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Hepatitis AND Immunomod*

Sandra Lorena Duque Henao, Sergio A Urrego, Andrea M Cano, Edwin A Higuita
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are promising for use in modulating immune responses in clinical settings characterized by immune immaturity or deficiency. β-Glucans derived from Ganoderma lucidum have demonstrated immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered β-glucans, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed in asymptomatic children, aged 3 to 5 years old, from Medellin, Colombia. Primary outcomes were the circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte and natural killer cell counts; secondary outcomes were circulating lymphocyte counts (total, CD3+, and CD4+ T cells), serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin A and cytokines, and various hematological parameters...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jing Zheng, Yonggang Sha, Logan Roof, Oded Foreman, John Lazarchick, Jagadish Kummetha Venkta, Cleopatra Kozlowski, Cristina Gasparetto, Nelson Chao, Allen Ebens, Jianda Hu, Yubin Kang
Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, and continued efforts are required to develop novel agents and novel drug combinations with more effective anti-myeloma activity. Here, we show that the pan-PIM kinase inhibitors SGI1776 and CX6258 exhibit significant anti-myeloma activity and that combining a pan-PIM kinase inhibitor with the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide in an in vivo myeloma xenograft mouse model resulted in synergistic myeloma cell killing without additional hematologic or hepatic toxicities...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Maria Teresa Cruz, Olga Borges
Over the past few years, exosomes, a class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as key players for inter-cellular communication ultimately modulating the behavior of target cells with countless outcomes. Nevertheless, the potential role of exosomes as vaccine adjuvants remains largely unexplored. Herein, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from immune cells may have an immunostimulatory effect and could constitute a good target towards the development of new fine-tuned vaccine adjuvants. To accomplish this goal, exosomes isolated from lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated human monocytic cell line (THP-1) were characterized and tested for their non-specific immunostimulatory activity when administered subcutaneously to healthy mice; additionally, exosomes' vaccine adjuvant ability was also disclosed after their inclusion in vaccine formulations...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Jia Xiao, Fei Wang, Emily C Liong, Kwok-Fai So, George L Tipoe
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) are major bioactive constituents of wolfberry which possess several pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. We aimed to evaluate how LBP attenuated the hepatic injury in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) methionine-choline deficient (MCD) mouse model. NASH was induced in C57BL/6N mice by feeding with MCD diet for 6 weeks. During the experiments, 1 mg/kg LBP was intragastrically fed on a daily basis with or without MCD diet lasting from the 4th to 6th week...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aslı Haykır Solay, Ali Acar, Fatma Eser, Ferit Kuşcu, Emin Ediz Tütüncü, Gülnur Kul, Gönül Çiçek Şentürk, Yunus Gürbüz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors and ustekunimab are widely used in autoimmune diseases. It is known that these biological agents cause the reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV). There is no standardized strategy to prevent the reactivation in patients with evidence of a previous HBV infection. In our study, anti-HBc IgG-positive patients who received a biological agent were evaluated in terms of HBV reactivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were followed up for the use of biological agents in our clinic were evaluated retrospectively...
September 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Eric J Mao, Sarah Sheibani, Christopher Martin, Richard S Bloomfeld, Kim Isaacs, Sumona Saha, Uma Mahadevan
Background: Health care maintenance (HCM) is reduced among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. This study aims to characterize rates of HCM in a closely monitored subpopulation-postpartum women with IBD-and identify predictors of noncompliance. Methods: A national prospective pregnancy registry was utilized to collect completion rates of HCM recommendations (cervical cancer screening; osteoporosis screening; pneumococcal, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and influenza vaccines)...
