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Hepatitis AND Immunomod*

Roy R Ye, Drew R Peterson, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Helmut Segner, Frauke Seemann, Doris W T Au
Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) are present ubiquitously in sediments and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. The detrimental impact of EEDCs on the reproduction of wildlife is widely recognized. Increasing evidence shows the immunosuppressive effects of EEDCs in vertebrates. Yet, no studies have considered concomitantly EEDC-induced impacts on reproductive impairment and immune suppression in vivo, which are deemed essential for risk assessment and environmental monitoring. In this study, EE2 was used as a representative EEDC, for parallel evaluation of EEDC-induced immune suppression (immune marker gene expression, leukocyte numbers, host resistance assay, and immune competence index) and reproductive impairment (estrogen responsive gene expression, fecundity, fertilization success, hatching success, and reproductive competence index) in an established fish model (marine medaka Oryzias melastigma), considering sex-specific induction and adaptation and recovery responses under different EE2 exposure scenarios...
July 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jiradej Makjaroen, Poorichaya Somparn, Kenneth Hodge, Witthaya Poomipak, Nattiya Hirankarn, Trairak Pisitkun
Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a relatively unexplored, yet promising anti-viral agent. IFN-λ has recently been tested in clinical trials of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), with the advantage that side effects may be limited compared with IFN-α, as IFN-λ receptors are found only in epithelial cells. To date, IFN-λ's downstream signaling pathway remains largely unelucidated, particularly via proteomics methods. Here, we report that IFN-λ3 inhibits HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells, reducing levels of both HBV transcripts and intracellular HBV DNA...
August 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Marzieh Basirnejad, Azam Bolhassani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat
Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) is known as a serious blood-borne disease that infects millions of people globally. NS3 is a conserved non-structural sequence of hepatitis C virus which has a major role in activating specific CTL responses. As known, there is no effective vaccine against HCV infection, thus it is required to design a specific regimen of vaccination. Recently, the strong immunological properties of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) led to their use as immunomodulators and an antigen carrier for subunit vaccine candidates...
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Wenfeng Zeng, Lingtao Jin, Fayun Zhang, Chunling Zhang, Wei Liang
Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid that possesses various biological activities, has emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of a variety of diseases. Studies using cell culture system have shown that naringenin can inhibit inflammatory response in diverse cell types. Moreover, research using various animal models has further demonstrated therapeutic potentials of naringenin in the treatment of several inflammation-related disorders, such as sepsis, fulminant hepatitis, fibrosis and cancer. The mechanism of action of naringenin is not completely understood but recent mechanistic studies revealed that naringenin suppresses inflammatory cytokine production through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
August 3, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ludovico Abenavoli, Angelo A Izzo, Natasa Milić, Carla Cicala, Antonello Santini, Raffaele Capasso
Milk thistle (MT; Silybum marianum), a member of the Asteraceae family, is a therapeutic herb with a 2,000-year history of use. MT fruits contain a mixture of flavonolignans collectively known as silymarin, being silybin (also named silibinin) the main component. This article reviews the chemistry of MT, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, the pharmacologically relevant actions for liver diseases (e.g., anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antioxidant, and liver-regenerating properties) as well as the clinical potential in patients with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, and mushroom poisoning...
