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Bone growth

Soo-Hwan Kim, Jieun Jung, Kyung Jin Cho, Jong-Ho Choi, Hyeong Seon Lee, Gi Jin Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
The immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important mediator of their therapeutic effects in stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The regulation mechanism of MSCs is orchestrated by several factors in both intrinsic and extrinsic events. Recent studies have shown that the dynamic expression of cytokines secreted from MSCs control T cell function and maturation by regulating the expression of FoxP3, which figures prominently in T cell differentiation. However, there is no evidence that placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have strong immunomodulatory effects on T cell function and maturation via FoxP3 expression...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Yan-Qin Ying, Ling Hou, Yan Liang, Wei Wu, Xiao-Ping Luo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS). METHODS: The data of 200 ISS children, who were treated with rhGH from January 2008 to December 2016, were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The data of height, bone age(BA), chronological age(CA), fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, thyroid function and IGF-1 were collected, and annual growth velocity (GV), height standard deviation score (HtSDS) and related factors that affect GV were statistically analyzed...
October 2, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Jazmín I González Ocampo, Mirian M Machado de Paula, Nicole J Bassous, Anderson O Lobo, Claudia P Ossa Orozco, Thomas J Webster
The combination of kappa-carrageenan (κ-CG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) to generate a bone substitute material has been underexplored to date. Carrageenans (CGs) have remarkable characteristics such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, and structural similarities with natural glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and they have demonstrated the ability to stimulate cellular adhesion and proliferation. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been one of the most investigated materials for bone regeneration due to their excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity...
October 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Zena J Wally, Abdul M Haque, Antonio Feteira, Frederik Claeyssens, Russell Goodall, Gwendolen C Reilly
Dental implants need to support good osseointegration into the surrounding bone for full functionality. Interconnected porous structures have a lower stiffness and larger surface area compared with bulk structures, and therefore are likely to enable better bone-implant fixation. In addition, grading of the porosity may enable large pores for ingrowth on the periphery of an implant and a denser core to maintain mechanical properties. However, given the small diameter of dental implants it is very challenging to achieve gradations in porosity...
August 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Hwa Kyung Nam, Iva Vesela, Erica Siismets, Nan E Hatch
Bone growth is dependent upon the presence of self-renewing progenitor cell populations. While the contribution of Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme activity in promoting bone mineralization when expressed in differentiated bone forming cells is well understood, little is known regarding the role of TNAP in bone progenitor cells. We previously found diminished proliferation in the calvarial MC3T3E1 cell line upon suppression of TNAP by shRNA, and in calvarial cells and tissues of TNAP-/- mice...
October 17, 2018: Bone
Th I Shaheen, A S Montaser, Suming Li
In this study, chitosan/alginate/hydroxyapatite/nanocrystalline cellulose scaffolds were successfully fabricated by the using of freeze-drying method, followed by dicationic crosslinking using CaCl2 . The chemical structure and morphology along with mechanical properties of the formed scaffolds respecting to various CNC contents were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical compression test. Chemical interaction and electrostatic attraction between chitosan (CS) and alginate with various CNC ratios were affirmed by FTIR spectroscopy...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Xing-Jian Hu, Wen-Cong-Hui Wu, Nian-Guo Dong, Jia-Wei Shi, Jun-Wei Liu, Si Chen, Chen Deng, Feng Shi
A tissue engineering model of heart valve calcification induced in a bioreactor was established to evaluate the calcification induced by abnormal mechanical stimulation and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified decellularized porcine aortic leaflets seeded with human valve interstitial cells (huVICs) were mounted on a Ti-Ni alloy frame to fabricate two-leaflet and threeleaflet tissue engineered valves. The two-leaflet model valves were exposed to abnormal pulsatile flow stimulation with null (group A), low (1000 mL/min, group B), medium (2000 mL/min, group C), and high velocity (3000 mL/min, group D) for 14 days...
October 2018: Current medical science
Ryan R Kelly, Lindsay T McDonald, Vincent D Pellegrini, James J Cray, Amanda C Larue
BACKGROUND AIMS: Previous studies identified a circulating human osteoblastic population that expressed osteocalcin (OCN), increased following fracture and pubertal growth, and formed mineralized colonies in vitro and bone in vivo. A subpopulation expressed CD34, a hematopoietic/endothelial marker. These findings led to our hypothesis that hematopoietic-derived CD34+ OCN+ cells exist in the circulation of mice and are modulated after fracture. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to identify CD34+ OCN+ cells in male B6...
October 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
Raissa L Davis, Geunho Choi, Thijs Kuiken, Pascale Quéré, Sascha Trapp, Kirsty R Short, Mathilde Richard
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells play a major role in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus pathogenesis in gallinaceous poultry species (e.g. chicken, turkey and quail). Upon infection of gallinaceous poultry with HPAI viruses, endothelial cells throughout the body become rapidly infected, leading to systemic dissemination of the virus, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oedema and haemorrhaging. In contrast, the pathogenesis of HPAI viruses in most wild bird species (e.g...
October 19, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Gabriel N Hortobagyi
Endocrine therapy is recommended for patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+ ) advanced and metastatic breast cancer without visceral crisis (symptomatic visceral disease). However, many patients experience disease progression during treatment, and most patients eventually develop endocrine resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify treatment options that prolong the effectiveness of first-line endocrine therapies. Ribociclib is an orally bioavailable cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor that has been approved for use in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of HR+ , human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2- ) advanced breast cancer...
