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Bone growth

Xueyan Zhang, Fengbo Wu, Ke Men, Rong Huang, Bailin Zhou, Rui Zhang, Rui Zou, Li Yang
As a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides can stimulate a Th1 immune response and potentially be used as therapeutic agents or vaccine adjuvants for the treatment of cancer. However, some drawbacks of CpG limit their applications, such as rapid elimination by nuclease-mediated degradation and poor cellular uptake. Therefore, repeat high-dose drug administration is required for treatment. In this work, a CpG delivery system based on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) was designed and studied for the first time to achieve better bioactivity of CpG...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Shengjun Sun, Yilin Zhang, Deliang Zeng, Songmei Zhang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weiqiang Yu
Ti-based implants sometimes fail to integrate with surrounding bone tissue due to insufficiency of new bone formation and surface bonding. To overcome this problem, this research focused on establishing a sustained bone growth factor delivery system by applying anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays and PLGA film on the titanium implant surface. TiO2 nanotube arrays were made by anodic oxidation method, and were then filled with rhBMP2 by vacuum freeze-drying. Next, PLGA was deposition on the surface of this material...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yoriko Yamazato, Takuto Nakamura, Yusuke Ohya
Bone marrow-derived cells exert anti-inflammatory actions and can migrate into the brain. However, their role in the development of neurogenic hypertension remains unclear. A hyperactive renin-angiotensin system and inflammation in the brain are mechanisms that contribute to angiotensin II-initiated neurogenic hypertension. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived cells in the brain attenuate the overactive brain renin-angiotensin system and inflammation, thereby reducing neurogenic hypertension. We cultured plastic-adherent bone marrow-derived cells for 3 weeks...
August 17, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Min Pi, Ruisong Ye, Xiaobin Han, Benjamin Armstrong, Xue Liu, Yuanjian Chen, Yao Sun, L Darryl Quarles
Both the activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and elevations of circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF-23) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in chronic kidney disease. To investigate potential cross-talk between RAAS and FGF-23, we administered angiotensin II (Ang II) to wild-type rodents and the Hyp mouse model of excess FGF-23. Ang II administration for four weeks to wild-type rodents resulted in significant increases in systolic blood pressure and LVH...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chunying Zhang, Chao Niu, Kevin Yang, Anisa Shaker
We have previously shown myofibroblasts subjacent to the squamous epithelium in the normal human esophagus and an increase in esophagitis. Myofibroblast contribution to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and to paracrine mediated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the human esophagus remains incompletely defined. We investigated BMP4 and BMP inhibitor GREM1 gene expression and protein levels in previously characterized human esophageal myofibroblast primary cultures and in a human esophageal myofibroblast cell line...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kun Wang, Sen Zhao, Bowen Liu, Qianqian Zhang, Yaqi Li, Jiaqi Liu, Yan Shen, Xinghuan Ding, Jiachen Lin, Yong Wu, Zihui Yan, Jia Chen, Xiaoxin Li, Xiaofei Song, Yuchen Niu, Jian Liu, Weisheng Chen, Yue Ming, Renqian Du, Cong Chen, Bo Long, Yisen Zhang, Xiangjun Tong, Shuyang Zhang, Jennifer E Posey, Bo Zhang, Zhihong Wu, Joshua D Wythe, Pengfei Liu, James R Lupski, Xinjian Yang, Nan Wu
BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10-18/100 000. BAVM is the leading aetiology of intracranial haemorrhage in children. Our objective was to identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease and to better define the molecular aetiology underlying non-syndromic sporadic BAVM. METHODS: We performed whole-exome trio sequencing of 100 unrelated families with a clinically uniform BAVM phenotype...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kathryn E Ackerman, Madhusmita Misra
Female athletes often experience amenorrhoea at various times during training, but this should not be considered normal. Low energy availability is a common cause of menstrual dysfunction, and amenorrhoea can serve as a warning sign of some of the health and performance consequences associated with inadequate energy, including poor bone accrual and low bone mineral density. Adolescence is an important time for bone accrual, growth, and development, making delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhoea particularly concerning in young athletes...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Samir Tivari, Haiyan Lu, Tanya Dasgupta, Mariana S De Lorenzo, Robert Wieder
BACKGROUND: Dormant estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer micrometastases in the bone marrow survive adjuvant chemotherapy and recur stochastically for more than 20 years. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines produced by stromal injury can re-awaken dormant breast cancer cells. METHODS: We used an established in vitro dormancy model of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells incubated at clonogenic density on fibronectin-coated plates to determine the effects of inflammatory cytokines on reactivation of dormant ER+ breast cancer cells...
August 17, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Antonio Romero, Arantza Vitoria, Jorge Albareda, Marta Prades, Mercedes Roca, Pilar Zaragoza, Francisco José Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness and safety of repeated administrations of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) primed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ in an equine model of chemically-induced osteoarthritis. Arthritis was induced in both radio-carpal (RC)-joints by amphotericin-B in 18 ponies, divided into three groups depending on the treatment injected: MSC-naïve (n = 7), MSC-primed (n = 7) and control (n = 4)...
August 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Wenfei Gu, Enfeng Zhang, Lijun Song, Laiyong Tu, Zhenbin Wang, Feng Tian, Kahaer Aikenmu, Ge Chu, Jiang Zhao
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to epigenetically regulate the oncogenesis of osteosarcoma. In this research, we investigate the role of lncRNA HOXD-AS1 on the osteosarcoma oncogenesis. Results revealed that HOXD-AS1 expression level was significantly up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissue and cells, moreover, the aberrant overexpression predicted the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. Loss-of-functional experiments indicated that HOXD-AS1 silencing inhibited the osteosarcoma cells proliferation and induced G1/G0 phase arrest in vitro, and repressed tumor cell growth in vivo...
