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Chao Zhou, Miao Yu, Xiaowei Tang, Xiang Wang, Xiaobin Zhang, Xiangrong Zhang, Jiu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggested likely mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenia. However, altered patterns of the intrinsic activity of the DMN in both deficit schizophrenia (DS) and non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, as well as the neurocognitive relationships among them, remain unknown. This study explores the resting-state characteristics of the DMN activity in both DS and NDS patients, and further investigates correlations with neurocognitive features...
March 8, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Brittny E Manos, Terrill D Bravender, Tondi M Harrison, Hannah L H Lange, Casey B Cottrill, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Andrea E Bonny
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation for treatment of trait anxiety among adolescent females with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN). METHOD: A pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of adolescent females with AN (N = 24) entering Partial Hospitalization Program (PHP) from January 2015 to February 2016. Participants were randomized to four daily PUFA (2,120 mg eicosapentaenoic acid/600 mg docosohexaenoic acid) or placebo capsules for 12 weeks...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Sofanne J Ravensbergen, Laura B Nellums, Sally Hargreaves, Ymkje Stienstra, Jon S Friedland
BACKGROUND: Migrants may be underimmunised and at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of what policies are currently implemented across Europe targeting child and adult migrants. We analysed vaccination policies for migrants in 32 EU/EEA countries and Switzerland. METHODS: Using framework analysis, we did a comparative analysis of national policies and guidelines pertaining to vaccination in recently arrived migrants through a systematic guideline and literature review and by approaching national experts...
October 15, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Yoichiro Shinohara, Ayumu Konno, Keisuke Nitta, Yasunori Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki Yasui, Junya Suwa, Keiju Hiromura, Hirokazu Hirai
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV serotype 9, is highly permeable to the blood-brain barrier. A major obstacle to the systemic use of AAV-PHP.B is the generation of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs); however, temporal profiles of NAb production after exposure to AAV-PHP.B, and the influence on later AAV-PHP.B administration, remains unknown. To address these, AAV-PHP.Bs expressing either GFP or mCherry by neuron-specific or astrocyte-specific promoters were intravenously administered to mice at various intervals, and brain expression was examined...
October 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Venkatesh V Nemmara, Dao Feng Xiang, A A Fedorov, E V Fedorov, Jeffrey B Bonanno, Steven C Almo, Frank M Raushel
The phosphotriesterase homology protein (PHP) from Escherichia coli is a member of a family of proteins that is related to phosphotriestrase (PTE), a bacterial enzyme from cog1735 with unusual substrate specificity toward the hydrolysis of synthetic organic phosphates and phosphonates. PHP was cloned, purified to homogeneity, and functionally characterized. The three-dimensional structure of PHP was determined at a resolution of 1.84 Å with zinc and phosphate in the active site. The protein folds as a distorted (β/α)8 -barrel and possesses a binuclear metal center in the active site...
October 30, 2018: Biochemistry
Anjali Gautam, Ajay Bhambal, Swapnil Moghe
Background: Braille is important language for reading & writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand & visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Audio aids are useful in being time saving & can be played repeatedly to achieve desired results. Tactile models help them perceive things which they can't visualize & hence are important learning tool. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Oral Health education by Audio aids, Braille & tactile models on the Oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal city...
September 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Timothy G Carroll, Rachel Garwick, Guang Wu, Gabriel Ménard
In this Article, we outline the synthesis of B(C6 F5 )3 -coordinated mono-, di-, and trivanadocene phosphorus oxide complexes, Cp2 VOP(OB(C6 F5 )3 )Ph2 (2), (Cp2 VO)2 P(OB(C6 F5 )3 )Ph (3), and (Cp2 VO)3 P(OB(C6 F5 )3 ) (4), respectively (Cp = η5 -cyclopentadienyl). The complexes were synthesized from the known reagents, Cp2 VF and Ph2 P(O)OSiMe3 (for 2) or PhP(O)(OSiMe3 )2 (for 3) or (Me3 SiO)3 PO (for 4), via Me3 SiF elimination and in the presence of B(C6 F5 )3 . The multimetallic complexes (3 and 4) could not be synthesized without the capping B(C6 F5 )3 Lewis acid, whereas the uncapped version of 2, Cp2 VOP(O)Ph2 (1), has previously been reported by us...
