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Janna Lehnhoff, Ulf Strauss, Stephan Wierschke, Sabine Grosser, Evangelia Pollali, Ulf C Schneider, Martin Holtkamp, Christoph Dehnicke, Rudolf A Deisz
Alterations of the hyperpolarization activated nonselective cation current (Ih ) are associated with epileptogenesis. Accordingly, the second-generation antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG) enhances Ih in rodent hippocampus. We directly evaluated here whether LTG fails to enhance Ih in neocortical slices from patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. With somatic current clamp recordings we observed that LTG depolarized the membrane potential, decreased the input resistance and increased the "sag" in human layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons when confounding IKir was blocked...
October 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sumira Jan, Nazia Abbas, Muhammad Ashraf, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant leaves offer an exclusive windowpane to uncover the changes in organs, tissues, and cells as they advance towards the process of senescence and death. Drought-induced leaf senescence is an intricate process with remarkably coordinated phases of onset, progression, and completion implicated in an extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Advancing leaf senescence remobilizes nutrients to younger leaves thereby contributing to plant fitness. However, numerous mysteries remain unraveled concerning leaf senescence...
October 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Chunmei Liu, Jingfei Cheng, Yili Zhuang, Luhuan Ye, Zijuan Li, Yuejun Wang, Meifang Qi, Yijing Zhang
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)-induced leaf senescence facilitates nutrient reuse and potentially contributes to enhancing plant stress tolerance. However, excessive senescence causes serious reductions in crop yield, and the mechanism by which senescence is finely tuned at different levels is still insufficiently understood. Here, we found that the double mutant of core enzymes of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is hypersensitive to ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana. To elucidate the interplay between ABA and senescence at the genome level, we extensively profiled the transcriptomic and epigenomic changes triggered by ABA...
October 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mutsumi Takahashi, Yogetsu Bando
AIM: Mouthguards can reduce the risk of sports-related injuries but the sheet material and thickness have a large effect on their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the thermoforming technique that moves the model position just before vacuum formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethylene-vinyl-acetate sheets of 4.0-mm thickness and a vacuum forming machine were used. The working model was placed with its anterior rim positioned 40 mm from the front of the forming table...
October 9, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Steven R Ahrendt, C Alisha Quandt, Doina Ciobanu, Alicia Clum, Asaf Salamov, Bill Andreopoulos, Jan-Fang Cheng, Tanja Woyke, Adrian Pelin, Bernard Henrissat, Nicole K Reynolds, Gerald L Benny, Matthew E Smith, Timothy Y James, Igor V Grigoriev
Environmental DNA surveys reveal that most fungal diversity represents uncultured species. We sequenced the genomes of eight uncultured species across the fungal tree of life using a new single-cell genomics pipeline. We show that, despite a large variation in genome and gene space recovery from each single amplified genome (SAG), ≥90% can be recovered by combining multiple SAGs. SAGs provide robust placement for early-diverging lineages and infer a diploid ancestor of fungi. Early-diverging fungi share metabolic deficiencies and show unique gene expansions correlated with parasitism and unculturability...
October 8, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Mario Gaudino, Mohamed Rahouma, Ahmed Abouarab, Derrick Y Tam, Antonino Di Franco, Jeremy Leonard, Umberto Benedetto, Mario Iannaccone, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Michael Vallely, Leonard N Girardi, Stephen E Fremes, David P Taggart
Relative benefits of coronary artery bypass (CABG) using single and multiple arterial grafting (SAG, MAG) and drug eluting stent (DES) in multivessel coronary disease remain uncertain. We compared SAG, MAG, and DES in a pairwise and network meta-analysis. Randomized trials and adjusted observational studies comparing CABG versus DES were included (primary end point: long-term mortality; secondary end points: operative mortality, perioperative stroke, and follow-up repeated revascularization [RR]). Studies with ≥1...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ruiquan Qi, Blaine A Pfeifer, Guojian Zhang
Salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucoside (SAG) is a plant-derived natural product with potential utility as both an anti-inflammatory and as a plant protectant compound. Heterologous biosynthesis of SAG has been established in Escherichia coli through metabolic engineering of the shikimate pathways and introduction of a heterologous biosynthetic step to allow a more directed route to the salicylate precursor. The final SAG compound resulted from the separate introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana glucosyltransferase enzyme...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
T-T Huang, K-H Cheng, C-J Chang, K-C Chen, J-K Liu, T-Y Wong
Transoral vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO) has been condemned because the condyle has the potential to sag, and because it needs lengthy maxillomandibular fixation. We have therefore introduced a simple method of fixation, and examined its effectiveness and complications. After the osteotomy, the proximal and distal segments are trimmed to adapt to each other. Four Kirschner (K) pins 0.9mm in diameter are inserted percutaneously from the proximal to the distal segment while the condyle is positioned in the glenoid fossa...
