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ERAS program

Isaac D Buck
For the better part of a decade, Americans have had a front-row seat to a fervent and turbulent debate over the future of their health care system. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the most comprehensive health reform effort since the mid-1960s, ushered in a new era in health law and policy, granting millions of Americans access to health care. After multiple legal challenges and congressional efforts that ultimately failed to slay the law, the ACA had become entrenched by the end of the Obama administration, even though pieces of the law had failed to work exactly as planned...
2019: Seton Hall Law Review
Andrés Villarreal, Christopher R Tamborini
We examine immigrants' earnings trajectories, and measure both the extent and speed with which they are able to reduce the earnings gap with natives, using a unique dataset that links respondents of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to their longitudinal earnings obtained from individual tax records. Our analysis addresses key debates regarding ethnoracial and cohort differences in immigrants' earnings trajectories. First, we find a racially-differentiated pattern of earnings assimilation whereby black and Hispanic immigrants are less able to catch up with native whites' earnings compared to white and Asian immigrants, but are able to almost reach earnings parity with natives of their same race and ethnicity...
August 1, 2018: American Sociological Review
Yuxin Liu, Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan
Immunotherapy has revolutionized therapy in both solid and liquid malignancies. The ability to cure acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is proof of concept for the application of immunotherapy in AML and MDS. However, outside of HSCT, only the anti-CD33 antibody drug conjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin is currently approved as an antibody-targeted therapy for AML. Several avenues of immunotherapeutic drugs are currently in different stages of clinical development...
December 5, 2018: Blood Reviews
Duncan MacKellar, Haruka Maruyama, Oscar Ernest Rwabiyago, Claire Steiner, Haddi Cham, Omari Msumi, Rachel Weber, Gerald Kundi, Chutima Suraratdecha, Tewodaj Mengistu, Johnita Byrd, Sherri Pals, Eliufoo Churi, Caitlin Madevu-Matson, Kokuhumbya Kazaura, Fernando Morales, Thomas Rutachunzibwa, Jessica Justman, Anath Rwebembera
Although several studies have evaluated one or more linkage services to improve early enrollment in HIV care in Tanzania, none have evaluated the package of linkage services recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). We describe the uptake of each component of the CDC/WHO recommended package of linkage services, and early enrollment in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among persons with HIV who participated in a peer-delivered, linkage case management (LCM) program implemented in Bukoba, Tanzania, October 2014 -May 2017...
2018: PloS One
Jacob J van den Berg, Nickolas D Zaller, Fizza S Gillani, Shira I Dunsiger, Brandon D L Marshall, Christopher W Kahler, Don Operario
Examining how multiple concomitant factors interact to augment HIV transmission risk is needed to inform more effective primary and secondary HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. The development of a "taxonomy" of long-term sexual and drug-related risk behavior profiles may have important implications for resource allocation and targeted HIV prevention programming. A secondary data analysis was conducted to explore longitudinal HIV transmission risk profiles among 423 MSM living with HIV enrolled in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study)...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Diana Isabel Arvelos Mendes, Candida Rosa de Almeida Clemente Ferrito, Maria Isabel Rodrigues Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: To identify the Nursing interventions, described in literature, in the ERAS® program. METHOD: We defined a scoping review based on the recommendations of The Institute Joanna Brigs (JBI) and on research in electronic databases. We chose the studies through flow diagrams "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)" and presented them in a chart. RESULTS: We found 306 articles published between 2010 and 2018 and included 14 of them...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Julie A Bettinger, Otto G Vanderkooi, Wendy Vaudry, Scott A Halperin, Manish Sadarangani
Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era...
December 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Yibin Zhu, Jianjian Xiang, Wei Liu, Qian Cao, Wei Zhou
Background and Aims: Laparoscopic approach is recommended as the first-choice option for simple ileocecal resections. However, there are no randomized trials that have focused on patients with Crohn's disease (CD) treated by laparoscopy and enhanced recovery pathway. The aim of the present study is to prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and short-term outcomes of laparoscopy with enhanced recovery pathway for CD patients undergoing ileocecal resection. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 32 CD patients who underwent laparoscopic ileocecal resection between December 2015 and December 2016 was randomized to enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) group or standard care group...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Muhammad Asif, Hugo F M C M Martiniano, Astrid M Vicente, Francisco M Couto
Identifying disease genes from a vast amount of genetic data is one of the most challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Also, complex diseases present highly heterogeneous genotype, which difficult biological marker identification. Machine learning methods are widely used to identify these markers, but their performance is highly dependent upon the size and quality of available data. In this study, we demonstrated that machine learning classifiers trained on gene functional similarities, using Gene Ontology (GO), can improve the identification of genes involved in complex diseases...
2018: PloS One
Joseph Y Ting, Vanessa Paquette, Karen Ng, Sarka Lisonkova, Valoria Hait, Sandesh Shivanada, Peter Tilley, Horacio Osiovich, Ashley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in the neonatal intensive care unit using standardized criteria and determine the effects of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on patterns of antibiotic usage. METHODS: A retrospective audit of antibiotic use from July 2010 to June 2013 was conducted, focusing on prescriptions of vancomycin, cefotaxime, meropenem and linezolid for >3 calendar-days. We evaluated the appropriateness of each course of antibiotic treatment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 12-Step Guidelines to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance (steps 4, 6 and 9)...
