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Hepatitis AND Immunomod*

Bharati Kochar, Hans H Herfarth
Background: Patients with moderate-severe inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are commonly treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapies involving immunomodulators such as thiopurines, biologics (anti-TNF and anti-adhesion molecules), or novel small molecules such as Janus kinase inhibitors. Summary: Some infections seen with immunosuppressive therapy in IBD are preventable with vaccines. IBD-specific immunosuppressive therapy is generally initiated by gastroenterologists...
November 2018: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Daniel H Whittam, Emma C Tallantyre, Stephen Jolles, Saif Huda, Robert J Moots, Ho Jin Kim, Neil P Robertson, Bruce A C Cree, Anu Jacob
Rituximab is a widely used B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody. It is unlicensed for use in neurological disorders and there are no treatment guidelines. However, as a rapidly acting, targeted therapy with growing evidence of efficacy and tolerability in several neuroinflammatory disorders, it is an attractive alternative to conventional immunomodulatory medications. This practical review aims to explain the basic principles of B-cell depletion with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We present the evidence for using rituximab in neurological diseases, and describe the practical aspects of prescribing, including dosing, monitoring, safety, treatment failure and its use in special circumstances such as coexisting viral hepatitis, pregnancy and lactation...
November 29, 2018: Practical Neurology
Diana Cortes-Selva, Andrew F Elvington, Andrew Ready, Bartek Rajwa, Edward J Pearce, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Keke C Fairfax
Hepatic macrophages play an essential role in the granulomatous response to infection with the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni , but the transcriptional changes that underlie this effect are poorly understood. To explore this, we sorted the two previously recognized hepatic macrophage populations (perivascular and Kupffer cells) from naïve and S. mansoni -infected male mice and performed microarray analysis as part of the Immunological Genome Project. The two hepatic macrophage populations exhibited remarkably different genomic profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Keith Ck Lau, Carla Osiowy, Carla S Coffin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have important clinical implications. Current genotyping methods are less sensitive in patients with ultra-low HBV viral load. We report a highly sensitive and specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for genotyping patient HBV. Total DNA derived from plasma of 14 (HBsAg+ and/or HBsAg-) HBcAb+ patients was used for HBV-specific nested PCRs targeting the preC/C, X/BCP/preC, and surface regions. All patients were treated with long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), and 12/14 have undetectable viremia (clinical PCR: sensitivity >10 IU/mL)...
November 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
Aflatoxins are a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fungi and are known to contaminate a large portion of the world's food supply. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of these compounds and has been well-characterized to lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and animals. This review focuses on the metabolism of AFB1, including epoxidation and DNA adduction, as it concerns the initiation of cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The link between AFB1 consumption and HCC is also discussed including synergistic interactions with the hepatitis B virus...
November 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiulian Li, Yanli He, Pengjiao Zeng, Yong Liu, Meng Zhang, Cui Hao, Hua Wang, Zhihua Lv, Lijuan Zhang
Poria cocos is an edible medicinal fungus known as "Fuling" in Chinese and has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for more than two thousand years. Pharmacological studies reveal that polysaccharide is the most abundant substance in Poria cocos and has a wide range of biological activities including antitumour, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-ageing, antihepatitis, antidiabetics and anti-haemorrhagic fever effects. As a result, "Poria cocos polysaccharide oral solution" was developed and sold as an over-the-counter health supplement since 1970s...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Kerasia-Maria Plachouri, Sophia Georgiou
Background of the article: Biologics are modern immunomodulatory drugs, whose use in the treatment of psoriasis has led to remarkable results in psoriatic patients. The administration of these agents in special population groups, such as patients with chronic infections and renal impairment, as well as perioperative, pregnant or lactating patients, has not been thoroughly addressed, mostly because these patients are excluded from clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report is an updated systematic overview of the use of biologics in the above mentioned types of patients and was conducted according to the PRISMA Guidelines for systematic reviews...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Kumar Jayant, Mikael H Sodergren, Isabella Reccia, Tomokazu Kusano, Dimitris Zacharoulis, Duncan Spalding, Madhava Pai, Long R Jiao, Kai Wen Huang
Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Presently, indications for liver resections for liver cancers are widening, but the response is varied owing to the multitude of factors including excess intraoperative bleeding, increased blood transfusion requirement, post-hepatectomy liver failure and morbidity. The advent of the radiofrequency energy-based bipolar device Habib™-4X has made bloodless hepatic resection possible. The radiofrequency-generated coagulative necrosis on normal liver parenchyma provides a firm underpinning for the bloodless liver resection...
November 8, 2018: Cancers
Armin Azadkhah Shalmani, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Fereshteh Jeivad, Amir Shadboorestan, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Abbas Beh-Pajooh, Mikhriy Ganbari-Erdi, Sara Kasirzadeh, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Omid Sabzevari
AIMS: Sepsis is a potentially fatal illness that can lead to impairment of multiple organs such as liver. The condition is deeply associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Monomethyl fumarate (MMF) has manifested antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of current study was to evaluate protective effects of MMF in sepsis-induced hepatic dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Wistar rats were assigned to one of sham, CLP, CLP + dexamethasone (as positive control of inflammation) and CLP + MMF groups...