October 4, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Meral Kayikcioglu, Lale Tokgozoglu, Volkan Dogan, Ceyhun Ceyhan, Abdullah Tuncez, Merih Kutlu, Ersel Onrat, Gokhan Alici, Mehmet Akbulut, Ahmet Celik, Dilek Yesilbursa, Tayfun Sahin, Alper Sonmez, Oner Ozdogan, Ahmet Temizhan, Salih Kilic, Fahri Bayram, Tevfik Sabuncu, Fatma Yilmaz Coskun, Muge Ildizli, Emre Durakoglugil, Bahadir Kirilmaz, Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz, Zerrin Yigit, Aytul Belgi Yildirim, Omer Gedikli, Selim Topcu, Aytekin Oğuz, Mesut Demir, Mustafa Yenerçağ, Aylin Yıldırır, Sabri Demircan, Mehmet Yilmaz, Leyla Gul Kaynar, Melih Aktan, Rana Berru Durmus, Cumali Gokce, Osman İlhami Ozcebe, Tulay Karaagac Akyol, Harika Okutan, Saim Sag, Ozen Oz Gul, Zafer Salcioglu, Bülent Behlul Altunkeser, Irfan Kuku, Hurriyet Yilmaz Yasar, Erdal Kurtoglu, Melis Demir Kose, Sinan Demircioglu, Zafer Pekkolay, Osman Ilhan, Levent H Can
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disease of high-level cholesterol leading to premature atherosclerosis. One of the key aspects to overcome FH burden is the generation of large-scale reliable data in terms of registries. This manuscript underlines the important results of nation-wide Turkish FH registries (A-HIT1 and A-HIT2). METHODS: A-HIT1 is a survey of homozygous FH patients undergoing low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis (LA)...
October 2018: Atherosclerosis
Leonardo Colombo, Andi Abeshi, Paolo E Maltese, Vladimir Frecer, Jan Miertuš, Davide Cerra, Matteo Bertelli, Luca Rossetti
Oguchi disease, is a very rare form of night blindness caused by biallelic variations in the SAG or GRK1 genes, both involved in rod restoration after light stimuli. Here we report the clinical and genetic findings of an 8-year old boy with a history of reduced visual acuity, nyctalpia and hemeralopia. Clinical findings, in particular the Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon, were compatible with a diagnosis of Oguchi disease. Genetic testing revealed a novel missense homozygous variation in the SAG gene. This is the first evidence that the disease can be caused by missense variations in this gene...
September 27, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Elif Sağ, Güneş Işık, Alper Han Çebi, Mukaddes Kalyoncu, Murat Çakır, Sema Aydoğdu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Katarzyna Obszańska, Izabella Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabela Sitkiewicz
Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) is Gram-positive bacteria responsible for a number of purulent human infections such as brain and liver abscesses, which have been on the rise for last few decades. Although some virulence factors of SAG are described, they are mostly undefined and there are almost no methods for genetic manipulations of clinical SAG. Therefore, we presented various approaches to produce engineered strains of this poorly known group of streptococci. We developed a procedure of transformation characterized by transformation efficiency at the level of 104 per 1 μg DNA for certain strains...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Nuray Bayar Muluk, Fazilet Altın, Cemal Cingi
Objectives Our intention was to review all material published to date regarding superantigens (SAgs) and allergy from an otorhinolaryngological viewpoint to understand this association more clearly. Methods We identified all materials published mentioning both SAg and allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis (AD) that are indexed on PubMed, Google, or the ProQuest Central databases. Results Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen in humans and has the ability to produce enterotoxins with superantigenic features...
September 25, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Thomas Cossuet, Hervé Roussel, Jean-Michel Chauveau, Odette Chaix-Pluchery, Jean-Luc Thomassin, Estelle Appert, Vincent Consonni
Controlling the formation of ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays on a wide variety of substrates is crucial for their efficient integration into nanoscale devices. While their nucleation and growth by chemical bath deposition (CBD) have intensively been investigated on non-polar and polar c-plane ZnO surfaces, their formation on alternatively oriented ZnO surfaces has not been addressed yet. In this work, the standard CBD technique of ZnO is investigated on [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] semipolar ZnO single crystal surfaces...
