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Cellulosic ethanol

N Nunes, S Valente, S Ferraz, Maria Carmo Barreto, M A A Pinheiro de Carvalho
The main goal of the present work was to determine the nutraceutical potential of Asparagopsis taxiformis D. extracts from Madeira Archipelago south coast. Extraction methodologies consisted either/or in 72 hours stirring, at room temperature (M1), or 6 cycles of Soxhlet extraction (M2), both with re-extraction. Solvents used were distilled water, ethanol, methanol and ethyl acetate. M1 allowed to obtain the highest values for extraction yield (31.65 g.100g-1 dw) using water, whereas iodine content (3.37 g...
November 2018: Heliyon
Ye Yuan, Rui Zhai, Ying Li, Xiangxue Chen, Mingjie Jin
Background: Although various pre-treatment methods have been developed to disrupt the structure of lignocellulosic biomass, high dosage of cellulases is still required to hydrolyze lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Enzyme recycling via recycling unhydrolyzed solids after enzymatic hydrolysis is a promising strategy to reduce enzyme loading for production of cellulosic ethanol. Results: To develop effective enzyme recycling method via recycling unhydrolyzed solids, this work investigated both enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics and enzyme adsorption kinetics on dilute acid and dilute alkali pre-treated corn stover (CS)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Leonidas Matsakas, Vijayendran Raghavendran, Olga Yakimenko, Gustav Persson, Eva Olsson, Ulrika Rova, Lisbeth Olsson, Paul Christakopoulos
For a transition to a sustainable society, fuels, chemicals, and materials should be produced from renewable resources. Lignocellulosic biomass constitutes an abundant and renewable feedstock; however, its successful application in a biorefinery requires efficient fractionation into its components; cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Here, we demonstrate that a newly established hybrid organosolv - steam explosion pretreatment can effectively fractionate spruce biomass to yield pretreated solids with high cellulose (72% w/w) and low lignin (delignification up to 79...
November 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sophia Infanger, Alexander Haemmerli, Simona Iliev, Andrea Baier, Edmont Stoyanov, Julian Quodbach
3D-printing is a promising tool to pave the way to the widespread adaption of individualized medicine. Several printing techniques have been investigated and introduced to pharmaceutical research. Until now, only one 3D-printed medicine is approved on the US market. The medicine is manufactured via drop-on-powder deposition, which uses inkjet printing to jet a liquid binder on a powder bed to create 3D objects. However, inkjet processes are prone to nozzle clogging when binders or active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are included in the printing ink...
November 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hongdan Zhang, Weiqi Wei, Jiajie Zhang, Shihang Huang, Jun Xie
Background: The recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic biomass made it challenging for their bioconversion into biofuels and biochemicals. Pretreatment was required to deconstruct the intact structure by the removal of hemicellulose/lignin, improving the cellulose accessibility of enzyme. Combinatorial pretreatments with liquid hot water/H2 SO4 and ethanol/NaOH of sugarcane bagasse were developed to improve enzymatic hydrolysis under mild conditions. Results: After one-step 60% ethanol containing 0...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaoyan Tan, Ling Chen, Xiaoxi Li, Fengwei Xie
This work investigates the effect of different anti-solvents (water, ethanol, or both water and ethanol) on the characteristics of cellulose dissolved and then generated from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]). Compared with original microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) granules, all regenerated celluloses showed a homogeneous, agglomerated macromorphology and had its crystalline structure transformed from original cellulose I to cellulose II. The regenerated cellulose using water (43.3%) had a higher degree of crystallinity than that using ethanol (13...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Stefania Costa, Irene Rugiero, Christian Larenas Uria, Paola Pedrini, Elena Tamburini
Valuable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of effective pretreatments for lignocellulose degradation and enzymes for saccharification. Among the nowadays available treatments, chemical delignification represents a promising alternative to physical-mechanical treatments. Banana is one of the most important fruit crops around the world. After harvesting, it generates large amounts of rachis, a lignocellulosic residue, that could be used for second generation ethanol production, via saccharification and fermentation...
November 9, 2018: Biomolecules
Marcelo A da Silva, Vincenzo Calabrese, Julien Schmitt, Duygu Celebi, Janet L Scott, Karen J Edler
Solvent-induced physical hydrogels of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (OCNFs) were obtained from aqueous/alcoholic dispersions of fibrils in lower alcohols, namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol. The sol-gel transition occurs above a critical alcohol concentration of ca. 30 wt% for all alcohols tested. The rheological properties of the hydrogels depend on the nature of the alcohol: for ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol the magnitude of the shear storage modulus follows the alcohol hydrophilicity, whilst methanol produces the weakest gels in the group...
November 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Mesfin Geberekidan, Jian Zhang, Z Lewis Liu, Jie Bao
A low-cost and sustainable cellulosic ethanol production is vital for fermentation-based industrial applications. Reducing the expenses of cellulose-deconstruction enzymes is one of the significant challenges to economic cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. Here, we report the improved ethanol production from corn stover after dry biorefining using a natural β-glucosidase-producing strain Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 with a low cellulase dose of 5 mg protein/g glucan under separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) conditions...
