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Ya-Dong Hao, Dong-Hui Li, Jian-Nong Wang
Standard decoction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is prepared by standardized process, and can be used as references to evaluate the quality of dosage forms such as decoction and dispensing granules. In order to determine the quality evaluation method for standard decoction of Chrysanthemi Flos and investigate its application, 10 batches of white chrysanthemum of Hangzhou were collected to prepare the standard decoction of white chrysanthemum of Hangzhou with standardized process parameters. Parameters such as traits, relative density, pH value, extraction ratio, transfer rate and fingerprint were selected as the indexes for quality evaluation...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Carly M Knuth, Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Paula M Miotto, Anders Gudiksen, David C Wright
KEY POINTS: Mammals defend against cold-induced reductions in body temperature through both shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The activation of non-shivering thermogenesis is primarily driven by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and to a lesser degree by the browning of white adipose tissue. Endurance exercise has also been shown to increase markers of white adipose tissue browning. This study aimed to determine whether prior exercise training would alter the response to a cold challenge and if this would be associated with differences in indices of non-shivering thermogenesis...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jerzy Gawor, Michał Jank, Katarzyna Jodkowska, Emilia Klim, Ulla K Svensson
The objective of this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study (designed according to evidence based medicine standards) was to determine the effect of 90-day administration of edible treats containing the brown algae, Ascophyllum nodosum , on plaque and dental calculus accumulation on the teeth of dogs, as well as on other parameters characterizing canine oral health status, including: plaque index (PI), calculus index (CI), oral health index (OHI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentration...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jarek Wegiel, W Ted Brown, Giuseppe La Fauci, Tatyana Adayev, Richard Kascsak, Regina Kascsak, Michael Flory, Wojciech Kaczmarski, Izabela Kuchna, Krzysztof Nowicki, Veronica Martinez-Cerdeno, Thomas Wisniewski, Jerzy Wegiel
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), is associated with a high prevalence of autism. The deficit of FMRP reported in idiopathic autism suggests a mechanistic overlap between FXS and autism. The overall goal of this study is to detect neuropathological commonalities of FMRP deficits in the brains of people with idiopathic autism and with syndromic autism caused by dup15q11.2-q13 (dup15). This study tests the hypothesis based on our preliminary data that both idiopathic and syndromic autism are associated with brain region-specific deficits of neuronal FMRP and structural changes of the affected neurons...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Susan R Davis, Penelope J Robinson, Fiona Jane, Shane White, Kristy A Brown, Sofie Piessens, Andrew Edwards, Jane McNeilage, Jillian Woinarski, Mitchell Chipman, Robin J Bell
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether metformin prevents tamoxifen-induced endometrial changes and insulin resistance (IR) after a diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: This was a single centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer taking tamoxifen were randomly allocated to metformin 850mg or identical placebo, twice daily, for 52 weeks. Outcome measures included double endometrial thickness (ET) measured by transvaginal ultrasound, fasting insulin, glucose and IR estimated by the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Minna Lahesmaa, Vesa Oikonen, Semi Helin, Pauliina Luoto, Mueez U Din, Alexander Pfeifer, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential target to combat obesity and diabetes, but novel strategies to activate BAT are needed. Adenosine and A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism activate BAT in rodents, and endogenous adenosine is released locally in BAT as a by-product of noradrenaline, but physiological data from humans is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of exogenous adenosine on human BAT perfusion, and to determine the density of A2ARs in human BAT in vivo for the first time, using PET/CT imaging...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Patricia Seoane-Collazo, Juan Roa, Eva Rial-Pensado, Laura Liñares-Pose, Daniel Beiroa, Francisco Ruíz-Pino, Tania López-González, Donald A Morgan, José Ángel Pardavila, María Jesús Sánchez-Tapia, Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, Cristina Contreras, Miguel Fidalgo, Carlos Diéguez, Roberto Coppari, Kamal Rahmouni, Rubén Nogueiras, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular gauge that is activated under conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy waste. Current evidence links hypothalamic AMPK with the central regulation of energy balance. However, it is unclear whether targeting hypothalamic AMPK has beneficial effects in obesity. Here, we show that genetic inhibition of AMPK in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) protects against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and subsequently energy expenditure...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes
Dunja Šamec, Iva Pavlović, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Five Brassicaceae sprouts (white cabbage, kale, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, arugula) were comparatively analyzed based on phytochemicals (polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, ascorbic acid) content and accompanying enzymes associated with phytochemical stability and bioavailability (peroxidases, myrosinase, and polyphenol-oxidase) that consequently impact food quality. Significantly high content of polyphenols and glucosinolates, as well as a high antioxidant activity were found in white cabbage, followed by kale sprouts...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Oscar B Micheloni, Abel E Farroni, Paula García, Ricardo L E Furlan
This work describes a TLC-coupled bioautographic assay suitable for the separation and detection of apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibitors from natural extracts. PPO was immobilised in agar containing l-DOPA as substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) to enhance colour development. The inhibition was detected as white spots on reddish background. Minimum amount of PPO inhibitors detected was 0.0125 µg of 4-hexylresorcinol, 0.025 µg of ascorbic acid, 0.5 µg of cysteine and 1 µg of kojic acid...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Umesh D Wankhade, Ji-Hyeon Lee, Pradeep K Dagur, Hariom Yadav, Michael Shen, Weiping Chen, Ashok B Kulkarni, J Philip McCoy, Toren Finkel, Aaron M Cypess, Sushil G Rane
OBJECTIVE: Beige/brite adipose tissue displays morphological characteristics and beneficial metabolic traits of brown adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that TGF-β signaling regulates the browning of white adipose tissue. Here, we inquired whether TGF-β signals regulated presumptive beige progenitors in white fat and investigated the TGF-β regulated mechanisms involved in beige adipogenesis. METHODS: We deleted TGF-β receptor 1 (TβRI) in adipose tissue (TβRIAdKO mice) and, using flow-cytometry based assays, identified and isolated presumptive beige progenitors located in the stromal vascular cells of white fat...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Dimitrios C Karampinos, Dominik Weidlich, Mingming Wu, Houchun H Hu, Daniela Franz
The present review reports on the current knowledge and recent findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The work summarizes the features and mechanisms that allow MRI to differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT) by making use of their distinct morphological appearance and the functional characteristics of BAT. MR is a versatile imaging modality with multiple contrast mechanisms as potential candidates in the study of BAT, targeting properties of 1 H, 13 C, or 129 Xe nuclei...
