-southern-amazonia
#1
A V L Freitas, R R Ramos, K L Silva-Brandão, N Coutouné, L M Magaldi, J L Pablos, N Rosser, K S Brown
The present paper describes Heliconius hermathena curua Freitas & Ramos ssp. nov. This subspecies exhibits a non-mimetic phenotype typical of H. hermathena, but is characterized by the merging of the yellow streak over the forewing cubitus with the red postmedian band in the dorsal forewing. The subspecies is known from two localities in the south of Altamira, Pará State, Brazil, where it inhabits an isolated patch of "campina" vegetation more than 600 km from the nearest known H. hermathena populations...
December 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541450/diet-physical-activity-and-screen-time-but-not-body-mass-index-are-associated-with-the-gut-microbiome-of-a-diverse-cohort-of-college-students-living-in-university-housing-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Corrie M Whisner, Juan Maldonado, Brandon Dente, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Meg Bruening
BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) are important contributors to weight gain during college. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether associations exist between body mass index, physical activity, screen time, dietary consumption (fat, protein, carbohydrates, and fiber), and gut microbial diversity during the first year of college. Racially/ethnically diverse college students (n = 82; 61.0% non-white) at a large Southwestern university completed self-reported physical activity and 24-h recall dietary assessments, height and weight measurements, and provided one fecal sample for gut microbiome analysis...
December 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540952/a-renewable-source-of-human-beige-adipocytes-for-development-of-therapies-to-treat-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Su Su, Anyonya R Guntur, Daniel C Nguyen, Shameem S Fakory, Chad C Doucette, Cassandra Leech, Humphrey Lotana, Matthew Kelley, Jaspreet Kohli, Julieta Martino, Sunder Sims-Lucas, Lucy Liaw, Calvin Vary, Clifford J Rosen, Aaron C Brown
Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Developmentally, these cells are derived from FOXF1+ mesoderm and progress through an expandable mural-like mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to form mature beige adipocytes that display a thermogenically active profile...
December 11, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537961/ethnic-inequalities-and-pathways-to-care-in-psychosis-in-england-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Kristoffer Halvorsrud, James Nazroo, Michaela Otis, Eva Brown Hajdukova, Kamaldeep Bhui
BACKGROUND: As part of a national programme to tackle ethnic inequalities, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on ethnic inequalities in pathways to care for adults with psychosis living in England and/or Wales. METHODS: Nine databases were searched from inception to 03.07.17 for previous systematic reviews, including forward and backward citation tracking and a PROSPERO search to identify ongoing reviews. We then carried forward relevant primary studies from included reviews (with the latest meta-analyses reporting on research up to 2012), supplemented by a search on 18...
December 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536982/determination-of-the-minimal-important-change-in-the-life-space-assessment
#5
Richard E Kennedy, Marzouq Almutairi, Courtney P Williams, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M Allman, Cynthia J Brown
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment (LSA) is a widely used measure of community mobility. To assist clinicians and researchers with assessing the significance of changes in scores, we determined the minimal important change associated with a change in health status. SETTING: Homes of community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 419 African American and non-Hispanic white adults 75 years and older participating in the UAB Study of Aging II, a longitudinal epidemiological study across the state of Alabama...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535349/colonization-of-internal-organs-by-salmonella-enteritidis-in-experimentally-infected-laying-hens-of-four-commercial-genetic-lines-in-conventional-cages-and-enriched-colony-housing
#6
Richard K Gast, Prafulla Regmi, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-laying flocks is a prominent public health concern because contaminated eggs cause human illness. Deposition of this pathogen inside eggs results from bacterial colonization of reproductive tissues in infected hens. Environmental conditions can influence avian Salmonella infections, but the food safety consequences of different poultry housing systems remain uncertain. The present study assessed the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens of four commercial genetic lines (designated as white egg lines W1 and W2 and brown egg lines B1 and B2)...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30533264/a-revision-of-the-genus-littorina-mollusca-gastropoda-in-korea
#7
Yucheol Lee, Youngjae Choe, Elizabeth M A Kern, Yeongheon Shin, Taeho Kim, Joong-Ki Park
Littorina Férussac, 1822 is an abundant genus of small gastropods found in the upper littoral zone of rocky seashores worldwide. Although ecologically important, shell-based species identification in this genus is challenging due to phenotypic variation in shell morphology and lack of diagnostic characters among morphologically similar species. In this study, we revised the taxonomy of Korean Littorina species using morphological characters (shell and radula) and cox1 mitochondrial DNA sequences for three Korean species: L...
