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Cellulosic ethanol

Ramin Raoufinia, Sanaz Balkani, Neda Keyhanvar, Behroz Mahdavipor, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
BACKGROUND: Among different proteins of blood, albumin is considered a unique protein due to having special properties. Now, various protocols are used for the albumin purification worldwide, each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Meanwhile, a common method which is often used for the production of albumin is a combination of Cohn along with different types of chromatography. The aim of the present study was to create a concise and cost-effective albumin purification method by employing a conventional method with some modifications...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Yuniar Devi Utami, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Katsura Igai, Takumi Murakami, Kaito Sugaya, Takahiro Morikawa, Yuichi Nagura, Masahiro Yuki, Pinsurang Deevong, Tetsushi Inoue, Kumiko Kihara, Nathan Lo, Akinori Yamada, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
We investigated the phylogenetic diversity, localisation and metabolism of an uncultured bacterial clade, Termite Group 2 (TG2), or ZB3, in the termite gut, which belongs to the candidate phylum 'Margulisbacteria'. We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis and detected TG2/ZB3 sequences in 40 out of 72 termite and cockroach species, which exclusively constituted a monophyletic cluster in the TG2/ZB3 clade. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis in lower termites revealed that these bacteria are specifically attached to ectosymbiotic spirochetes of oxymonad gut protists...
October 4, 2018: ISME Journal
Meng Hu, Hua Yu, Yu Li, Ao Li, Qiuming Cai, Peng Liu, Yuanyuan Tu, Yanting Wang, Ruofei Hu, Bo Hao, Liangcai Peng, Tao Xia
In this study, liquid hot water (LHW) and chemical (H2 SO4 , NaOH, CaO) pretreatments were performed in Saccharum species including sugarcane bagasse. In comparison, the LHW and CaO pretreatments significantly enhanced biomass enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to much high bioethanol yield obtained at 19% (% dry matter) with an almost complete hexoses-ethanol conversion in the desirable So5 bagasse sample. Despite the LHW and CaO are distinctive for extracting hemicellulose and lignin, both pretreatments largely reduced cellulose degree of polymerization for enhanced lignocellulose enzymatic saccharification...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jungang Zhou, Peixia Zhu, Xiaoyue Hu, Hong Lu, Yao Yu
Background: Taking into account its thermotolerance, high growth rate, and broad substrate spectrum, Kluyveromyces marxianus can be considered an ideal consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). A major obstacle to ethanol production using K. marxianus is the low production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which reduces the cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production. Thus, further improvement of enzyme expression and secretion is essential. Results: To improve the expression of lignocellulolytic enzymes, the inulinase promoter and signal sequence from K...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tobias Bruegmann, Hendrik Wetzel, Kay Hettrich, Annika Smeds, Stefan Willför, Birgit Kersten, Matthias Fladung
Poplar trees displayed an increased plant height due to the transgenic knockdown of PCBER1, a gene of lignan biosynthesis. The wood composition was slightly altered in both overexpression and knockdown lines. The gene PHENYLCOUMARAN BENZYLIC ETHER REDUCTASE1 (PCBER1) is well known as an important gene in the synthesis of lignans, a group of diverse phenylpropanoid derivatives. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and may have a role in both plant defense and growth regulation. To analyze its role in biomass formation and wood composition in poplar, both overexpression and knockdown approaches have been performed...
September 29, 2018: Planta
Sania Asif, Sitwat Mudassir, Rabia Sajjad Toor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the histological effects of Nigella sativa on kidneys against aspirin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Anatomy Department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups A, B, C and D of eight animals each. Group A (control) was provided with single oral dose of 10 mg/100 gm body weight of 1% methyl cellulose...
