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Bone growth

Takashi Kido, Shigeru Miyagawa, Takasumi Goto, Katsuto Tamai, Takayoshi Ueno, Koichi Toda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system. METHODS: Twenty-week-old J2N-k hamsters, which are δ-sarcoglycan-deficient, were treated with systemic injection of high-mobility group box 1 fragment (HMGB1, n = 15) or phosphate buffered saline (control, n = 11)...
2018: PloS One
Wen Han, Xiao-Juan Bai, Lu-Lu Han, Xue-Feng Sun, Xiang-Mei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Changes in serum protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho resulting from bone metabolism are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between FGF23 and Klotho serum proteins and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) in northern Chinese postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in Shenyang, a northern Chinese city. The study included 355 postmenopausal women with an average age of 62...
December 3, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Hamideh Kooshki, Marzieh Ghollasi, Raheleh Halabian, Negar M Kazemi
Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary expertise that involves the use of nanoscaffolds for repairing, modifying, and removing tissue defects and formation of new tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into a variety of cell types, and they are attractive candidates for tissue engineering. In the current study, the electrospinning process was used for nanofiber preparation, based on a poly-l-lactic-acid (PLLA) polymer. The surface was treated with O 2 plasma to enhance hydrophilicity, cell attachment, growth, and differentiation potential...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hfv Cardoso, L Spake, S N Wasterlain, M T Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to examine the impacts of physical and structural violence on the well-being of early modern enslaved Africans by comparing the growth of children in an archaeological sample recovered from Lagos, Portugal with that of modern children known to have lived under socially oppressive and racist political regimes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The age of 18 individuals was estimated from the length of developing teeth. Long bone lengths for age in the enslaved African sample were compared with two black juvenile known age samples: the Raymond Dart (South Africa) and Hamann-Todd (United States) collections...
January 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh
Coupling during bone remodeling refers to the spatial and temporal coordination of bone resorption with bone formation. Studies have assessed the subtle interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts to preserve bone balance. Traditionally, coupling research related to osteoclast function has focused on bone resorption activity causing the release of growth factors embedded in the bone matrix. However, considerable evidence from in vitro, animal, and human studies indicates the importance of the osteoclasts themselves in coupling phenomena, and many osteoclast-derived coupling factors have been identified...
December 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Peyman Hadji, Oliver Stoetzer, Thomas Decker, Christian M Kurbacher, Frederik Marmé, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christoph Mundhenke, Andrea Distelrath, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Diana Lüftner, Wolfgang Janni, Mathias Muth, Julia Kreuzeder, Claudia Quiering, Eva-Marie Grischke, Hans Tesch
Background: Breast cancer and its treatments are associated with a detrimental effect on bone health. Here we report the results of an exploratory analysis assessing changes in levels of biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients enrolled in the phase IIIb 4EVER study. Methods: The 4EVER trial investigated everolimus in combination with exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer...
February 2019: Journal of Bone Oncology
Ameerah Alsaqobi, Nabeel Al-Brahim
Background: The transformation of nonosseous soft tissue into bone is known as osseous metaplasia (OM). This condition most commonly affects the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems and it is a well-known phenomenon in different soft tissue organs. Rarely, OM can affect the uterus, which can extend into the cervix. OM affecting the cervix alone is a more rare condition that has multiple different clinical presentations. The presentation can be similar to that of a tumor in extremely rare cases...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
Maolin Zhang, Wenwen Yu, Kunimichi Niibe, Wenjie Zhang, Hiroshi Egusa, Tingting Tang, Xinquan Jiang
Regenerative medicine for bone tissue mainly depends on efficient recruitment of endogenous or transplanted stem cells to guide bone regeneration. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a functional factor that has been widely used in tissue regeneration and repair. However, the short half-life of PDGF limits its efficacy, and the mechanism by which PDGF regulates stem cell-based bone regeneration still needs to be elucidated. In this study, we established genetically modified PDGF-B-overexpressing bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) using a lentiviral vector and then explored the mechanism by which PDGF-BB regulates BMSC-based vascularized bone regeneration...
2018: Stem Cells International
Florian Winkler, Katia Herz, Sarah Rieck, Kenichi Kimura, Tianyuan Hu, Wilhelm Röll, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Daniela Wenzel
For the monitoring of vascular growth as well as adaptive or therapeutic (re)vascularization endothelial-specific reporter mouse models are valuable tools. However, currently available mouse models have limitations, because not all endothelial cells express the reporter in all developmental stages. We have generated PECAM/eGFP embryonic stem (ES) cell and mouse lines where the reporter gene labels PECAM+ endothelial cells and vessels with high specificity. Native eGFP expression and PECAM staining were highly co-localized in vessels of various organs at embryonic stages E9...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yoshinobu Abe, Natsuo Yamamoto, Kiwamu Nakamura, Kazuaki Arai, Chiye Sakurai, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Yasunori Ogura, Ken Iseki, Choichiro Tase, Keiji Kanemitsu
To investigate the role of IL-13 during a severe systemic Candida albicans infection, BALB/c control and IL-13-/- mice were examined for colony forming units (CFU) in the kidneys and survival days after intravenous infection. Proinflammatory mediators and cell recruitment into the tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, a multiple ELISA system, and morphological cell differentiation. The IL-13-/- group exhibited a lower CFU number in the kidneys at 4 days and survived longer than the control mice, which was accompanied by significantly higher expression of C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), IFN-γ, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the infected kidneys...
