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Keita Kashihara, Tomonori Onohata, Yuki Okamoto, Yuya Uji, Susumu Mochizuki, Kazuya Akimitsu, Kenji Gomi
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) plays an important role in defense response and plant development. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of plant responses to JA. In this study, we found that OsNINJA1, which is a JAZ-interacting adaptor protein, plays an important role in JA signaling that is positively regulated by the transcription factor OsMYC2 in rice. The expression of OsNINJA1 was upregulated at an early phase after JA treatment, and OsNINJA1 interacted with several OsJAZ proteins in a C domain-dependent manner...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Razieh Hajisoltani, Seyed Asaad Karimi, Mona Rahdar, Shima Davoudi, Mehdi Borjkhani, Narges Hosseinmardi, Gila Behzadi, Mahyar Janahmadi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which is characterized by impairment in social interaction and cognitive behaviors. However, there is not much electrophysiological data available on alterations of neuronal excitability in autism. Here, we assessed the pattern of neuronal excitability and the possible contribution of Ih current to the altered excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of VPA-induced ASD-like behavior. Pregnant Wistar rats received Valproic Acid (VPA, 500mg/kg) at gestational day 12...
December 8, 2018: Brain Research
Zhuping Jin, Limin Sun, Guangdong Yang, Yanxi Pei
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter in both mammals and plants. H2 S plays important roles in various plant developmental processes and stress responses. Leaf senescence is the last developmental stage and is a sequential degradation process that eventually leads to leaf death. A mutation of the H2 S-producing enzyme-encoding gene L-cysteine desulfhydrase1 ( DES1 ) leads to premature leaf senescence but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this present study, wild-type, DES1 defective mutant ( des1 ) and over-expression ( OE-DES1 ) Arabidopsis plants were used to investigate the underlying mechanism of H2 S signaling in energy production and leaf senescence under drought stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
K Kryściak, J Celichowski, P Krutki, R Raikova, H Drzymała-Celichowska
The sag phenomenon can be observed in fast motor units (MUs) as a transitional decline in force during unfused tetanic contractions; however, its mechanisms are poorly understood. The study aimed to identify in the rat muscle factors that contribute to sag in two types of fast MUs: fast fatigable (FF) and fast resistant to fatigue (FR). First, we performed mathematical decomposition of sagging tetanic contractions of FF and FR MUs into twitch-like responses to consecutive stimuli. This process indicated an increase in the amplitudes of a few initial responses (up to the 2nd-3rd for FF and up to the 2nd-7th for FR MUs), followed by a decrease in the amplitudes of later responses...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Nathalie Goemans
Eteplirsen was approved for the treatment of eligible patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in September 2016 in one of the most, if not the most, controversial approvals ever made by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. Two years later, the Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency gave a negative opinion for eteplirsen treatment. They had done so as well in May 2018, after which Sarepta (the company developing eteplirsen) appealed and a new evaluation was initiated, including a Scientific Advisory Group (SAG) meeting involving DMD experts and patient representatives...
December 11, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Kazim Sahin, Fatih Akdemir, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Hasan Gencoglu, Nurhan Sahin, Ibrahim H Ozercan, Shakir Ali, Ismet Yilmaz, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Zeaxanthin protects the macula from ocular damage due to light or radiation by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species. In the present study, zeaxanthin product (OmniXan®; OMX), derived from paprika pods (Capsicum annum; Family-Solanaceae), was tested for its efficacy in the rat retina against photooxidation. METHODS: Forty-two male 8-week-old Wistar rats exposed to 12L/12D, 16L/8D and 24L/0D hours of intense light conditions were orally administrated either 0 or 100 mg/kg BW of zeaxanthin concentration...
December 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar, Hong-Yan Zhang
Locomotion relies on the coordinated activity of rhythmic neurons in the hindbrain and spinal cord and depends critically on the intrinsic properties of excitatory interneurons. Therefore, understanding how ion channels sculpt the properties of these interneurons, and the consequences for circuit function and behavior, is an important task. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current, Ih, is known to play important roles in shaping neuronal properties and for rhythm generation in many neuronal networks. We show in stage 42 Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles that Ih is strongly expressed only in excitatory descending interneurons (dINs), an important ipsilaterally projecting population that drives swimming activity...