September 25, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ahlem Soussi, Manel Gargouri, Abdelfattah El Feki
Environmental pollutants, particularly lead, pose a serious threat to human and animal health that causes disturbances of several functions, including hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries remains a challenge. This study was carried out to investigate the protective efficacy of Juglans regia vegetable oil (JRVO) against the hepatotoxicity induced by lead. To achieve this aim, adults male rats were treated for 10 days with Pb (0...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Matthew J Neave, Robyn N Hall, Nina Huang, Kenneth A McColl, Peter Kerr, Marion Hoehn, Jennifer Taylor, Tanja Strive
The rabbit caliciviruses Lagovirus europaeus GI.1 and GI.2 both cause acute necrotizing hepatitis in European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Whilst GI.2 is highly virulent in both young and adult rabbits, rabbits younger than eight weeks of age are highly resistant to disease caused by GI.1, although they are still permissive to infection and viral replication. To investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of this age related resistance to GI.1, we compared liver transcriptomes of young rabbits infected with GI...
September 19, 2018: Viruses
Zulfia Hussain, Junaid Ali Khan, Hafeez Anwar, Naila Andleeb, Sehrish Murtaza, Ambreen Ashar, Iram Arif
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are being used extensively in manufacturing skin lotions and food products and in various biological and pharmaceutical industries because of their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties. In this study, ZnONPs were synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to investigate their structural, morphological, and optical properties. For in vivo evaluation, 40 healthy albino mice were randomly allocated to four equal groups among which the first one was the control group, while the second, third, and fourth were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), a blend of CCl4 and ZnONPs, and ZnONPs alone, respectively, for 21 days...
September 18, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Lin Wang, Dechao Cao, Ling Wang, Juan Zhao, Lam Nhat Nguyen, Xindi Dang, Yingjie Ji, Xiao Y Wu, Zheng D Morrison, Qian Xie, Mohamed El Gazzar, Shunbin Ning, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
Virus-infected cells can regulate non-permissive bystander cells, but the precise mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report that this process can be mediated by transfer of viral RNA-loaded exosomes shed from infected cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which in turn regulate the differentiation and function of T cells during viral infection. Specifically, we demonstrated that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibited significant increases in T follicular regulatory (TFR ) cells and decreases in T follicular helper (TFH ) cells...
2018: Cell Discovery
Ketevan Mazmishvili, Kumar Jayant, Nona Janikashvili, Nino Kikodze, Malkhaz Mizandari, Ia Pantsulaia, Natela Paksashvili, Mikael H Sodergren, Isabella Reccia, Madhava Pai, Nagy Habib, Tinatin Chikovani
Introduction: Hepatic cancer is a highly lethal tumour with increasing worldwide incidence. These tumours are characterized by the proliferation of malignant cells, generalised immunosuppression and chronic inflammation marked with an increase in inflammatory markers as a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and overexpression of CD4+CD39+ on T lymphocytes. The studies have outlined immunomodulatory changes in liver cancer patients as the plausible explanation for the better survival...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Maria A Neag, Andrei Mocan, Javier Echeverría, Raluca M Pop, Corina I Bocsan, Gianina Crişan, Anca D Buzoianu
Berberine-containing plants have been traditionally used in different parts of the world for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases, wound healing, reducing fevers, affections of eyes, treatment of tumors, digestive and respiratory diseases, and microbial pathologies. The physico-chemical properties of berberine contribute to the high diversity of extraction and detection methods. Considering its particularities this review describes various methods mentioned in the literature so far with reference to the most important factors influencing berberine extraction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Branislava Medić, Marko Stojanović, Bojan Štimec, Nevena Divac, Katarina Savić Vujović, Radan Stojanović, Mirjana Čolović, Danijela Z Krstić, Milica Prostran
Lithium is the smallest monovalent cation with many different biological effects. Although lithium is present in pharmacotherapy of psychiatric illnesses for decades, its precise mechanism of action is still not clarified. Today lithium represents first-line therapy for bipolar disorders (because it possesses both antimanic and antidepressant properties) and the adjunctive treatment for major depression (due to its antisuicidal effects). Beside, lithium showed some protective effects in neurological diseases including acute neural injury, chronic degenerative conditions, Alzheimer's disease as well as in treating leucopenia, hepatitis and some renal diseases...