August 12, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Aline Isabel da Silva, Glauber Rudá F Braz, Severina Cássia de A Silva, Anderson Apolonio da S Pedroza, Nelson Correia de Lima-Júnior, Tércya Lúcidi de A Silva, Claudia Jacques Lagranha
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a regulatory role in coordinating the neural circuits regulating energy balance, with differences in both 5-HT availability at the synapse and the activity of 5-HT receptors mediating anorectic (via POMC/CART activation) and orexigenic (via NPY/AgRP activation) responses. In conditions of overweight and obesity the control of energy balance is clearly deregulated, and serotonergic modulation appears to make a significant contribution to weight gain. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that increases 5-HT availability in the synaptic cleft may thus have potential effects on energy balance...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Chiaki Hori, Jill Gaskell, Dan Cullen, Grzegorz Sabat, Philip E Stewart, Kathleen Lail, Yi Peng, Kerrie Barry, Igor V Grigoriev, Annegret Kohler, Laure Fauchery, Francis Martin, Carolyn A Zeiner, Jennifer M Bhatnagar
Fungi play a key role cycling nutrients in forest ecosystems but the mechanisms remain uncertain. To clarify the enzymatic processes involved in wood decomposition, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics of extensively decayed lodgepole pine were examined by RNAseq and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Following de novo metatranscriptome assembly, 52,011 contigs were searched for functional domains and homology to database entries. Contigs similar to to basidiomycete transcripts dominated and many of these were most closely related to ligninolytic white rot fungi or cellulolytic brown rot fungi...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alba Serrano, Madhu Asnani, Ana M Rodríguez, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, M Luisa Bonet
SCOPE: Resveratrol (RSV) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) are food compounds with anti-obesity actions in adult rodents. Here we assessed the long-term effects of RSV and NR mild supplementation throughout lactation on adiposity-related parameters and the appearance of the beige phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT) in adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Newborn mice received orally RSV or NR from day 2 to 20 of life. Control littermates received the vehicle. All animals were weaned onto a chow diet on day 21...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
T N Gibson, S Beeput, J Gaspard, C George, D Gibson, N Jackson, V Leandre-Broome, N Palmer-Mitchell, C Alexis, J Bird-Compton, C Bodkyn, R Boyle, S McLean-Salmon, M Reece-Mills, C Sin Quee-Brown, U Allen, S Weitzman, V Blanchette, S Gupta
BACKGROUND: English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) childhood cancer outcomes are unknown. PROCEDURE: Through the SickKids-Caribbean Initiative (SCI), we established a multicenter childhood cancer database across seven centers in six ESC countries. Data managers entered patient demographics, disease, treatment, and outcome data. Data collection commenced in 2013, with retrospective collection to 2011 and subsequent prospective collection. RESULTS: A total of 367 children were diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 with a median age of 5...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
P M Palavecino, P D Ribotta, A E León, M C Bustos
BACKGROUND: The development of new products with an additional focus on nutrition, beyond technological quality, is fundamental to improve the celiac diet quality. Nutritional attributes of white and brown sorghum gluten-free pasta developed in a previous work were analyzed. The extent and kinetics of starch in vitro digestion, estimated glycemic index (eGI), potentially bioaccessible and dialyzable polyphenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated and compared with commercial products...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jacqueline Wiltshire, Jeroan J Allison, Roger Brown, Keith Elder
Background/Objective: Physical concordance between physicians and patients is advocated as a solution to improve trust and health outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities, but the empirical evidence is mixed. We assessed women's perceptions of physician trustworthiness based on physician physical characteristics and context of medical visit. Methods: A factorial survey design was used in which a community-based sample of 313 African American (AA) women aged 45+ years responded to vignettes of contrived medical visits (routine versus serious medical concern visit) where the physician's race/ethnicity, gender, and age were randomly manipulated...
2018: AIMS Public Health
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Sin-Hee Han, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Tae-Jin An, Jae-Ki Jang, Joo Young Lee
The main function of brown adipose tissue is to dissipate surplus caloric intake into heat energy by thermogenesis, increasing energy expenditure. Inducible brown adipocytes can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT) through a process referred to as browning. Browning of white fat represents a promising strategy for treatment of obesity and the related complications. We investigated whether Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its ingredients modulated adipogenesis through adipocyte browning using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
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