November 15, 2018: Current Biology: CB
A Schmitz, R Korbel, M Rinder
In spring 2014, several wild passeriform garden birds were found severely ill or dead, all with severe periocular swellings. A blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) showing severe depression was humanely destroyed and sent for necropsy examination. In this bird, the lower eyelids were sagging, red and oedematous. Microscopical examination revealed marked infiltration of the eyelid tissue with fungal hyphae (stained by periodic acid-Schiff) without any inflammatory reaction. Polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing identified Mucor racemosus and a so far unknown circovirus...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Zhi-Peng You, Yu-Lan Zhang, Bing-Yang Li, Xin-Gen Zhu, Ke Shi
Purpose: Intricate signaling networks and transcriptional regulators translate pathogen recognition into defense responses. The aim of this study was to identify the weighted genes involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR) in different rodent models of diabetes. Methods: We performed a gene coexpression analysis of publicly available microarray data, namely, the GSE19122 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We conducted gene coexpression analysis on the microarray data to identify modules of functionally related coexpressed genes that are differentially expressed in different rodent models...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rodolfo V Rocha, Derrick Y Tam, Reena Karkhanis, Rashmi Nedadur, Jiming Fang, Jack V Tu, Mario Gaudino, Alistair Royse, Stephen E Fremes
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown better survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with 2 arterial grafts compared with 1. However, whether a third arterial graft is associated with incremental benefit remains uncertain. We sought to analyze the outcomes of 3 versus 2 arterial grafts during CABG. As a secondary objective, we compared CABG with 2 or 3 arterial grafts (multiple arterial grafts [MAG]) with CABG using a single arterial graft (SAG). METHODS: Retrospective cohort analyses of all patients undergoing primary isolated CABG in Ontario, Canada, from October 2008 to March 2016...
November 6, 2018: Circulation
A Ağın, S Kadayıfçılar, H E Sönmez, A Baytaroğlu, S Demir, E Sağ, S Özen, B Eldem
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed ophthalmological examination in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE), including choroidal thickness (ChT), choroidal vascularity index (CVI) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). METHODS: The study included all jSLE patients ( n = 21) diagnosed according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria between January 2017 and April 2017, and an age- and gender-matched control group ( n = 21)...
November 22, 2018: Lupus
C N Ma, X M Peng, S S Wu, D T Zhang, J C Zhao, G L Lu, Y Pan, S J Cui, Y M Liu, W X Shi, M Zhang, Q Y Wang, P Yang
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of super-antigen (SAg) of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), isolated from patients with scarlet fever or pharyngeal infections in Beijing between 2015-2017. Methods: Throat swab specimens from patients with scarlet fever or pharyngeal infections were collected and tested for GAS. Eleven currently known SAg genes including Spe A , spe C , spe G , spe H , spe I , spe J, spe K , spe L , spe M , sme Z and ssa were tested by real-time PCR while M protein genes ( emm genes) were amplified and sequenced by PCR...
October 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Amos Markus, Astar Shamul, Yoav Chemla, Nairouz Farah, Lital Shaham, Ronald S Goldstein, Yossi Mandel
Cell replacement therapy is a promising approach for treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Several protocols for the generation of photoreceptor precursors (PRP) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been reported with variable efficiency. Herein, we show the advantages of use of size-controlled embryoid bodies in the ESC differentiation process using two differentiation protocols. We further explored cell-labeling methods for following the survival of PRP transplanted subretinally in rat eyes. Size-controlled embryoid bodies (EBs) generated using microwell dishes and non-size-controlled EBs generated using V-shaped 96-well plates were differentiated into PRP using two differentiation protocols...