October 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Jacob Teter, Sonia Yeh, Madhu Khanna, Göran Berndes
Biofuels policies induce land use changes (LUC), including cropland expansion and crop switching, and this in turn alters water and soil management practices. Policies differ in the extent and type of land use changes they induce and therefore in their impact on water resources. We quantify and compare the spatially varying water impacts of biofuel crops stemming from LUC induced by two different biofuels policies by coupling a biophysical model with an economic model to simulate the economically viable mix of crops, land uses, and crop management choices under alternative policy scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Seonghun Kim
Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) is a renewable resource in oil palm plantations that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance ethanol productivity with high-lignin-content EPFBF, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min). The delignification yield was 55.4-56.9%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 2.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of EPFBF were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased...
2018: BioMed Research International
Sven F Plappert, Jean-Marie Nedelec, Harald Rennhofer, Helga C Lichtenegger, Sigrid Bernstorff, Falk W Liebner
Assembly of (bio)polymers into long-range anisotropic nanostructured gels and aerogels is of great interest in advanced material engineering since it enables directional tuning of properties, such as diffusivity, light, heat and sound propagation, cell proliferation and mechanical properties. Here we present an approach towards anisotropic cellulose II gels and aerogels that employs specific diffusion and phase separation phenomena occurring during decelerated infusion of an antisolvent into isotropic supercooled solutions of cellulose in an ionic liquid to effectuate supra-molecular assembly of cellulose in anisotropic colloidal network structures...
September 25, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Fei Chen, Linwu Ran, Jia Mi, Yamei Yan, Lu Lu, Bo Jin, Xiaoying Li, Youlong Cao
Modern studies have shown that pollen has a certain role in the treatment of prostate-related diseases. In the present study, pollen polysaccharides from Chinese wolfberry (WPPs) were extracted by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 column. Homogeneous polysaccharide CF1 of WPPS was obtained, the molecular weight of which was estimated to be 1540.10 ± 48.78 kDa by HPGPC-ELSD. HPLC with PMP derivatization analysis indicated that the monosaccharide compositions of CF1 were mannose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, xylose, galactose, arabinose, and trehalose, in a molar ratio of 0...
September 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jianxin Zhang, Lei Zhou
Making use of the sol-gel technique, an optical pH sensor was prepared, which was made from an organic carrier with four indictors including congo red, bromophenol blue, cresol red, and chlorophenol red, cross-linked by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and cellulose acetate. The actual detection range of the optical pH sensor is 2.5⁻11.0. The optimal ratio of ethyl orthosilicate, absolute ethanol, deionized water, and hydrochloric acid in glue precursor of the sensor-sensitive membrane was explored. The orthogonal experiment was designed to optimize the dosage of cellulose acetate, N , N -dimethylformamide (DMF), indicator, hydrochloric acid, and precursor glue in preparing the sensor-sensitive membrane...
September 21, 2018: Sensors
Priscilla Vergara, Miguel Ladero, Felix García-Ochoa, Juan C Villar
Ethanol-water (EW) and diluted sulfuric acid (DSA) pre-treatment have been studied for lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover, Cynara cardunculus L. stems and wheat straw). Both pre-treatments have been compared taken into account: solids recovery, glucans recovery, xylans removed, delignification and glucose yield. In all cases, the amount of energy involved has been taken as a criterion for sustainability. In general terms, EW is more efficient to remove lignin and DSA more appropriate to hydrolysate xylans...