July 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shuwei Zhang, Yi Wang, Shuzhen Chen, Jingfeng Li
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy, mainly occurring in children and adolescents. Cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), which plays important roles in cell proliferation, has been reported to be overexpressed in diverse human cancers. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the expression and functions of CKAP2 in osteosarcoma. The mRNA and protein expression of CKAP2 was analyzed on collected osteosarcoma and control bone cyst tissues. The results indicated that CKAP2 expression was remarkably elevated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with bone cysts tissues...
July 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tayyaba Gul Malik, Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Roquyya Gul, Muhammad Khalil, Abrar Ahmed Malik, Masoom Khan
Background/aim: This study evaluates diabetic macular-edema (DME) patients for the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection on macular thickness and proangiogenic biomarkers in serum and vitreous. Materials and methods: Forty DME patients were analyzed for macular thickness (MT). Twelve proangiogenic biomarkers in serum and vitreous were analyzed before and after IVB. Results: Significant decrease in MT with vitreal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) was observed as expected after IVB, while serum VEGF-A did not follow a decreasing trend in contrast to VEGF-C, which decreased both in serum and vitreous...
August 16, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Annalaura Mastrangelo, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francisco J Rupérez, Julie A Chowen, Coral Barbas, Jesús Argente
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) gene have recently been shown to cause postnatal growth failure in two prepubertal patients from a non-consanguineous Spanish family due to the resulting decrease in IGF1 bioavailability. Although a specific pharmacological treatment of this entity is yet to be established, both children received progressive subcutaneous doses (40 to 120 μg/kg) of rhIGF1 twice daily for 2 years. The improvements in growth, hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density have been previously reported...
August 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Sila Cagri Isler, Fatma Soysal, Tugce Ceyhanlı, Batuhan Bakırarar, Berrin Unsal
BACKGROUND: Platelet concentration based membranes, as well as collagen membranes in combination with bone substitutes, have demonstrated successful outcomes in regeneration of peri-implant bone defects (PBD). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of regenerative surgical treatment (RST) of peri-implantitis using a bone substitute combined with two different bioresorbable barrier membranes, either collagen membrane (CM) or concentrated growth factor (CGF), during 12-month follow-up...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Ilya R Bederman, Gavriella Pora, Maureen O'Reilly, James Poleman, Kimberly Spoonhower, Michelle Puchowicz, Aura Perez, Bernadette O Erokwu, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Chris A Flask, Mitchell L Drumm
Negative energy balance is a prevalent feature of cystic fibrosis (CF). Pancreatic insufficiency, elevated energy expenditure, lung disease, and malnutrition, all characteristic of CF, contribute to the negative energy balance causing low bodily growth phenotype. As low body weight and BMI strongly correlate with poor lung health and survival of CF patients, improving energy balance is an important clinical goal (e.g. high-fat diet). CF mouse models also exhibit negative energy balance (growth retardation and high energy expenditure), independent from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, lung disease, and malnutrition...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Lu M Yang, David M Ornitz
The vertebrate skull is a complex structure housing the brain and specialized sensory organs, including the eye, the inner ear, and the olfactory system. The close association between bones of the skull and the sensory organs they encase has posed interesting developmental questions about how the tissues scale with one another. Mechanisms that regulate morphogenesis of the skull are hypothesized to originate in part from the encased neurosensory organs. Conversely, the developing skull is hypothesized to regulate the growth of neurosensory organs, through mechanical forces or molecular signaling...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
J Sebastián Barrionuevo
Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius occur at high elevations, they have an aquatic mode of life and large tadpoles. There are more than 60 species that closely resemble one another and have low values of genetic divergence. However, the skeleton, particularly the cranium, is interspecifically variable with respect to the different levels of development of some elements. Heterochrony is considered to have played a prominent role in generating phenotypic variation, especially among closely related species. Herein, the developmental origins of the adult cranial configuration of two species of Telmatobius are explored...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Xin Zhou, Ran Yu, Yanlin Long, Jiajia Zhao, Shaoling Yu, Qingming Tang, Lili Chen
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal mandibular hypoplasia (SMH), a common type of developmental deformities, results in impaired aesthetics of facial profile, occlusal dysfunction and poor life quality. In this study, BMAL1 deficiency leads to SMH formation, and we aim to investigate the mechanism by which BMAL1 deficiency induces SMH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Circadian rhythm-disordered mouse models were constructed by placing animals in a jet lag schedule of 6-h light advance every 7 days for 4 or 8 weeks...
August 17, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Praveen Koganti, Gal Levy-Cohen, Michael Blank
Protein ubiquitination is an evolutionary conserved highly-orchestrated enzymatic cascade essential for normal cellular functions and homeostasis maintenance. This pathway relies on a defined set of cellular enzymes, among them, substrate-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s). These ligases are the most critical players, as they define the spatiotemporal nature of ubiquitination and confer specificity to this cascade. Smurf1 and Smurf2 (Smurfs) are the C2-WW-HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases, which recently emerged as important determinants of pivotal cellular processes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Qiang Zuo, Feng Gao, Huanghe Song, Jinchun Zhou
The aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical value of Ilizarov transverse tibial bone transport and microcirculation reconstruction in the treatment of chronic ischemic diseases in lower limbs. A total of 90 patients with chronic ischemic diseases in lower limbs were selected and randomly divided into two groups: The observation group (n=45) and the control group (n=45). Those patients were treated with Ilizarov transverse tibial bone transport and microcirculation reconstruction, and percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTBA), respectively...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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