September 4, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Marco Shizuo Owatari, Gabriel Fernandes Alves Jesus, Aline Brum, Scheila Anelise Pereira, Nicollas Breda Lehmann, Ulisses de Pádua Pereira, Maurício Laterça Martins, José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño
This study investigated the use of silymarin, an extract obtained from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and its effects as a possible hepatoprotector in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Silymarin was used as feed additive to the diet at a concentration of 0.1% (1 kg per ton of dry ration) with the commercial product named Di-Heptarine S® (16% silymarin phosphatide). A total of 90 juvenile tilapia with approximately 45 days old and mean weight of 0.72 ± 0.04 g were distributed in two groups, one fed with a diet with the hepatoprotector and the other without the additive...
August 31, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Roy R Ye, Drew R Peterson, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Helmut Segner, Frauke Seemann, Doris W T Au
Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) are present ubiquitously in sediments and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. The detrimental impact of EEDCs on the reproduction of wildlife is widely recognized. Increasing evidence shows the immunosuppressive effects of EEDCs in vertebrates. Yet, no studies have considered concomitantly EEDC-induced impacts on reproductive impairment and immune suppression in vivo, which are deemed essential for risk assessment and environmental monitoring. In this study, EE2 was used as a representative EEDC, for parallel evaluation of EEDC-induced immune suppression (immune marker gene expression, leukocyte numbers, host resistance assay, and immune competence index) and reproductive impairment (estrogen responsive gene expression, fecundity, fertilization success, hatching success, and reproductive competence index) in an established fish model (marine medaka Oryzias melastigma), considering sex-specific induction and adaptation and recovery responses under different EE2 exposure scenarios...
October 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jiradej Makjaroen, Poorichaya Somparn, Kenneth Hodge, Witthaya Poomipak, Nattiya Hirankarn, Trairak Pisitkun
Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a relatively unexplored, yet promising anti-viral agent. IFN-λ has recently been tested in clinical trials of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), with the advantage that side effects may be limited compared with IFN-α, as IFN-λ receptors are found only in epithelial cells. To date, IFN-λ's downstream signaling pathway remains largely unelucidated, particularly via proteomics methods. Here, we report that IFN-λ3 inhibits HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells, reducing levels of both HBV transcripts and intracellular HBV DNA...
August 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Marzieh Basirnejad, Azam Bolhassani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat
Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) is known as a serious blood-borne disease that infects millions of people globally. NS3 is a conserved non-structural sequence of hepatitis C virus which has a major role in activating specific CTL responses. As known, there is no effective vaccine against HCV infection, thus it is required to design a specific regimen of vaccination. Recently, the strong immunological properties of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) led to their use as immunomodulators and an antigen carrier for subunit vaccine candidates...
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Wenfeng Zeng, Lingtao Jin, Fayun Zhang, Chunling Zhang, Wei Liang
Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid that possesses various biological activities, has emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of a variety of diseases. Studies using cell culture system have shown that naringenin can inhibit inflammatory response in diverse cell types. Moreover, research using various animal models has further demonstrated therapeutic potentials of naringenin in the treatment of several inflammation-related disorders, such as sepsis, fulminant hepatitis, fibrosis and cancer. The mechanism of action of naringenin is not completely understood but recent mechanistic studies revealed that naringenin suppresses inflammatory cytokine production through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
September 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ludovico Abenavoli, Angelo A Izzo, Natasa Milić, Carla Cicala, Antonello Santini, Raffaele Capasso
Milk thistle (MT; Silybum marianum), a member of the Asteraceae family, is a therapeutic herb with a 2,000-year history of use. MT fruits contain a mixture of flavonolignans collectively known as silymarin, being silybin (also named silibinin) the main component. This article reviews the chemistry of MT, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, the pharmacologically relevant actions for liver diseases (e.g., anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antioxidant, and liver-regenerating properties) as well as the clinical potential in patients with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, and mushroom poisoning...
August 6, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sasha Deutsch-Link, Danielle Fortuna, Ethan M Weinberg
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas amid healthy tissue. While most commonly affecting the mediastinum and/or lungs, sarcoid can also affect the liver, resulting in "hepatic sarcoid." The spectrum of disease in hepatic sarcoid is variable, ranging from asymptomatic or mild liver enzyme abnormalities to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. Because clinically-significant hepatic sarcoid is rare, research on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment is limited...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
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