2018: Animal Cells and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531983/author-correction-dlk-proteins-modulate-notch-signaling-to-influence-a-brown-or-white-3t3-l1-adipocyte-fate
#8
María-Luisa Nueda, María-Julia González-Gómez, María-Milagros Rodríguez-Cano, Eva-María Monsalve, María José M Díaz-Guerra, Beatriz Sánchez-Solana, Jorge Laborda, Victoriano Baladrón
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531825/genome-wide-study-of-hair-colour-in-uk-biobank-explains-most-of-the-snp-heritability
#9
Michael D Morgan, Erola Pairo-Castineira, Konrad Rawlik, Oriol Canela-Xandri, Jonathan Rees, David Sims, Albert Tenesa, Ian J Jackson
Natural hair colour within European populations is a complex genetic trait. Previous work has established that MC1R variants are the principal genetic cause of red hair colour, but with variable penetrance. Here, we have extensively mapped the genes responsible for hair colour in the white, British ancestry, participants in UK Biobank. MC1R only explains 73% of the SNP heritability for red hair in UK Biobank, and in fact most individuals with two MC1R variants have blonde or light brown hair. We identify other genes contributing to red hair, the combined effect of which accounts for ~90% of the SNP heritability...
December 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531000/a-paracrine-role-for-white-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-innervation-an-evidence-based-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Aejin Lee, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy and also plays an important endocrine role in producing adipokines for communication with the peripheral and central nervous system. WAT consists of the major lipogenic unilocular adipocytes and the minor populations of beige and brite multilocular adipocytes. These multilocular adipocytes express thermogenic genes and have phenotypic similarity with thermogenic brown adipose tissue. According to a current paradigm, multilocular adipocytes have a thermogenic function in WAT...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530905/the-key-role-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-in-body-fat-redistribution
#11
Li Zhao, Chunfang Zhu, Meng Lu, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Buatikamu Abudukerimu, Kun Zhang, Zhiyuan Ning, Yi Chen, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Michael D Jensen, Yingli Lu
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are an ideal therapy for type 2 diabetes and, as of recently, for obesity. In contrast to visceral fat, subcutaneous fat appears to be protective against metabolic diseases. Here, we aimed to explore whether liraglutide, a GLP-1RA, could redistribute body fat via regulating lipid metabolism in different fat depots. After being fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks, 50 male Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a diabetic control group, low- and high-dose liraglutide-treated groups and a diet-control group...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530620/a-novel-multiple-antigen-pneumococcal-vaccine-protects-against-lethal-streptococcus-pneumoniae-challenge
#12
Win-Yan Chan, Claire Entwisle, Giuseppe Ercoli, Elise Ramos-Sevillano, Ann McIlgorm, Paola Cecchini, Christopher Bailey, Oliver Lam, Gail Whiting, Nicola Green, David Goldblatt, Jun X Wheeler, Jeremy S Brown
Current vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae uses vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides from selected serotypes, and has led to non-vaccine serotype replacement disease. We have investigated an alternative serotype-independent approach, using multiple-antigen vaccines (MAV) prepared from S. pneumoniae TIGR4 lysates enriched for surface proteins by a chromatography step after culture under conditions that induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp, thought to be immune adjuvants). Proteomics and immunoblots demonstrated that compared to standard bacterial lysates, MAV was enriched with Hsps and contained several recognised protective protein antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumolysin (Ply)...
December 10, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530486/enterovirus-and-parechovirus-meningitis-in-infants-younger-than-90-days-old-in-the-uk-and-republic-of-ireland-a-british-paediatric-surveillance-unit-study
#13
Seilesh Kadambari, Serena Braccio, Sonia Ribeiro, David J Allen, Richard Pebody, David Brown, Robert Cunney, Mike Sharland, Shamez Ladhani
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to prospectively collect detailed clinical information for all enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) meningitis cases in infants aged <90 days in the UK and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, active national surveillance during July 2014 to July 2015 through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Reporting paediatricians completed questionnaires requesting information on clinical presentation, investigations, management and outcomes at hospital discharge and after 12 months...
