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Christina M Davy, Michael E Donaldson, Sonu Subudhi, Noreen Rapin, Lisa Warnecke, James M Turner, Trent K Bollinger, Christopher J Kyle, Nicole A S-Y Dorville, Emma L Kunkel, Kaleigh J O Norquay, Yvonne A Dzal, Craig K R Willis, Vikram Misra
Spillover of viruses from bats to other animals may be associated with increased contact between them, as well as increased shedding of viruses by bats. Here, we tested the prediction that little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) co-infected with the M. lucifugus coronavirus (Myl-CoV) and with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), exhibit different disease severity, viral shedding and molecular responses than bats infected with only Myl-CoV or only P. destructans...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
John D Reveille, Xiaodong Zhou, MinJae Lee, Michael H Weisman, Lin Yi, Lianne S Gensler, Hejian Zou, Michael M Ward, Mariko L Ishimori, Thomas J Learch, Dongyi He, Mohammad H Rahbar, Jiucun Wang, Matthew A Brown
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of HLA class I and class II alleles with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in three cohorts of patients of European, Asian and African ancestry. METHODS: HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 alleles were genotyped in 1948 unrelated white and 67 African-American patients with AS from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Ankylosing Spondylitis cohort, the North American Spondylitis Consortium and Australo-Anglo-American Spondyloarthritis Consortium, 990 white and 245 African-American Controls and HLA-B alleles in 442 Han Chinese patients with AS and 346 controls from Shanghai and Gansu, China...
October 19, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Wenjun Hu, Zeyuan Ru, Wen Xiao, Zhiyong Xiong, Cheng Wang, Changfei Yuan, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice)...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yan-Mei Wang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ning-Yuan Fang
Browning of white adipose tissue is a novel mechanism to counteract obesity in view of its thermogenic activity. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) can promote the browning of white fat. 9-PAHSA, an endogenous mammalian lipid, which is acting as the ligand of GPR120 to enhance glucose uptake and exert anti-inflammatory effect. In the study, we would like to investigate the biological effects of 9-PAHSA on adipocyte browning. Here, we show that 9-PAHSA induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat specific genes...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Clément Pierre, Florent Guillebaud, Coraline Airault, Nathalie Baril, Rym Barbouche, Etienne Save, Stéphanie Gaigé, Bruno Bariohay, Michel Dallaporta, Jean-Denis Troadec
Chronic low-grade inflammation is known to be linked to obesity, and to occur in the early stages of the disease. This mechanism is complex and involves numerous organs, cells, and cytokines. In this context, inflammation of white adipose tissue seems to play a key role in the development of obesity. Because of its properties, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an emblematic inflammatory mediator, has been proposed as an actor linking inflammation and obesity. Indeed, PGE2 is involved in mechanisms that are dysregulated in obesity such as lipolysis and adipogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Inta Krasnova, Dalija Seglina, Valentina Pole
Candied quince is one of the most popular processing products of Japanese quince ( Chaenomeles japonica ) in Latvia. During the storage of dehydrated fruit, the colour turns darker, thus negatively influence the overall quality and consumers' acceptability of the product. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different anti-browning agents in combination with fruit blanching and soaking as a type of pre-treatment to preserve the colour of candied quince during 8-months storage. The fruit were harvested at various maturity stage (i...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Aliki Perdikari, Germán Gastón Leparc, Miroslav Balaz, Nuno D Pires, Martin E Lidell, Wenfei Sun, Francesc Fernandez-Albert, Sebastian Müller, Nassila Akchiche, Hua Dong, Lucia Balazova, Lennart Opitz, Eva Röder, Holger Klein, Patrik Stefanicka, Lukas Varga, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Gottfried Rudofsky, Jozef Ukropec, Sven Enerbäck, Elia Stupka, Heike Neubauer, Christian Wolfrum
Recruitment and activation of thermogenic adipocytes have received increasing attention as a strategy to improve systemic metabolic control. The analysis of brown and brite adipocytes is complicated by the complexity of adipose tissue biopsies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of pure brown, brite, and white adipocyte transcriptomes. By combining mouse and human transcriptome data, we identify a gene signature that can classify brown and white adipocytes in mice and men. Using a machine-learning-based cell deconvolution approach, we develop an algorithm proficient in calculating the brown adipocyte content in complex human and mouse biopsies...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Julio Sevillano, María Gracia Sánchez-Alonso, Begoña Zapatería, María Calderón, Martín Alcalá, María Limones, Jimena Pita, Esther Gramage, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Daniel Horrillo, Gema Medina-Gómez, María Jesús Obregón, Marta Viana, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Gonzalo Herradón, María Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pleiotrophin, a developmentally regulated and highly conserved cytokine, exerts different functions including regulation of cell growth and survival. Here, we hypothesise that this cytokine can play a regulatory role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study characterising the metabolic profile (circulating variables and tissue mRNA expression) of gene-targeted Ptn-deficient female mice and their corresponding wild-type counterparts at different ages from young adulthood (3 months) to older age (15 months)...
October 16, 2018: Diabetologia
Itay Ayalon, Hui Shen, Lauren Williamson, Keith Stringer, Basilia Zingarelli, Jennifer M Kaplan
Severe sepsis and septic shock are the biggest cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Obesity today is one of the world's greatest health challenges. Little is known about the extent of involvement of the white adipose tissue (WAT) in sepsis and how it is being modified by obesity. We sought to explore the involvement of the WAT in sepsis. We hypothesize that sepsis induces browning of the WAT and that obesity alters the response of WAT to sepsis. Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or control diet (nonobese group)...