September 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Lingchong Wang, Liye Chen, Junsong Li, Liuqing Di, Hao Wu
The marine clam Meretrix meretrix was subjected to extraction with a combined procedure of water decoction, ethanol precipitation, and deproteinization to yield a water-soluble polysaccharide coded as MMP. The product was fractionated with DEAE-52 cellulose and resulted in two soluble fractions designated as MMP-2 and -3. The structures of the fractions were determined by chemical and physicochemical analysis, and their immunomodulation activities and cytokine production were assayed by lymphopoiesis. Results showed that MMP-2 and -3 were glucomannan and glucogalactan homologs, respectively...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Huaizhong Xu, Tilman Bronner, Masaki Yamamoto, Hideki Yamane
A "green" and highly efficient route was proposed to fabricate ultrafine cellulose fibers. The processing steps include cellulose dissolution, gel preparation, melt-electrospinning and fiber coagulation. High DP cellulose can be easily dissolved in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) when the blend was stirred at 110 °C for 2 h. The maximum solubility can reach up to 16.7 wt%. A homogeneous ternary cellulose/BmimCl/ethanol or cellulose/BmimCl/water gel was made by the methods of crystallization and casting for the purpose of fixing the shape of the cellulose/BmimCl solution...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jinbao Li, Rui Cheng, Huijuan Xiu, Meiyun Zhang, Qiang Liu, Te Song, Huiling Dong, Bin Yao, Xuefei Zhang, Evguenii Kozliak, Yun Ji
Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-based foam materials have broad prospects in replacing traditional foams, due to its facile natural biodegradation. This study addressed the relationship between the foam preparation process parameters and resulting pore structure. An aqueous NFC suspension was freeze-dried while adding an organic solvent, ethanol, to adjust the curing process. The effects of the solid content and freeze-drying temperature on the microstructure and mechanical stability as well as heat transfer performance of the produced NFC-based foam were investigated...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Katarzyna Robak, Maria Balcerek
In the context of climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels, there is a great need for alternatives to petroleum in the transport sector. This review provides an overview of the production of second generation bioethanol, which is distinguished from the first generation and subsequent generations of biofuels by its use of lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. The structural components of the lignocellulosic biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, are presented along with technological unit steps including pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration...
June 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Rodrigo José Gomes, Maria de Fatima Borges, Morsyleide de Freitas Rosa, Raúl Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez, Wilma Aparecida Spinosa
The group of Gram-negative bacteria capable of oxidising ethanol to acetic acid is called acetic acid bacteria (AAB). They are widespread in nature and play an important role in the production of food and beverages, such as vinegar and kombucha. The ability to oxidise ethanol to acetic acid also allows the unwanted growth of AAB in other fermented beverages, such as wine, cider, beer and functional and soft beverages, causing an undesirable sour taste. These bacteria are also used in the production of other metabolic products, for example, gluconic acid, l-sorbose and bacterial cellulose, with potential applications in the food and biomedical industries...
June 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Tao Li, Sudhakar Takkellapati
Technical lignins are bulk feedstocks. They are generated as byproducts from pulping or cellulosic ethanol production. Since lignin undergoes significant structural changes in the chemical and physical treatments, all technical lignins are unique in terms of chemical structure, molecular weight, polydispersity, and impurity profile. Kraft lignin is potentially the largest source of technical lignin as new isolation technologies have been implemented on industrial scale in recent years. Lignosulfonate has been an integral product in sulfite pulping biorefinery...
July 18, 2018: Biofuels, bioproducts & biorefining: Biofpr
Yuan Wei, Linwei Wang, Dujun Wang, Dan Wang, Chongwei Wen, Bangxin Han, Zhen Ouyang
Background: Polysaccharides are carbohydrate chains composed of linked monosaccharide units. Accumulating studies report that polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium officinale have a variety of functions. However, the composition and anti-tumor activity of D. officinale grown in the Huoshan area are largely unknown. Methods: A polysaccharide (DOPA-1) was isolated from D. officinale by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by purification via DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Shousei Kouzuma, Katsuhiko Fujii
Cellulose is one of the major constituents of seaweeds, but reports of mechanisms in microbial seaweed degradation in marine environment are limited, in contrast to the multitude of reports for lignocellulose degradation in terrestrial environment. We studied the biochemical characteristics for marine cellulolytic bacterium Gilvimarinus japonicas 12-2T in seaweed degradation. The bacterial strain was found to degrade green and red algae, but not brown algae. It was shown that the bacterial strain employs various polysaccharide hydrolases (endocellulase, agarase, carrageenanase, xylanase, and laminarinase) to degrade seaweed polysaccharides...
September 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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