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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315998/findings-as-a-starting-point-to-unravel-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-in-vivo-interactions-involving-wnt10a-in-bone-fat-and-muscle
#1
Manabu Tsukamoto, Ke-Yong Wang, Takashi Tasaki, Yoichi Murata, Yasuaki Okada, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Eiichiro Nakamura, Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroto Izumi, Qian Zhou, Kagaku Azuma, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Kimitoshi Kohno, Akinori Sakai
Wnt10a is a member of the WNT family. Although deficiency of this gene causes symptoms related to teeth, hair, nails, and skin, we recently demonstrated a new phenotype of Wnt10a knockout (KO) mice involving bone and fat. The in vivo effect of the Wnt10a gene on bone and fat is unclear, and the relationship between bone/fat and muscle in Wnt10a signaling is also interesting. We aimed to evaluate the tissue changes in Wnt10a KO mice compared to wild-type mice and show the findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle...
October 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313546/description-of-a-new-species-of-gracixalus-amphibia-anura-rhacophoridae-from-guangdong-province-southeastern-china
#2
Jian Wang, Zhao-Chi Zeng, Zhi-Tong Lyu, Zu-Yao Liu, Ying-Yong Wang
A new species of tree frog, G. guangdongensis sp nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from Dawuling Forest Station, Mount Nankun and Nanling Nature Reserve of Guangdong Province, southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from all known congeners by a significant genetic divergence at the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment examined (p-distance ≥ 4.6%) and the following combination of morphological characters: relatively small body size (SVL 26.1-34.7 mm in adult males, 34...
May 16, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307164/lipocalin-2-regulates-retinoic-acid-induced-activation-of-beige-adipocytes
#3
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305668/mir-494-3p-regulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-thermogenesis-through-pgc1-%C3%AE-signalling-in-beige-adipocytes
#4
Mengistu Lemecha, Katsutaro Morino, Takeshi Imamura, Hirotaka Iwasaki, Natsuko Ohashi, Shogo Ida, Daisuke Sato, Osamu Sekine, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Mitochondria are critical in heat generation in brown and beige adipocytes. Mitochondrial number and function are regulated in response to external stimuli, such as cold exposure and β3 adrenergic receptor agonist. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis during browning, especially by microRNAs, remain unknown. We investigated the role of miR-494-3p in mitochondrial biogenesis during adipogenesis and browning. Intermittent mild cold exposure of mice induced PPARγ coactivator1-α (PGC1-α) and mitochondrial TFAM, PDH, and ANT1/2 expression along with uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302023/the-antioxidant-transcription-factor-nrf2-modulates-the-stress-response-and-phenotype-of-malignant-as-well-as-premalignant-pancreatic-ductal-epithelial-cells-by-inducing-expression-of-the-atf3-splicing-variant-%C3%AE-zip2
#5
My-Lan Kha, Lisa Hesse, Florian Deisinger, Bence Sipos, Christoph Röcken, Alexander Arlt, Susanne Sebens, Ole Helm, Heiner Schäfer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. While death rates show declining trends in the majority of cancers, PDAC registers rising rates. Based on the recently described crosstalk between TGF-β1 and Nrf2 in the PDAC development, the involvement of ATF3 and its splice variant ΔZip2 in TGF-β1- and Nrf2-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis was investigated. As demonstrated here, PDAC (Panc1, T3M4) cells or premalignant H6c7 pancreatic ductal epithelial cells differentially express ΔZip2- and ATF3, relating to stronger Nrf2 activity seen in Panc1 cells and TGF-ß1 activity in T3M4 or H6c7 cells, respectively...
October 9, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296566/liver-kinase-b1-induces-browning-phenotype-in-3-t3-l1-adipocytes
#6
Pengjiao Xi, Jie Xue, Zhaoxia Wu, Haomin Wang, Jie Han, Huimin Liang, Derun Tian
Induction of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue is a promising therapy for combating human obesity and its associated disorders. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor inhibitor and metabolic modulator. Recent data suggest that LKB1 is necessary for adipogenesis, but its role in the browning of white adipocytes remains unknown. The objective of this study was to reveal the effect of LKB1 on browning. In our study, we showed that overexpression of LKB1 in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes up-regulated the expression of brown adipocyte markers, including UCP1, PGC-1α, Cidea, and PRDM16, and beige-cell-specific genes, such as CD137 and Tmem26...