September 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Robert D Dayton, Mychal S Grames, Ronald L Klein
Engineered recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have advanced the transduction of neurons in the CNS on an expansive, wide-scale basis since the papers first using AAV9 for this purpose. Wide-scale CNS expression is relevant to gene therapy as well as indispensable for basic studies such as disease modeling. For example, the wide-scale gene transfer approach could expedite hypothesis testing in vivo relative to the generation of germ-line transgenic mice for all of the genes of interest. Wide-scale gene transfer is more efficient in neonates than in adults, so improving gene transfer efficiency in adults is an important goal...
August 2018: Gene Therapy
Brunno L Moreira, Tasos Karakostas, Luciano S Dias
BACKGROUND: Rectus femoris transfer (RFT) is performed in children with cerebral palsy to treat stiff-knee gait. However, the results are variable in part because there is no gold standard to identify appropriate candidates. Hip flexion kinematics and kinetics are important factors in the determination of peak knee flexion during gait. This study aimed to evaluate whether a kinetic preoperative analysis of hip power can be a predictor of RFT outcomes and determine its usability for identifying appropriate candidates for the procedure...
October 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Opeyemi O Babatunde, Amardeep Legha, Chris Littlewood, Linda S Chesterton, Martin J Thomas, Hylton B Menz, Danielle van der Windt, Edward Roddy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of current treatment options for plantar heel pain (PHP). DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, Cochrane Database, Web of Science and WHO Clinical Trials Platform were searched from their inception until January 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with PHP investigating common treatments (ie, corticosteroid injection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, therapeutic exercise, orthoses and/or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)) compared with each other or a no treatment, placebo/sham control...
June 28, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Melvin Y Rincon, Filip de Vin, Sandra I Duqué, Shelly Fripont, Stephanie A Castaldo, Jessica Bouhuijzen-Wenger, Matthew G Holt
Until recently, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) was considered the AAV serotype most effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), following systemic injection. However, a newly engineered capsid, AAV-PHP.B, is reported to cross the BBB at even higher efficiency. We investigated how much we could boost CNS transgene expression by using AAV-PHP.B carrying a self-complementary (sc) genome. To allow comparison, 6 weeks old C57BL/6 mice received intravenous injections of scAAV2/9-GFP or scAAV2/PHP...
April 2018: Gene Therapy
Michele Berselli, Enrico Lavezzo, Stefano Toppo
Motivation: Non-B DNA conformations play an important role in genomic rearrangements, structural three-dimensional organization and gene regulation. Many non-B DNA structures show symmetrical properties as palindromes and mirrors that can form hairpins, cruciform structures or triplexes. A comprehensive tool, capable to perform a fast genome wide search for exact and degenerate symmetrical patterns, is needed for further investigating nucleotide tracts potentially forming non-B DNA structures...
July 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Gauri Luthra, Ivan Vuckovic, A Bangdiwala, H Gray, J B Redmon, E S Barrett, S Sathyanarayana, R H N Nguyen, S H Swan, S Zhang, P Dzeja, S I Macura, K S Nair
BACKGROUND: Routine prenatal care fails to identify a large proportion of women at risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of low molecular weight molecules (metabolites) in biological samples, can provide new and earlier biomarkers of prenatal health. Recent research has suggested possible predictive first trimester urine metabolites correlating to fetal growth restriction in the third trimester. Our objective in this current study was to examine urinary metabolic profiles in the first and second trimester of pregnancy in relation to third trimester FGR in a US population from a large, multi-center cohort study of healthy pregnant women...