August 6, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sasha Deutsch-Link, Danielle Fortuna, Ethan M Weinberg
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas amid healthy tissue. While most commonly affecting the mediastinum and/or lungs, sarcoid can also affect the liver, resulting in "hepatic sarcoid." The spectrum of disease in hepatic sarcoid is variable, ranging from asymptomatic or mild liver enzyme abnormalities to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. Because clinically-significant hepatic sarcoid is rare, research on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment is limited...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Lei Liu, Mengmeng Jin, Qing Tao, Li Yu, Jian Du, Cong Wang, Qingli Luo, Tian Xing, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen, Deyong Chu
Our previous investigations indicated that in vitro polarization of mouse macrophages by Toxoplasma gondii type II strain dense granule protein 15 (GRA15 II ), one of the genotype-associated effectors of T. gondii , induced the phenotypes of classically activated macrophage (M1). Transfusion of the cells to mice may effectively alleviated hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis. The purpose of the study was to identify whether liver macrophages can be in vivo driven to M1 macrophages by lentiviral vector (LV) carrying GRA15 II gene (LV- gra15 II ) and to explore the potential mechanism by which the LV- gra15 II -activated liver macrophage (LV- gra15 II -M) ameliorates the hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Belbézier, E Lagrange, L Bouillet
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis E is an emerging, worldwide disease. It is often asymptomatic. Nevertheless, in few cases, clinical manifestation such as neurological disorder could be present. The aim of this article is to realize a literature review of the neurological symptoms associated with hepatitis E. METHODS: We searched the Pubmed database using the term "hepatitis E", "neurological disorder AND hepatitis E". RESULTS: One hundred and thirty cases have been described between 2000 and 2017...
July 19, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Tiantian Zhang, Jufeng Ye, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang, Wenzhen Liao, Limei Mao, Miaomiao Yuan, Sen Lian
A new water-soluble polysaccharide (FVP1) was extracted from Flammulina velutipes by traditional method "water extraction and alcohol precipitation" and purified by column chromatography. Physicochemical characterization showed that FVP1 was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a relative molecular weight of 54.78 kDa. It is composed of mannose (7.74%), glucose (70.41%), and galactose (16.38%). FVP1 (1000 mg/mL) possessed significant immune activity by increasing the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (3183 ± 133...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Anna Bednarek, Anna Bodajko-Grochowska, Barbara Hasiec, Robert Klepacz, Katarzyna Szczekala, Danuta Zarzycka, Andrzej Emeryk
INTRODUCTION: The top priority for active immunoprophylaxis of pertussis is the immunisation of infants as they can sometimes develop severe multiple-organ complications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the work is the identification of factors negatively affecting vaccine immunity to pertussis in preschool children prior to the administration of the first booster. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The research was conducted on 352 children from 4.5 to 5.9 years of age who were hospitalised in the University Children's Hospital in Lublin (Poland) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alexandru Mester, Ondine Lucaciu, Lidia Ciobanu, Dragos Apostu, Aranka Ilea, Radu Septimiu Campian
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the occurrence of multiple, symmetrical lesions in the oral cavity. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been suggested as an etiological factor in OLP. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature regarding the treatment of OLP in patients with HCV infection. An electronic search of the PubMed database was conducted until January 2018, using the following keywords: OLP, HCV, corticosteroids, retinoids, immunomodulatory agents, surgical interventions, photochemotherapy, laser therapy, interferon, ribavirin, and direct-acting antivirals...
July 7, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Muhammad Asim Rana, Ahmed F Mady, Abdullah Ali Lashari, Rehab Eltreafi, Nicola Fischer-Orr, Kamal Naser
Thrombotic storm (TS) is a rare, acute, hypercoagulable state characterized by multiple thromboembolic events affecting at least two different areas of the vascular system/organs over a short period of time. Typical triggers include inflammation, infections, minor trauma, surgery, pregnancy, and the puerperium. A single thrombotic event can set off a number of thromboembolic events, often including unusual locations like hepatic, portal, or renal veins, skin (purpura fulminans) , adrenal glands, and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
Hong Min Kim, Yuna Kim, Eun Soo Lee, Ji Hye Huh, Choon Hee Chung
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by high hepatic triacylglycerol contents, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance. Caffeic acid (CA) has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of CA on hepatic steatosis and its mechanism of action. METHODS: We treated CA (50 µM) with AML12 cells. We categorized mice into three groups as follows: low-fat diet mice (LFD, n = 10), high-fat diet-induced obese mice (HFD, n = 10), and HFD fed with CA (50 mg/kg/d, n = 10) for 10 wk...