November 8, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Gustavo Pagotto Borin, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira
The biomass-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei has been considered a model for cellulose degradation, and it is the primary source of the industrial enzymatic cocktails used in second-generation (2G) ethanol production. However, although various studies and advances have been conducted to understand the cellulolytic system and the transcriptional regulation of T. reesei , the whole set of genes related to lignocellulose degradation has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we inferred a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the transcriptome dataset of the T...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Li Tan, Hiroto Nishimura, Yan-Fang Wang, Zhao-Yong Sun, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida, Shigeru Morimura
Thermophilic methane fermentation was a valid approach for handling the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation of waste paper and kitchen waste. The wide organic loading rate (OLR) range (2-14 g VTS/(L d)) for stable performance and relatively high energy recovery efficiency (79.0%) were achieved, and OLR of 8 g VTS/(L d) was optimum for achievement of highest biogas evolution and VTS removal efficiency. Microbial community analysis revealed that hydrolysis of cellulose was the critical step for methane production from the stillage...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Daejun Oh, Eun-Bum Cho, In-Gu Lee, Young-Kwon Park
Lignocellulosic biomass, principally consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a main renewable source for the production of biofuels and valuable chemicals. For instance, the polyaromatic structure of lignin fraction of biomass makes it a high potential feedstock for the production of valuable aromatic chemicals such as phenolic compounds. In this work, selective conversion of the organosolv lignin-derived pyrolyzates to alkylphenols was carried out using Ce-MCM-41 as In-Situ catalyst. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of the organosolv lignin was carried out on a tandem micro-pyrolyzer coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detectors...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jianping Yan, Yanrong Liu, Kexin Wang, Dayong Li, Qingquan Hu, Wanjun Zhang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a herbaceous cellulosic biofuel plant with broad adaptability. However, the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass and limited land for switchgrass planting hinder its utilization as feedstock for biofuel ethanol production. The OsPIL1 (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE 1) gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Its expression is induced by light, which facilitated the expression of cell wall-related genes, promoted cell elongation and resulted in longer internode in rice...
November 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ramin Raoufinia, Sanaz Balkani, Neda Keyhanvar, Behroz Mahdavipor, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
BACKGROUND: Among different proteins of blood, albumin is considered a unique protein due to having special properties. Now, various protocols are used for the albumin purification worldwide, each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Meanwhile, a common method which is often used for the production of albumin is a combination of Cohn along with different types of chromatography. The aim of the present study was to create a concise and cost-effective albumin purification method by employing a conventional method with some modifications...
2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Yuniar Devi Utami, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Katsura Igai, Takumi Murakami, Kaito Sugaya, Takahiro Morikawa, Yuichi Nagura, Masahiro Yuki, Pinsurang Deevong, Tetsushi Inoue, Kumiko Kihara, Nathan Lo, Akinori Yamada, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
We investigated the phylogenetic diversity, localisation and metabolism of an uncultured bacterial clade, Termite Group 2 (TG2), or ZB3, in the termite gut, which belongs to the candidate phylum 'Margulisbacteria'. We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis and detected TG2/ZB3 sequences in 40 out of 72 termite and cockroach species, which exclusively constituted a monophyletic cluster in the TG2/ZB3 clade. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis in lower termites revealed that these bacteria are specifically attached to ectosymbiotic spirochetes of oxymonad gut protists...
October 4, 2018: ISME Journal
Meng Hu, Hua Yu, Yu Li, Ao Li, Qiuming Cai, Peng Liu, Yuanyuan Tu, Yanting Wang, Ruofei Hu, Bo Hao, Liangcai Peng, Tao Xia
In this study, liquid hot water (LHW) and chemical (H2 SO4 , NaOH, CaO) pretreatments were performed in Saccharum species including sugarcane bagasse. In comparison, the LHW and CaO pretreatments significantly enhanced biomass enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to much high bioethanol yield obtained at 19% (% dry matter) with an almost complete hexoses-ethanol conversion in the desirable So5 bagasse sample. Despite the LHW and CaO are distinctive for extracting hemicellulose and lignin, both pretreatments largely reduced cellulose degree of polymerization for enhanced lignocellulose enzymatic saccharification...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jungang Zhou, Peixia Zhu, Xiaoyue Hu, Hong Lu, Yao Yu
Background: Taking into account its thermotolerance, high growth rate, and broad substrate spectrum, Kluyveromyces marxianus can be considered an ideal consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). A major obstacle to ethanol production using K. marxianus is the low production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which reduces the cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production. Thus, further improvement of enzyme expression and secretion is essential. Results: To improve the expression of lignocellulolytic enzymes, the inulinase promoter and signal sequence from K...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tobias Bruegmann, Hendrik Wetzel, Kay Hettrich, Annika Smeds, Stefan Willför, Birgit Kersten, Matthias Fladung
Poplar trees displayed an increased plant height due to the transgenic knockdown of PCBER1, a gene of lignan biosynthesis. The wood composition was slightly altered in both overexpression and knockdown lines. The gene PHENYLCOUMARAN BENZYLIC ETHER REDUCTASE1 (PCBER1) is well known as an important gene in the synthesis of lignans, a group of diverse phenylpropanoid derivatives. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and may have a role in both plant defense and growth regulation. To analyze its role in biomass formation and wood composition in poplar, both overexpression and knockdown approaches have been performed...
September 29, 2018: Planta
Sania Asif, Sitwat Mudassir, Rabia Sajjad Toor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the histological effects of Nigella sativa on kidneys against aspirin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Anatomy Department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups A, B, C and D of eight animals each. Group A (control) was provided with single oral dose of 10 mg/100 gm body weight of 1% methyl cellulose...
October 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Jacob Teter, Sonia Yeh, Madhu Khanna, Göran Berndes
Biofuels policies induce land use changes (LUC), including cropland expansion and crop switching, and this in turn alters water and soil management practices. Policies differ in the extent and type of land use changes they induce and therefore in their impact on water resources. We quantify and compare the spatially varying water impacts of biofuel crops stemming from LUC induced by two different biofuels policies by coupling a biophysical model with an economic model to simulate the economically viable mix of crops, land uses, and crop management choices under alternative policy scenarios...
2018: PloS One
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