November 23, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ling Wan, Boling Deng, Zhengzheng Wu, Xiaoming Chen
Background: High myopia is a common ocular disease worldwide. To expand our current understanding of the genetic basis of high myopia, we carried out a whole exome sequencing (WES) study to identify potential causal gene mutations. Methods: A total of 20 individuals with high myopia were exome sequenced. A novel filtering strategy combining phenotypes and functional impact of variants was applied to identify candidate genes by multi-step bioinformatics analyses...
2018: PeerJ
Lalehan Ozalp, Safiye Sağ Erdem, Başak Yüce-Dursun, Özal Mutlu, Mehmet Özbil
Phthalocyanines are considered as good DNA binders, which makes them promising anti-tumor drug leads. The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between DNA and quaternary metallophthalocyanine derivatives (Q-MPc) possessing varying metals (M = Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mg and Ca) by molecular docking since there seems to be a lack of information in the literature regarding this issue. In this direction, Autodock Vina and Molegro Virtual Docker programs were employed. Autodock Vina results reveal that each Q-MPc derivative binds to DNA strongly with similar binding energies and almost identical binding modes...
September 13, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Guang Chen, Chao Wu, Lei He, Zhennan Qiu, Sen Zhang, Yu Zhang, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng, Jiang Hu, Deyong Ren, Qian Qian, Li Zhu
Improving a plant's level of tolerance to oxidative stress can frequently also enhance its tolerance to several other abiotic stresses. Here, a screen of a japonica type rice T-DNA insertion mutant library identified a highly oxidative stress-sensitive mutant. The line exhibited premature leaf senescence, starting at the three-leaf stage, and the symptoms were particularly severe from the five-leaf stage onwards. The leaves progressively lost chlorophyll, suffered protein degradation and were compromised with respect to their photosynthetic activity; their leaf mesophyll and bulliform cells became shrunken, and several senescence-associated genes ( SAG s), senescence-associated transcription factor genes ( SATF s) and autophagy-related genes ( ATG s) were progressively up-regulated...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Torunn Gresdal Rønning, Christina Gabrielsen Aas, Ragnhild Støen, Kåre Bergh, Jan Egil Afset, Mari Sagli Holte, Andreas Radtke
AIM: Klebsiella spp. have been stated to be the most frequent cause of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreaks. We report an outbreak of Klebsiella oxytoca in a NICU at a tertiary care hospital in Norway between April 2016 and April 2017. This study describes the outbreak, infection control measures undertaken and the molecular methods developed. METHODS: The outbreak prompted detailed epidemiological and microbial investigations, where whole genome sequencing (WGS) was particularly useful for both genotyping and development of two new K...
September 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Kursat Bora Carman, Mustafa Calik, Yasemin Karal, Sedat Isikay, Ozan Kocak, Aysima Ozcelik, Ahmet Sami Yazar, Cagatay Nuhoglu, Cigdem Sag, Omer Kilic, Meltem Dinleyici, Sibel Lacinel Gurlevik, Sevgi Yimenicioglu, Arzu Ekici, Peren Perk, Ayse Tosun, Ilhan Isik, Coskun Yarar, Didem Arslantas, Ener Cagri Dinleyici
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is the most common childhood neurological disorder, is an important health problem with potential short- and long-term complications, also leading to economic burden and increased parental anxiety about fevers and seizures occurring in their children. There are no routine recommendation to detect etiological causes of FS for neurological perspective, further knowledge about the etiological causes of FS in children will support preventive measures and follow-up strategies...
September 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Lara M Jochum, Lars Schreiber, Ian P G Marshall, Bo B Jørgensen, Andreas Schramm, Kasper U Kjeldsen
Desulfatiglans -related organisms comprise one of the most abundant deltaproteobacterial lineages in marine sediments where they occur throughout the sediment column in a gradient of increasing sulfate and organic carbon limitation with depth. Characterized Desulfatiglans isolates are dissimilatory sulfate reducers able to grow by degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. The ecophysiology of environmental Desulfatiglans -populations is poorly understood, however, possibly utilization of aromatic compounds may explain their predominance in marine subsurface sediments...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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