November 2018: Shock
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Tingting You, Xin Li, Ruizhen Wang, Xueming Zhang, Feng Xu
Synergistic fungal pretreatment involving white-rot and brown-rot fugal pretreatment has shown great potential for enhancing the yield of sugars from biomass time-effectively and environmentally benign. In this work, the effects of this integrated fungal pretreatment on lignin characteristics and thermal behavior of corncob were examined in the view of whole plant valorization. The results show that an efficient deconstruction of lignin was achieved by white-rot fungus, and subsequent brown-rot fungus promoted the preferential breakdown of guaiacyl units, further enhancing lignin extraction efficiency (62...
October 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Roman A Nazarov, Daniel A Melnikov, Mehdi Radjabizadeh, Nikolay A Poyarkov
In the present study we provide evidence for the validity of the genus Trigonodactylus Hass, 1957, improve the diagnosis for this genus and describe a new species that belongs to it-Trigonodactylus persicus sp. nov., from the sand dunes in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The new species is closely related to Trigonodactylus [Stenodactylus] arabicus sensu Hass, and can be distinguished by the following morphological characteristics: small size, maximum SVL 34 mm; SVL/TailL-approximately 1:1; ventral scales roundish, weakly keeled, 54-61 longitudinal rows at midbody and 190-25 along midbody...
August 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Jorge Mederos
Two new species of Keroplatini (Diptera: Keroplatidae: Keroplatinae), Heteropterna (Heteropterna) garae n. sp. and Keroplatus maxi n. sp. are described from Cuba, the second record of the family from this territory since Matile's paper in 1977. Heteropterna garae n. sp. is characterized by the last three flagellomeres being a silvery white colour (the last with a light brown apical border), the wings with a distinct colour pattern, and the unique shape of the terminalia and gonostylus. Keroplatus maxi n. sp...
August 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Yinmeng Hou, Mengfei Zhang, Fei Hu, Siyuan Li, Shengchao Shi, Jun Chen, Xiaoyang Mo, Bin Wang
A new species, Leptolalax mangshanensis sp. nov., is described from the Mangshan National Nature Reserve, in Hunan Province, China. The new species is genetically similar to Leptolalax liui, and morphologically similar to Leptolalax maoershanensis. Morphological characteristics that distinguish the new species from its congeners are a small body size (snout-vent length, SVL, 22.2 mm-27.8 mm in 27 adult males, and 30.2 mm in one adult female); nearly smooth dorsal skin with some small, orange, tubercles and irregular, dark brown stripes, throat and belly scattered with white speckles, weak lateral fringes on toes and rudimentary toe webbing; indistinct longitudinal ridges under toes, and not interrupted at the articulations, iris bicolored with bright orange in the upper half and greyish cream in the lower half...
July 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Qianqian Wu, Xuejian Deng, Yanjie Wang, Yong Liu
A new freshwater goby, Rhinogobius maculagenys sp. nov., was collected from Hunan Province in Southern China. This species can be distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following features: first dorsal fin with 6 spines; second dorsal fin with a single spine and 7-9 segmented rays; anal fin with a single spine and 6-8 segmented rays; pectoral fin with 16 segmented rays; 32-34 longitudinal scales; 9-13 transverse scales; 11+16=27 vertebrae; pore ω1 missing; head and body yellowish brown; cheek and opercle yellowish brown with over 30 small orange spots, branchiostegal membrane yellow with over 10 small orange spots in males and white and spotless in females; first dorsal fin trapezoidal in males and nearly semicircular in females, with large bright blue blotch in front of second spine; spines 4 and 5 longest, rear tip extending to base of second branched ray of second dorsal fin in males when adpressed, but just reaching or not reaching anterior margin of second dorsal fin in females; caudal fin with 5-6 vertical rows of brown spots; flank with several longitudinal rows of blackish-brown spots; and belly pale white...
September 13, 2018: Zootaxa
A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, V Pérez, L F de la Fuente, J Mateo, B Gutiérrez-Gil
Adipose deposits influence the quality of ruminant carcasses, and in suckling lambs, internal types of adipose deposits represent a notable proportion of total fat. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the perirenal fat transcriptomes of suckling lambs from two breeds with different growth and carcass characteristics. The perirenal fat tissue from 14 suckling lambs (Assaf, n = 8; Churra, n = 6) was used for the RNA-seq analysis. The functional enrichment analysis of the 670 highly expressed genes (>150 fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) in the perirenal fat transcriptome of both breeds revealed that the majority of these genes were involved in energy processes...
October 12, 2018: Animal Genetics
Alexander S Chiu, Benjamin Resio, Jessica R Hoag, Andres F Monsalve, Justin D Blasberg, Lawrence Brown, Audrey Omar, Marney A White, Daniel J Boffa
INTRODUCTION: Leading cancer hospitals have increasingly shared their 'brand' with smaller hospitals through affiliations. Because each brand evokes a distinct reputation for the care provided, 'brand-sharing' has the potential to impact the public's ability to differentiate the safety and quality within hospital networks. The general public was surveyed to determine the perceived similarities and differences in the safety and quality of complex cancer surgery performed at top cancer hospitals and their smaller affiliate hospitals...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Sanjay Vikrant, Ajay Jaryal, Dalip Gupta, Anupam Parashar
AIM: To study the epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by venomous animals. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla, with AKI due to venomous animals over a period of 15 years (January 2003-December 2017). Medical records were evaluated for patient information on demographic factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcome. Outcomes of requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) support, treatment with dialysis, survival, and mortality were analyzed...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
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