February 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Shinichiro Sano, Akie Nakamura, Keiko Matsubara, Keisuke Nagasaki, Maki Fukami, Masayo Kagami, Tsutomu Ogata
Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHP-I) is divided into PHP-Ia with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and PHP-Ib, which usually shows no Albright hereditary osteodystrophy features. Although PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib are typically caused by genetic defects involving α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs α )-coding GNAS exons and methylation defects of the GNAS differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on the maternal allele, respectively, detailed phenotypic characteristics still remains to be examined...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Ahsan Wahab, Siddique Chaudhary, Mahin Khan, Susan Jane Smith
Concurrent Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) and pulmonary histoplasmosis (PHP) are rare in a single HIV individual. We present a challenging case of concomitant PJ and PHP in a young HIV individual. A 44-year-old man presented to the emergency department with progressive pulmonary symptoms. He was hypoxic with bilateral pulmonary opacities on chest radiograph. CT of the chest showed a geographical pattern of ground-glass attenuation. He started receiving intravenous antibiotics in addition to oral Bactrim for suspected PJ...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Can-Hong Wen, Shao-Min Ou, Xiao-Bo Guo, Chen-Feng Liu, Yan-Bo Shen, Na You, Wei-Hong Cai, Wen-Jun Shen, Xue-Qin Wang, Hai-Zhu Tan
Breast cancer is a high-risk heterogeneous disease with myriad subtypes and complicated biological features. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer database provides researchers with the large-scale genome and clinical data via web portals and FTP services. Researchers are able to gain new insights into their related fields, and evaluate experimental discoveries with TCGA. However, it is difficult for researchers who have little experience with database and bioinformatics to access and operate on because of TCGA's complex data format and diverse files...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Paul B Lieberman, Rendueles Villalba, Samantha G Farris
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of acute, very brief partial hospital treatment, and the comparative benefits of different types of partial hospitalization programs (PHPs), this exploratory study examined changes in psychiatric symptoms and elements of cognitive functioning during an acute PHP compared with a waiting list control, and also compared such changes in 2 PHPs that treated similar patient groups but used different treatment approaches. METHODS: Patients were admitted to 2 PHPs, one utilizing cognitive-behavioral therapy and the other interpersonal and existential psychotherapy...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Serena G Giannelli, Mirko Luoni, Valerio Castoldi, Luca Massimino, Tommaso Cabassi, Debora Angeloni, Gian Carlo Demontis, Letizia Leocani, Massimiliano Andreazzoli, Vania Broccoli
P23H is the most common mutation in the RHODOPSIN (RHO) gene leading to a dominant form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a rod photoreceptor degeneration that invariably causes vision loss. Specific disruption of the disease P23H RHO mutant while preserving the wild-type (WT) functional allele would be an invaluable therapy for this disease. However, various technologies tested in the past failed to achieve effective changes and consequently therapeutic benefits. We validated a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to specifically inactivate the P23H RHO mutant, while preserving the WT allele in vitro...
March 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Xueying Chu, Yan Zhu, Ou Wang, Min Nie, Tingting Quan, Yu Xue, Wenbo Wang, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Weibo Xia, Xiaoping Xing
Bone responsiveness to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) is controversial. Forty-eight PHP1B patients diagnosed by molecular analysis were recruited from 2000 to 2016 from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Fifty-five sex-matched nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism (NS-HP) patients were selected and included for comparison. Basic information, laboratory test, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results were collected. Linear regression was performed to identify independent predictors of lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores in PHP1B patients...
April 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Sarika Jaiswal, Sonia Sheoran, Vasu Arora, Ulavappa B Angadi, Mir A Iquebal, Nishu Raghav, Bharti Aneja, Deepender Kumar, Rajender Singh, Pradeep Sharma, G P Singh, Anil Rai, Ratan Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar
Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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