December 8, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529285/reference-genes-for-accurate-normalization-of-gene-expression-in-wood-decomposing-fungi
#14
Jiwei Zhang, Hugh D Mitchell, Lye Meng Markillie, Matthew J Gaffrey, Galya Orr, Jonathan Schilling
Wood-decomposing fungi efficiently decompose plant lignocellulose, and there is increasing interest in characterizing and perhaps harnessing the fungal gene regulation strategies that enable wood decomposition. Proper interpretation of these fungal mechanisms relies on accurate quantification of gene expression, demanding reliable internal control genes (ICGs) as references. Commonly used ICGs such as actin, however, fluctuate among wood-decomposing fungi under defined conditions. In this study, by mining RNA-seq data in silico and validating ICGs in vitro using qRT-PCR, we targeted more reliable ICGs for studying transcriptional responses in wood-decomposing fungi, particularly responses to changing environments (e...
December 5, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528959/linked-mri-signatures-of-the-brain-s-acute-and-persistent-response-to-concussion-in-female-varsity-rugby-players
#15
Kathryn Y Manning, Alberto Llera, Gregory A Dekaban, Robert Bartha, Christy Barreira, Arthur Brown, Lisa Fischer, Tatiana Jevremovic, Kevin Blackney, Timothy J Doherty, Douglas D Fraser, Jeff Holmes, Christian F Beckmann, Ravi S Menon
Acute brain changes are expected after concussion, yet there is growing evidence of persistent abnormalities well beyond clinical recovery and clearance to return to play. Multiparametric MRI is a powerful approach to non-invasively study structure-function relationships in the brain, however it remains challenging to interpret the complex and heterogeneous cascade of brain changes that manifest after concussion. Emerging conjunctive, data-driven analysis approaches like linked independent component analysis can integrate structural and functional imaging data to produce linked components that describe the shared inter-subject variance across images...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528454/the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-body-weight-loss-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#16
Yang He, Rui-Xin Liu, Min-Ting Zhu, Wen-Bin Shen, Jing Xie, Zhi-Yin Zhang, Na Chen, Chang Shan, Xing-Zhi Guo, Yi-de Lu, Bei Tao, Li-Hao Sun, Hong-Yan Zhao, Rui Guo, Biao Li, Si-Min Liu, Guang Ning, Ji-Qiu Wang, Jian-Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) triggers white adipose tissue (WAT) browning and cachexia in lung cancer mouse models. It remains unknown whether excessive PTH secretion affects WAT browning and to what extent it contributes to body weight change in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: Using the adeno-associated virus injection, Pth gene over-expressed mice mimicking PHPT were firstly established to observe their WAT browning and body weight alteration...
December 6, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528258/blood-pressure-reference-values-for-brazilian-adolescents-data-from-the-study-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescents-erica-study
#17
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Bernard Rosner, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Maria Cristina Caetano Kuschnir, Moyses Szklo, Paulo César Veiga Jardim
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure (BP) references for Brazilian adolescents are lacking in the literature. This study aims to investigate the normal range of office BP in a healthy, non-overweight Brazilian population of adolescents. METHOD: The Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (Portuguese acronym "ERICA") is a national school-based study that included adolescents (aged 12 through 17 years), enrolled in public and private schools, in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants, from all five Brazilian macro-regions...
December 4, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527966/association-between-executive-dysfunction-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-racial-and-ethnic-differences-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-the-southeastern-us
#18
Stephanie L Garrett, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Courtney P Williams, Cynthia J Brown, Richard M Allman
OBJECTIVE: Examining cultural differences in assessment of cognitive/functional disability among older Americans is needed. This analysis examined associations between day-to-day function, measured by activities of daily living (ADL), and cognition, measured by CLOX scores, among older African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (nHW) community-dwelling women and men. METHODS: Design- Cross-sectional. SETTING: Homes of community-dwelling older adults...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525767/lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-cachexia
#19
Shalini Dalal
Cancer cachexia, characterized by losses in muscle and adipose tissue (AT), is associated with poor quality of life and prognosis, and lacks effective therapies. Both tumor- and host- derived factors disrupt normal metabolism and are vital to the catabolic drive in cancer cachexia. While muscle loss has long dominated cachexia research, recent work conducted predominantly in rodent models has begun to recognize the significance of AT lipid metabolism alterations in the development and progression of cancer cachexia...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522916/individual-white-matter-bundle-trajectories-are-associated-with-deep-brain-stimulation-response-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
L C Liebrand, M W A Caan, P R Schuurman, P van den Munckhof, M Figee, D Denys, G A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: The ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) is a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Conventional surgical planning is based on anatomical landmarks. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that treatment response depends on the location of the active DBS contacts with respect to individual white matter bundle trajectories. This study thus aimed to elucidate whether vALIC DBS can benefit from bundle-specific targeting...
November 27, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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