January 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ellen M Soffin, Melinda M Gibbons, Elizabeth C Wick, Stephen L Kates, Maxime Cannesson, Michael J Scott, Michael C Grant, Samantha S Ko, Christopher L Wu
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols represent patient-centered, evidence-based, multidisciplinary care of the surgical patient. Although these patterns have been validated in numerous surgical specialities, ERAS has not been widely described for patients undergoing hip fracture (HFx) repair. As part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery, we have conducted a full evidence review of interventions that form the basis of the anesthesia components of the ERAS HFx pathway...
December 7, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jesse M Gray, Ivo Spiegel
Experience leaves a lasting mark on neural circuit function in part through activity-regulated gene (ARG) expression. New genome wide approaches have revealed that ARG programs are highly cell-type-specific, raising the possibility that they mediate different forms of experience-dependent plasticity in different cell types. The cell-type specificity of these gene programs is achieved by a combination of cell-intrinsic mechanisms that determine the transcriptional response of each neuronal subtype to a given stimulus and by cell-extrinsic mechanisms that influence the nature of the stimulus a cell receives...
December 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Adrienne N Cobb, Marissa C Kuo, Paul C Kuo
BACKGROUND: The categorical general surgery (GS) applicant pool and trainees have evolved. The purpose of this study is to profile contemporary applicants and subsequent matriculates of GS residencies. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a retrospective review of GS applicant and PGY1 trainee data which were obtained from ERAS, NRMP, and AAMC for the years 2013-2016. Univariate statistics were used to compare matched GS trainees other trainees in other specialties. RESULTS: In 2016 GS was among the top 5 most competitive residencies as measured by mean applications/applicant...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Chia-Ching J Wang, Joel M Palefsky
The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) remain high among HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of HPV-related anal cancers has continued to increase since the introduction of ART. Therefore, ART may confer only limited benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal HSIL and cancer. Efforts are in progress to define the efficacy of secondary prevention programs for prevention of anal cancer...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Morgan L Cox, Alfredo E Farjat, T J Risoli, Sarah Peskoe, Benjamin A Goldstein, David A Turner, John Migaly
OBJECTIVE: The utilization of electronic health records (EHR) has become essential in the daily activities of physicians for documentation and as an information source. However, the amount of time spent by residents utilizing the EHR has not been thoroughly evaluated, particularly within surgical specialties. This study aims to analyze EHR usage by general surgery residents and to assess the association between this use and case volume at a single academic institution. DESIGN: For general surgery residents in clinical years (CY) 1-5, de-identified login and logout time data between September 2016 and June 2017 were retrospectively extracted from the Epic EHR (Verona, WI)...
November 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Panagiota Zgoura, Daniel Hettich, Jonathan Natzel, Fedai Özcan, Boris Kantzow
BACKGROUND/AIM: Peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis (PD) vary considerably not only across countries but also between centers in the same country. Patient education has been shown to significantly reduce infection rates but up till now training lacks standardization with patients being trained using different methods and media (e.g., illustrations, videos). As a result, patients may be insufficiently experienced in performing PD, which might be one of the causes for high peritonitis rates...
December 6, 2018: Blood Purification
Livia C Moura, Aldicir O Scariot, Isabel B Schmidt, Robin Beatty, Jeremy Russell-Smith
Land occupation and management systems have defined fire regimes and landscapes for millennia. The savanna biome is responsible for 86% of all fire events, contributes to 10% of the total carbon emissions annually and is home to 10% of the human population. European colonization has been associated with the implementation of fire suppression policies in many tropical savanna regions, markedly disrupting traditional fire management practices and transforming ecosystems. In this paper we assess savanna burning approaches from pre-colonial to contemporary eras in three regions: northern Australia, southern Africa and Brazil...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
John M DeSesso
While the discipline of Teratology has existed for about 60 years, there has been a deep interest in the causes of human malformations for millennia. Absent the scientific method and acting on fervent beliefs that made sense to ancient/medieval populations, "mechanisms" were described and prognostications of future events were assigned to terata resulting in tragic (and unwarranted) sequelae. This article examines the collective beliefs and thinking within various eras in the hope of providing lessons to inform future behavior...
December 4, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Mayassa J Bou-Dargham, Yuhang Liu, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang, Jinfeng Zhang
In the era of immunotherapy and personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for advancing the knowledge of immune evasion in different cancer types and identifying reliable biomarkers that guide both therapy selection and patient inclusion in clinical trials. Given the differential immune responses and evasion mechanisms in breast cancer, we expect to identify different breast cancer groups based on their expression of immune-related genes. For that, we used the sequential biclustering method on The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-seq breast cancer data and identified 7 clusters...
2018: PloS One
Aleeya Healey, Alan Mendelsohn
Play is essential to optimal child development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. It also offers an ideal and significant opportunity for parents and other caregivers to engage fully with children using toys as an instrument of play and interaction. The evolution of societal perceptions of toys from children's playthings to critical facilitators of early brain and child development has challenged caregivers in deciding which toys are most appropriate for their children...
December 3, 2018: Pediatrics
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