November 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Xin Qin, Qing Jiang, Toshihiro Miyazaki, Toshihisa Komori
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD, #119600), which is characterized by hypoplastic clavicles, open fontanelles, supernumerary teeth, and a short stature, is caused by heterozygous mutations in RUNX2. However, it currently remains unclear why suture closure is severely impaired in CCD patients. The closure of posterior frontal (PF) and sagittal (SAG) sutures was completely interrupted in Runx2+/- mice, and the proliferation of suture mesenchymal cells and their condensation were less than those in wild-type mice...
November 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Wei Wang, Jinyao Gao, Dongming Li, Tao Zhang, Xiaowen Luo, Jinling Wang
The strapdown gravimetry system uses the combination of an Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU) and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to measure the Earth's gravity field. Due to limited accuracies of IMU and GNSS, early strapdown gravimetry systems were more often used in airborne surveys, but less used in marine surveys. We developed a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), the Sea-Air Gravimeter-2Marine (SAG-2M), using novel IMU components, whose accuracy was further improved with the application of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and enhanced algorithm, making it possible to be used in marine gravity survey...
November 12, 2018: Sensors
Courtney E Meilleur, Christine M Wardell, Tina S Mele, Jimmy D Dikeakos, Jack R Bennink, Hong-Hua Mu, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) released by common Gram-positive bacterial pathogens have been reported to delete, anergize or activate mouse T cells. However, little is known about their effects on preexisting memory CD8 + T cell (TCD8) pools. Furthermore, whether SAgs manipulate human memory TCD8 responses to cognate antigens is unknown. We employed a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture system and a non-transgenic mouse model in which the impact of stimulation by two fundamentally distinct SAgs, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen, on influenza- and/or cytomegalovirus-specific memory TCD8 could be monitored...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rongrong Wang, Jie Yang, Ke Guo, Aimei Zhong, Jing Tong, Lingyun Xiong, Jiaming Sun
BACKGROUND: Facial aging is a complex process influencing every layer of the facial structure. Most accepted surgical techniques for facial rejuvenation involve certain manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). Out of these SMAS-based techniques, SMAS plication or suspension provides excellent outcomes with shorter convalescence and fewer potential complications. Herein, we would like to present our own technique combining SMAS plication, periauricular purse-string, and malar fat pad elevation technique for mid and lower facelift...
December 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Murat Can Kiremit, Omer Acar, Alan Alper Sag, Ersin Koseoglu, Mert Kilic, Yakup Kordan, Mevlana Derya Balbay
Background: Seminal vesicle cyst is an extremely rare condition, which is frequently congenital and associated with Zinner's syndrome. This syndrome represents a constellation of seminal vesicle cyst, ipsilateral or contralateral renal agenesis or renal dysplasia, ureteral ectopia, and ejaculatory duct obstruction. We report a young symptomatic patient undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a huge seminal vesicle cyst during which an atrophic ipsilateral kidney was discovered incidentally and managed by nephroureterectomy in the same session without changing trocar positions...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
Hao Zhang, Toshihide Kashihara, Tsutomu Nakada, Satoshi Tanaka, Kumiko Ishida, Satoshi Fuseya, Hiroyuki Kawagishi, Kenkichi Kiyosawa, Mikito Kawamata, Mitsuhiko Yamada
An injury of the somatosensory system causes neuropathic pain, which is usually refractory to conventional analgesics, thus warranting the development of novel drugs against this kind of pain. The mechanism of neuropathic pain in rats that had undergone left L5 spinal nerve transection was analyzed. After 10 days of the surgery, these rats acquired neuropathic pain. The patch-clamp technique was used on the isolated bilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons. The current-clamped neurons on the ipsilateral side exhibited significantly higher excitability than those on the contralateral side...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Maia Datunashvili, Rahul Chaudhary, Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Annika Lüttjohann, Evanthia Mergia, Arnd Baumann, Sabine Balfanz, Björn Budde, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Hans-Christian Pape, Doris Koesling, Thomas Budde
The hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih , plays a key role in the generation of rhythmic activities in thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons. Cyclic nucleotides, like 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), facilitate voltage-dependent activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels by shifting the activation curve of Ih to more positive values and thereby terminating the rhythmic burst activity. The role of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in modulation of Ih is not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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