October 6, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290274/asthma-alleviates-obesity-in-males-through-regulating-metabolism-and-energy-expenditure
#7
Xiaomin Song, Bolun Li, Haoran Wang, Xuan Zou, Ran Gao, Wei Zhang, Ting Shu, Hongmei Zhao, Bin Liu, Jing Wang
Many epidemiological studies suggested a correlation between obesity and asthma. However, little is known about the molecular details explaining this correlation. Here, we show that asthma decreased body weight of asthmatic male mice fed with high fat diet via increasing energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. The increase of energy expenditure was mainly due to upregulation of pAMPK and Sirt1. The activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α signaling promoted the expression of the thermogenic genes like ucp1, PRDM16, cidea, Elovl3, PPARα, which occurred in brown adipocyte tissue and subcutaneous white adipose tissue...
October 2, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288966/strain-specific-metastatic-phenotypes-in-pheochromocytoma-allograft-mice
#8
Martin Ullrich, Josephine Liers, Mirko Peitzsch, Anja Feldmann, Ralf Bergmann, Ulrich Sommer, Susan Richter, Stefan R Bornstein, Michael Bachmann, Graeme Eisenhofer, Christian G Ziegler, Jens Pietzsch
Somatostatin receptor-targeting endoradiotherapy offers potential for treating metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, an approach likely to benefit from combination radiosensitization therapy. To provide reliable preclinical in vivo models of metastatic disease, this study characterized the metastatic spread of luciferase-expressing mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in mouse strains with different immunologic conditions. Bioluminescence imaging showed that, in contrast to subcutaneous non-metastatic engraftment of luciferase-expressing MPC cells in NMRI-nude mice, intravenous cell injection provided only suboptimal metastatic spread in both NMRI-nude mice and hairless SCID (SHO) mice...
October 5, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279164/obesity-associated-mir-199a-214-cluster-inhibits-adipose-browning-via-prdm16-pgc-1%C3%AE-transcriptional-network
#9
Linyun He, Mowei Tang, Ting Xiao, Hailan Liu, Wei Liu, Guangdi Li, Feng Zhang, Yalun Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Fang Hu
miRNAs are important regulators of differentiation, development and function of brown and beige fat cells. Here we identify the role of miR-199a/214 cluster in the regulation of brown and beige adipocyte development and thermogenesis in vitro and in vivo We show that expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster is dramatically decreased during brown and beige adipocyte differentiation and in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic receptor activation. The cluster levels are significantly up-regulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and human subjects...
October 2, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276049/fat-grafting-can-induce-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#10
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275865/moxibustion-simulating-bipolar-radiofrequency-suppresses-weight-gain-and-induces-adipose-tissue-browning-via-activation-of-ucp1-and-fgf21-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Young Jun Koh, Ju-Hee Lee, Sung Yun Park
Background: Obesity is a pathological condition associated with various diseases including diabetes, stroke, arthritis, infertility, and heart disease. Moxibustion is widely used to prevent and manage obesity in traditional Asian medicine. We tested our hypothesis that moxibustion-simulating bipolar radiofrequency (M-RF) can suppress total body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain via induction of WAT browning in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Methods: We designed an M-RF device that could accurately adjust the depth and temperature at which heat stimulation was administered into the abdomen of DIO mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275453/partial-depletion-of-cd206-positive-m2-like-macrophages-induces-proliferation-of-beige-progenitors-and-enhances-browning-after-cold-stimulation
#12
Yoshiko Igarashi, Allah Nawaz, Tomonobu Kado, Muhammad Bilal, Takahide Kuwano, Seiji Yamamoto, Masakiyo Sasahara, Xu Jiuxiang, Akiko Inujima, Keiichi Koizumi, Johji Imura, Naotoshi Shibahara, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipocytes that become interspersed within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots in response to cold exposure. Previous studies have shown that type 2 cytokines and M2 macrophages induce cold-induced browning in inguinal WAT (ingWAT) by producing catecholamines. Exactly how the conditional and partial depletion of CD206+ M2-like macrophages regulates the cold-induced browning of ingWAT, however, remains unknown. We examined the role of CD206+ M2-like macrophages in the cold-induced browning of WAT using genetically engineered CD206DTR mice, in which CD206+ M2-like macrophages were conditionally depleted...