November 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Anna Kramvis, Evangelia-Georgia Kostaki, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a global public health problem can be asymptomatic, acute or chronic and can lead to serious consequences of infection, including cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV, a partially double stranded DNA virus, belongs to the family Hepadnaviridae , and replicates via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. This reverse transcription is catalyzed by a virus-encoded polymerase that lacks proof reading ability, which leads to sequence heterogeneity. HBV is classified into nine genotypes and at least 35 subgenotypes, which may be characterized by distinct geographical distributions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Carlos Eduardo Veloso, Lúcio Filgueiras Pacheco-Moreira, Claudia Lamarca Vitral, Marcelo Alves Pinto
The complement system plays an important role in innate immunity inducing liver diseases as well as signaling immune cell activation in local inflammation regulating immunomodulatory effects such as liver damage and/or liver regeneration. Our aim is to evaluate the role of complement components in acute liver failure (ALF) caused by viral hepatitis, involving virus-induced ALF in human subjects using peripheral blood, samples of liver tissues, and ex vivo assays. Our findings displayed low levels of C3a in plasma samples with high frequency of C3a, C5a, and C5b/9 deposition in liver parenchyma...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
O V Masalova, E I Lesnova, A A Onishchuk, A M Ivanova, E V Gerasimova, A V Ivanov, A N Narovlyansky, A V Sanin, A V Pronin, A A Kushch
The search for new adjuvants remains the critical task for the creation of hepatitis C vaccines due to the weak immunogenicity of biotechnological products. When immunizing mice with the recombinant proteins NS3 and NS5B of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), the adjuvant activity of three immunomodulators was compared. Phosprenyl® on the basis of polyprenyl phosphate (PPP), chemically synthesized analogue of the bacterial cell wall glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide (GMDP), and IFN-α recombinant protein were tested...
September 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Anup Singh, Aru Chhabra Handa
Methotrexate is an antimetabolite drug with antineoplastic and immunomodulatory properties, useful as an antineoplastic agent in various haematological and solid tumours. MTX toxicity can occur because of accidental ingestion/overdose by the patient or because of prescription error. The toxic effects manifest as severe mucositis or as organ damage (bone marrow depression, renal/hepatic injury). The toxicity usually results from parenteral overdose or repeated chronic drug ingestion. Acute high dose ingestion does not result in MTX toxicity because of saturable absorption kinetics...
March 2018: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Albert J Czaja, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic actions that may impact on the occurrence and outcome of immune-mediated disease. The goals of this review are to describe the nature of these expanded roles, examine the implications of vitamin D deficiency in autoimmune hepatitis, and identify opportunities for future investigation. Abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms. Full-length articles were selected for review, and secondary and tertiary bibliographies were developed...
October 28, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
John E Lewis, Steven E Atlas, Muhammad H Abbas, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Laura A Lantigua, Frederick Michaud, Sharon Goldberg, Lucas C Lages, Oscar L Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Eduard Tiozzo, Judi M Woolger, Stephanie Ciraula, Armando Mendez, Allan Rodriguez, Janet Konefal
The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a hydrolyzed polysaccharide, rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC), on immune, hepatic, and renal function in HIV + individuals. A six-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was utilized to conduct the intervention. Forty-seven HIV + participants on stable antiretroviral therapy were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the two study conditions (n = 22 RBAC and n = 25 placebo) and consumed 3 gram/day of either compound for six months...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Elizabeth G Harmon, Randolph McConnie, Anil Kesavan
Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) is an increasingly recognized form of drug-induced liver injury that leads to a condition similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. A number of drugs have been associated with DIAIH, minocycline is one of the most well characterized. Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis presents with serologic and histologic features similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. However, the natural history and outcomes of these two conditions differ significantly...
October 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Sandra Lorena Duque Henao, Sergio A Urrego, Andrea M Cano, Edwin A Higuita
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are promising for use in modulating immune responses in clinical settings characterized by immune immaturity or deficiency. β-Glucans derived from Ganoderma lucidum have demonstrated immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered β-glucans, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed in asymptomatic children, aged 3 to 5 years old, from Medellin, Colombia. Primary outcomes were the circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte and natural killer cell counts; secondary outcomes were circulating lymphocyte counts (total, CD3+, and CD4+ T cells), serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin A and cytokines, and various hematological parameters...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jing Zheng, Yonggang Sha, Logan Roof, Oded Foreman, John Lazarchick, Jagadish Kummetha Venkta, Cleopatra Kozlowski, Cristina Gasparetto, Nelson Chao, Allen Ebens, Jianda Hu, Yubin Kang
Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, and continued efforts are required to develop novel agents and novel drug combinations with more effective anti-myeloma activity. Here, we show that the pan-PIM kinase inhibitors SGI1776 and CX6258 exhibit significant anti-myeloma activity and that combining a pan-PIM kinase inhibitor with the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide in an in vivo myeloma xenograft mouse model resulted in synergistic myeloma cell killing without additional hematologic or hepatic toxicities...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Maria Teresa Cruz, Olga Borges
Over the past few years, exosomes, a class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as key players for inter-cellular communication ultimately modulating the behavior of target cells with countless outcomes. Nevertheless, the potential role of exosomes as vaccine adjuvants remains largely unexplored. Herein, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from immune cells may have an immunostimulatory effect and could constitute a good target towards the development of new fine-tuned vaccine adjuvants. To accomplish this goal, exosomes isolated from lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated human monocytic cell line (THP-1) were characterized and tested for their non-specific immunostimulatory activity when administered subcutaneously to healthy mice; additionally, exosomes' vaccine adjuvant ability was also disclosed after their inclusion in vaccine formulations...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Jia Xiao, Fei Wang, Emily C Liong, Kwok-Fai So, George L Tipoe
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) are major bioactive constituents of wolfberry which possess several pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. We aimed to evaluate how LBP attenuated the hepatic injury in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) methionine-choline deficient (MCD) mouse model. NASH was induced in C57BL/6N mice by feeding with MCD diet for 6 weeks. During the experiments, 1 mg/kg LBP was intragastrically fed on a daily basis with or without MCD diet lasting from the 4th to 6th week...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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