October 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Anna Schliermann, Joachim Nickel
Ontogeny of higher organisms as well the regulation of tissue homeostasis in adult individuals requires a fine-balanced interplay of regulating factors that individually trigger the fate of particular cells to either stay undifferentiated or to differentiate towards distinct tissue specific lineages. In some cases, these factors act synergistically to promote certain cellular responses, whereas in other tissues the same factors antagonize each other. However, the molecular basis of this obvious dual signaling activity is still only poorly understood...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pengjun Wang, Tengbo Yu, Qiulan Lv, Shaoke Li, Xuexiao Ma, Guanpin Yang, Daxing Xu, Xiu Liu, Guangtao Wang, Zeqing Chen, Shi-Chao Xing
Cell adhesion was the first step of bone reconstruction. While hydroxyapatite (HA)/graphene composites had been utilized for improving the cell adhesion and bone osteogenesis, the impact of cell adhesion and HA/graphene composites, especially HA/hydrophilic graphene (HG) composites, on internal interaction force and external surface properties remained poorly understood. Here, higher stability HA/HG composites were synthesized without extra ion introduction with in situ self-assembling method. And with XRD, FT-IR, XPS and Raman analyses, the evidences of the formation of HA and the introduction of HG was clear...
October 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ronald J van der Sluis, Robin A F Verwilligen, Zsuzsanna Lendvai, Robbert Wever, Menno Hoekstra, Miranda Van Eck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although studies in mice have suggested that lesion regression is feasible, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we determined the impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on atherosclerosis regression outcome. METHODS: Atherosclerotic lesion dynamics were studied upon bone marrow transplantation-mediated re-introduction of apolipoprotein E (Apoe) in Apoe knockout mice. Probucol was used to pharmacologically deplete HDL. RESULTS: Restoration of Apoe function was associated with an initial growth of atherosclerotic lesions and parallel decrease in lesional macrophage foam cell content (47 ± 4% at 4 weeks versus 72 ± 2% at baseline: p < 0...
October 4, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Shen-Fu Lin, Ping-Lun Jiang, Jeng-Shiang Tsai, Yi-You Huang, Shyr-Yi Lin, Jiunn-Horng Lin, Der-Zen Liu
The mucosal immune system is the host's first line of defense against invasion by foreign pathogens. Gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) are suitable carriers for the delivery of antigens via various routes of administration. In the present study, GNPs were modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI), a positively charged polymer. Then, ovalbumin (OVA) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), an immunostimulant, were adsorbed onto the surface of the positively charged GNPs. We assessed whether GNPs could act as an effective mucosal vaccine that is capable of inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Jack E Brooker, Liliana B Camison, Michael R Bykowski, Ethan T Hurley, Saigopalakrishna S Yerneni, Phil G Campbell, Lee E Weiss, Mark P Mooney, James Cray, James R Gilbert, Gregory M Cooper, Joseph E Losee
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) bioprinted on biological matrix induces osseous regeneration in large calvarial defects in rabbits, both uncomplicated and scarred. Healing in unfavorable defects scarred from previous infection is decreased due in part to the lack of vascularity. This impedes the access of mesenchymal stem cells, key to osseous regeneration and the efficacy of BMP2, to the wound bed. The authors hypothesized that bioprinted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) would augment the osseous regeneration achieved with low dose biopatterned BMP2 alone...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mohammed Akhtar, Abdulrazzaq Haider, Sameera Rashid, Ajayeb Dakhilalla M H Al-Nabet
The concept that the pattern of metastatic spread of cancer is not random and that cancer cells exhibit preferences when metastasizing to organs, dates back to 1889 when Steven Paget published his "seed and soil" hypothesis. He proposed that the spread of tumor cells is governed by interaction and cooperation between the cancer cells (seed) and the host organ (soil). Extensive studies during the last several decades have provided a better understanding of the process of metastatic spread of cancer and several stages such as intravasation, extravasation, tumor latency, and development of micrometastasis and macrometastasis have been defined...
October 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Pieter Evenepoel, Kathleen Claes, Björn Meijers, Michaël R Laurent, Bert Bammens, Maarten Naesens, Ben Sprangers, Etienne Cavalier, Dirk Kuypers
The skeletal effects of renal transplantation are not completely understood, especially in patients managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol and long term. We enrolled 69 adult transplant recipients (39 males; ages 51.1 ± 12.2 years), free of antiresorptive therapy and managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol, into a 5-year prospective observational study to evaluate changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), mineral metabolism and bone remodelling. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory parameters of mineral metabolism (including parathyroid hormone, sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor 23) and non-renal cleared bone turnover markers (BTMs) (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, trimeric N-terminal propeptide and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were assessed at baseline and 1 and 5 years post-transplantation...
October 17, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Joy Garrett, Carol H Sampson, P Artur Plett, Robin Crisler, Jeffrey Parker, Richard Venezia, Hui Lin Chua, Debra L Hickman, Catherine Booth, Thomas MacVittie, Christie M Orschell, Joseph R Dynlacht
Several investigators performing bone marrow transplantation studies have previously reported sporadic increases in mortality that were associated with pronounced swelling in the face, head and neck of mice. Over the past few years, we and others have noted an increasing number of experiments in which mice that have received total-body irradiation (TBI) or partial-body irradiation (PBI) develop swollen muzzles, drastic thickening of the upper lip and redness, bruising and/or swelling around the nose and muzzle and sometimes over the top of the head...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
W-D Wang, B-Z Cheng, W-B Kang, R-W Zheng, Y-L Cai, X-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: The occurrence rate of delayed fracture healing in diabetes mellitus patients is high. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is an important regulatory factor in bone tissue repair and regeneration. However, TGF-β1 expression and its function in diabetic patient fracture have not been fully elucidated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Type 2 diabetes fracture patients (T2DM group), fracture patients without diabetes (non-T2DM group), and healthy volunteers (Control group) were selected for the research...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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