October 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270132/activation-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-induces-beiging-of-adipocytes
#13
Roberta S Santos, Aaron P Frank, Luciana A Fátima, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and BAT-like adipose tissues, referred to as 'beige' adipose tissues uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis via uncoupling protein one (UCP-1). There is a sexual dimorphism with respect to beige and BAT tissues; pre-menopausal women have more BAT and are more sensitive to BAT activation than men or postmenopausal women. We hypothesized selective activation of adipose tissue estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) induces beiging of WAT through induction of lipolysis mediated by adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
September 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248402/small-molecules-for-fat-combustion-targeting-thermosensory-and-satiety-signals-in-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Jingxin Liu, Ligen Lin
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fatty acids as heat to maintain body temperature in cold environments. The existence of BAT and beige cells in human adults supplies a promising weight-reduction therapy. The central thermogenic regulation descends through an excitatory neural pathway from the hypothalamus, medullar and spine towards BAT. This sympathoexcitatory thermogenic circuit is controlled by GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid) signaling from the thermoregulatory center in the preoptic area and the satiety center in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 21, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234364/autophagy-in-adipose-tissue-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#15
Maroua Ferhat, Katsuhiko Funai, Sihem Boudina
SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in adipose tissue function have profound consequences on whole body energy homeostasis because this tissue is central for fat accumulation, energy expenditure, glucose and insulin metabolism and hormonal regulation. With the obesity reaching epidemic proportions globally, it is important to understand the mechanisms leading to adipose tissue malfunction. Recent Advances: Autophagy has originally been viewed as an adaptive response to cellular stress, but in recent years, this process was shown to regulate important cellular processes...
September 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232001/adipose-mtorc1-suppresses-prostaglandin-signaling-and-beige-adipogenesis-via-the-crtc2-cox-2-pathway
#16
Xing Zhang, Yan Luo, Chunqing Wang, Xiaofeng Ding, Xin Yang, Dandan Wu, Floyd Silva, Zijiang Yang, Qin Zhou, Lu Wang, Xiaoqing Wang, Jianlin Zhou, Nathan Boyd, Michael Spafford, Mark Burge, Xuexian O Yang, Meilian Liu
Beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have thermogenic capacity to orchestrate substantial energy metabolism and counteract obesity. However, adipocyte-derived signals that act on progenitor cells to control beige adipogenesis remain poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose-specific depletion of Raptor, a key component of mTORC1, promoted beige adipogenesis through prostaglandins (PGs) synthesized by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, Raptor-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity and COX-2 downregulation...
September 18, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223201/the-impact-of-power-generation-emissions-on-ambient-pm-2-5-pollution-and-human-health-in-china-and-india
#17
Meng Gao, Gufran Beig, Shaojie Song, Hongliang Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Fengchao Liang, Yang Liu, Haikun Wang, Xiao Lu, Tong Zhu, Gregory R Carmichael, Chris P Nielsen, Michael B McElroy
Emissions from power plants in China and India contain a myriad of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 , PM ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter) precursors, posing significant health risks among large, densely settled populations. Studies isolating the contributions of various source classes and geographic regions are limited in China and India, but such information could be helpful for policy makers attempting to identify efficient mitigation strategies. We quantified the impact of power generation emissions on annual mean PM2...
September 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219587/central-liponeurocytoma-as-a-clinical-entity
#18
REVIEW
Ali Börekci, Pınar Kuru Bektaşoğlu, Ali Fatih Ramazanoğlu, Bora Gürer, Erhan Çelikoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Liponeurocytomas are mostly localized in cerebellar hemispheres and the second most common location is the vermis. It is rarely observed within the intracranial ventricles. Here, we present a case of liponeurocytoma located in the right lateral ventricle and the systematic review of the literature. STATE OF THE ART: We searched PubMed with keyword 'central liponeurocytoma' and the references of the related articles. There were no language or year restrictions...
September 11, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193889/the-profile-of-il-4-il-5-il-10-and-gata3-in-patients-with-lrba-deficiency-and-cvid-with-no-known-monogenic-disease-association-with-disease-severity
#19
G Azizi, Y Bagheri, R Yazdani, M Zaki-Dizaji, M Jamee, F Jadidi-Niaragh, A N Kamali, H Abolhassani, A Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic form of primary immunodeficiency (PID). LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a CVID-like phenotype. T cell abnormality was reported in patients with CVID and LRBA deficiency. The study's aim was to evaluate IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and GATA3 expression in patients with LRBA deficiency and CVID with no known monogenic disease, and further evaluate its relevance with immunological futures and clinical complications of patients...
September 4, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193158/growth-hormone-activated-stat5-is-required-for-induction-of-beige-fat-in-vivo
#20
Caroline N Nelson, Edward O List, Makerita Ieremia, Lena Constantin, Yash Chhabra, John J Kopchick, Michael J Waters
OBJECTIVE: The anti-obesity actions of growth hormone (GH) led us to investigate if GH signaling is able to regulate beige/brite fat development of white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS: We studied WAT in GHR-391 mice engineered to be unable to activate STAT5 in response to GH, in mice with adipose specific deletion of GHR, in GHR-/- mice and in bGH transgenic mice. QPCR, immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize WAT. The in vivo effects of β-3 adrenergic activation with CL-316,243 and that of FGF21 infusion were also studied...
August 29, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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