November 24, 2018: Immunobiology
Xiaoli Li, Guoliang An, Yan Wang, Di Liang, Zhonghui Zhu, Lin Tian
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is a common occupational disease, characterized by silicotic nodules and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in silica-induced lung fibrosis. In the present study, we sought to clarify the homing ability of BMSCs and the specific mechanisms for their effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biodistribution of BMSCs was identified by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in vivo and in vitro...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mariano Rodriguez, Escolastico Aguilera-Tejero
The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge about the interactions of energy-dense diets and mineral metabolism in the context of chronic kidney disease⁻metabolic bone disease (CKD-MBD). Energy dense-diets promote obesity and type II diabetes, two well-known causes of CKD. Conversely, these diets may help to prevent weight loss, which is associated with increased mortality in advanced CKD patients. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to its nephrotoxic potential, energy-dense food promotes changes in mineral metabolism that are clearly detrimental in the context of CKD-MBD, such as phosphorus (P) retention, increased concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23, decreased levels of renal klotho, and reduction in circulating concentrations of calcitriol...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Roee Birnbaum, Naama Yosha-Orpaz, Miri Yanoov-Sharav, Dvora Kidron, Hila Gur, Keren Yosovich, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger, Dorit Lev
Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Arginine methylation is involved in multiple biological processes, such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation. Currently, 10 patients have been described with mutations in PRMT7. The shared findings include: hypotonia, intellectual disability, short stature, brachydactyly, and mild dysmorphic features...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Oender Solakoglu, Andreas Filippi
Sixteen patients with a diagnosis of peri-implantitis in 19 of 64 implants (29.7 %) were treated with an open flap approach according to a refined standardized surgical protocol. Treatment consisted of mechanical debridement, application of chemotherapeutical agents, and photodynamic therapy. Bone defects were filled with autologous and allogeneic bone, and subsequently covered with a collagen membrane and a Platelet rich in growth factors fibrin membrane. After a mean follow-up of 36.1 months, none of the treated implants was lost...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
Shichao Zhang, Malcolm M Q Xing, Bingyun Li
Many applications using drug-carrying biomedical materials require on-demand, localized delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in precisely controlled and patient-specific time sequences, especially after assembly of the delivery vehicles; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. Here we report a novel strategy to create polypeptide multilayer films integrated with capsules as vehicles for co-delivery of multiple drugs using layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. Our approach allows the multilayered polypeptide nanofilms and pre-impregnated capsules to assemble into innovative biomedical materials with high and controllable loading of multiple drugs at any time post-preparation, and to achieve pH-responsive and sustained release...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fernanda T Borges, Marcia Bastos Convento, Nestor Schor
Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) is a potential alternative in regenerative medicine and has great potential in many pathologic conditions including kidney disease. Although most of the studies demonstrate MSC efficiency, the regenerative potential may not be efficient in all diseases and patients. Stem cell feasibility is modified by donor characteristics as gender, age, diet, and health status, producing both positive and negative results. The conditioning of MSC can potentiate its effects and modify its culture medium (CM)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Tobias Lange, Su Jung Oh-Hohenhorst, Simon A Joosse, Klaus Pantel, Oliver Hahn, Tobias Gosau, Sergey A Dyshlovoy, Jasmin Wellbrock, Susanne Feldhaus, Hanna Maar, Renate Gehrcke, Martina Kluth, Ronald Simon, Thorsten Schlomm, Hartwig Huland, Udo Schumacher
Here we describe the establishment and characterization of an AR+, PSMA+, ERG+, PTEN-/- , CHD1+/- patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model termed 'C5', which has been developed from a 60 years old patient suffering from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The patient underwent radical prostatectomy, showed early tumor marker PSA recurrence and, one year after surgery, abiraterone resistance. Subcutaneous C5 tumors can be serially transplanted between mice and grow within ~90 days to 1.5-2 cm³ tumors in SCID Balb/c mice (take rate 100%), NOD-scid IL2Rgnull (NSG) mice (100%) and C57BL/6 pfp-/- /rag2-/- mice (66%)...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucy A Eddowes, Kinda Al-Hourani, Narayan Ramamurthy, Jamie Frankish, Hannah T Baddock, Cynthia Sandor, John D Ryan, Dahlene N Fusco, João Arezes, Eleni Giannoulatou, Sara Boninsegna, Stephane Chevaliez, Benjamin M J Owens, Chia Chi Sun, Paolo Fabris, Maria Teresa Giordani, Diego Martines, Slobodan Vukicevic, John Crowe, Herbert Y Lin, Jan Rehwinkel, Peter J McHugh, Marco Binder, Jodie L Babitt, Raymond T Chung, Matthew W Lawless, Andrew E Armitage, Caleb Webber, Paul Klenerman, Hal Drakesmith
Understanding the control of viral infections is of broad importance. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes decreased expression of the iron hormone hepcidin, which is regulated by hepatic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signalling. We found that HCV infection and the BMP/SMAD pathway are mutually antagonistic. HCV blunted induction of hepcidin expression by BMP6, probably via tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated downregulation of the BMP co-receptor haemojuvelin. In HCV-infected patients, disruption of the BMP6/hepcidin axis and genetic variation associated with the BMP/SMAD pathway predicted the outcome of infection, suggesting that BMP/SMAD activity influences antiviral immunity...
December 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Lori L Schreier, Katarzyna B Miska, Roselina Angel, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
Jasreena K Nijjar, Diane Stafford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite targeted interventions, an estimated 150.8 million children under 5 years globally are still stunted, of which more than half live in Asia and more than one-third live in Africa. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding how longitudinal bone growth is regulated by nutritional intake in the developing world. Dietary macronutrients and micronutrients necessary for growth are also briefly reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include investigations of nutritionally sensitive regulators of growth as well as prospective evaluations of the role of specific dietary components on growth in order to better assess their impact...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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