March 28, 2018: Nutrition
Roberta C Araújo, Fabricio C Dias, Bruna C Bertol, Deisy M Silva, Patrícia H Almeida, Andreza C Teixeira, Fernanda F Souza, Marcia G Villanova, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Eduardo A Donadi, Ana L C Martinelli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can escape from innate and adaptive immunity, making the immune response ineffective. Human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) might regulate the antiviral function of immune response and contribute to the persistence of HCV and the severity of liver disease. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of HLA-E in the liver and its association with the severity of liver disease in HCV patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of liver biopsies from 125 HCV patients and from 20 control subjects without liver disease...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Diana Chaker, Charbel Mouawad, Albert Azar, Didier Quilliot, Ibrahim Achkar, Ziad Fajloun, Nehman Makdissy
BACKGROUND: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) are promising cells that may promote hepatocyte differentiation (Hep-Dif) and improve liver function, but the involvement of Cdc42, a key small RhoGTPase which plays a crucial role in aging, is still not well established. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Cdc42 may rescue the hepatogenic potential of hADSCs derived from aged donors. METHODS: hADSCs isolated from 61 women of different ages were cultured for evaluation of the proliferation of cells, adherence, apoptosis, immunomodulation, immunophenotyping, multipotency, gene expression, and cell function during Hep-Dif...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Carsten Depmeier, Huldrych F Günthard, Urs C Steiner
Infections during Immunosuppression Abstract. Immunomodulating and immunosuppressive therapies are being used more and more frequently. Depending on the mechanism of action and the underlying disease, there is an increased risk of infection with these therapies. In everyday clinical practice, the individual risk of infection depends on a large number of patients, and environmental as well as pathogen-specific factors. Elderly and multimorbid patients are at particular risk of infection. Classical bacterial infections with possible atypical manifestation, hepatitis B virus, herpes viruses, mycobacteria and other granulomatous infections are prevalent...
June 2018: Praxis
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines worldwide. In addition to providing protection against tuberculosis, it has non-specific (heterologous) immunomodulatory effects. Areas covered: In our systematic review, we found eight studies, involving 2439 participants, investigating the influence of BCG vaccination on the humoral response to 16 different vaccines. A beneficial effect of BCG on vaccine responses was reported in five of the eight studies. Previous or concurrent administration of BCG was associated with significantly higher levels of antibodies against hepatitis B, polio type 1, pneumococcus, and influenza in some studies...
June 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Man-Fung Yuen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Geoffrey M Dusheiko, Harry L A Janssen, Daryl T Y Lau, Stephen A Locarnini, Marion G Peters, Ching-Lung Lai
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can establish a persistent and chronic infection in humans through immune anergy. Currently, 3.5% of the global population is chronically infected with HBV, although the incidence of HBV infections is decreasing owing to vaccination and, to a lesser extent, the use of antiviral therapy to reduce the viral load of chronically infected individuals. The course of chronic HBV infection typically comprises different clinical phases, each of which potentially lasts for decades...
June 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Klaudia T Warzecha, Matthias Bartneck, Diana Möckel, Lia Appold, Can Ergen, Wáel Al Rawashdeh, Felix Gremse, Patricia M Niemietz, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Christian Trautwein, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers, Frank Tacke
Poly n -butylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)-based hard-shell microbubbles (MB) have manifold biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery or contrast agents for ultrasound (US)-based liver imaging. MB and their fragments accumulate in phagocytes, especially in the liver, but it is unclear if MB affect the function of these immune cells. We herein show that human primary monocytes internalize different PBCA-MB by phagocytosis, which transiently inhibits monocyte migration in vertical chemotaxis assays and renders monocytes susceptible to cytotoxic effects of MB during US-guided destruction...
May 2018: Advanced Biosystems
Kuang-Tzu Huang, Chih-Che Lin, Ming-Chao Tsai, Kuang-Den Chen, King-Wah Chiu
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. PEDF has recently emerged as a critical metabolic regulatory protein since the discovery of its modulatory activities in the lipolytic pathway by binding to adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Despite being beneficial in maintaining the homeostasis of hepatic lipid accumulation, PEDF has been uncovered an unfavorable role associated with insulin resistance...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
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