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mushroom DNA

Andrew L Loyd, Brantlee S Richter, Michelle A Jusino, Camille Truong, Matthew E Smith, Robert A Blanchette, Jason A Smith
Species of Ganoderma , commonly called reishi (in Japan) or lingzhi (in China), have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, and their use has gained interest from pharmaceutical industries in recent years. Globally, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species is chaotic, and the taxon name Ganoderma lucidum has been used for most laccate (shiny) Ganoderma species. However, it is now known that G. lucidum sensu stricto has a limited native distribution in Europe and some parts of China. It is likely that differences in the quality and quantity of medicinally relevant chemicals occur among Ganoderma species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Janne Koskinen, Tomas Roslin, Tommi Nyman, Nerea Abrego, Craig Michell, Eero J Vesterinen
Fruiting bodies of fungi constitute an important resource for thousands of other taxa. The structure of these diverse assemblages has traditionally been studied with labour-intensive methods involving cultivation and morphology-based species identification, to which molecular information might offer convenient complements. To overcome challenges in DNA extraction and PCR associated with the complex chemical properties fruiting bodies, we developed a pipeline applicable for extracting amplifiable total DNA from soft fungal samples of any size...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Hairui Yang, Wenbo Sun, Jinsong Zhang, Yaping Zhang, Henan Zhang, Yan Yang, Di Wu, Yanfang Liu, Zheng Qiankun, Li Min, Wen-Han Wang, Wei Jia
Taiwanofungus camphoratus has been reported to have antitumor effects against various cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct inhibitory effect of By-1 (3-isobutyl-l-methoxy-4-[4'-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), a compound from spent broth from submerged cultures of T. camphoratus, on human lung adenocarcinoma cells and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. The growth-inhibitory assay and colony formation assay showed that cell viability was significantly decreased...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Bai-Xiong Chen, Tao Wei, Zhi-Wei Ye, Fan Yun, Lin-Zhi Kang, Hong-Biao Tang, Li-Qiong Guo, Jun-Fang Lin
Cordyceps militaris is a well-known edible medicinal mushroom in East Asia that contains abundant and diverse bioactive compounds. Since traditional genome editing systems in C. militaris were inefficient and complicated, here, we show that the codon-optimized cas9 , which was used with the newly reported promoter Pcmlsm3 and terminator Tcmura3, was expressed. Furthermore, with the help of the negative selection marker ura3 , a CRISPR-Cas9 system that included the Cas9 DNA endonuclease, RNA presynthesized in vitro and a single-strand DNA template efficiently generated site-specific deletion and insertion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Bert W Hoeksema, Sofya V Mudrova, Mikhail A Nikitin, Alejandro Martínez, Nadezda N Rimskaya-Korsakova, Michael L Berumen, Diego Fontaneto
The radiation of symbiotic copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) living in association with stony corals (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) is considered host-specific and linked to the phylogenetic diversification of their hosts. However, symbiotic copepods are poorly investigated, occurrence records are mostly anecdotal, and no explicit analysis exists regarding their relationship with the hosts. Here, we analysed the occurrence of symbiotic copepods on different co-occurring and phylogenetically closely related scleractinian corals...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Emily Jensen-Vargas, Christine Marizzi
Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of fungal diversity, identification based on phenotype can be difficult, even for trained experts. Fungi typically have a cryptic nature and can have a similar appearance to distantly related species. Moreover, the appearance of industrially processed mushrooms complicates species identification, as they are often sold sliced and dried. Here we present a small-scale citizen science project, wherein the participants generated and analyzed DNA sequences from fruiting bodies of dried and fresh fungi that were sold for commercial use in New York City supermarkets...
June 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhibin Zhang, Jiawei Wen, Juzuo Li, Xintong Ma, Yanan Yu, Xiao Tan, Qi Wang, Bao Liu, Xiaomeng Li, Yu Li, Lei Gong
Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu, designated Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Xingbaogu, designated Pe) are highly valued edible mushrooms. We report de novo assemblies of high-quality genomes for both mushrooms based on PacBio RS II sequencing and annotation of all identified genes. A comparative genomics analysis between Pt and Pe with P. ostreatus as an outgroup taxon revealed extensive genomic divergence between the two mushroom genomes primarily due to the rapid gain of taxon-specific genes and disruption of synteny in either taxon...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bhavini Kumari, Rekha Kumari, Prolay Das
G-quadruplexes are secondary DNA structures frequently found in telomeres and DNA sequences related to gene regulation, etc. Herein, we report a label free, sensitive and visually detectable fluorescence based biosensing platform for the detection of G-quadruplexes in DNA. Highly fluorescent N-doped carbon quantum dot (CD) with enriched functional groups was synthesized from Ganoderma lucidum, an oriental fungus by using a green hydrothermal process. Noncovalent functionalization of CD was done with Hemin where Hemin/CD conjugate forms a quenched union...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Daniel Jansson, Arthur Wolterink, Leonie Bergwerff, Patrick Hough, Kris Geukens, Crister Åstot
Source attribution profiling of five species of Amanita mushrooms from four European countries was performed using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Initially, species determination was carried out morphologically and was verified by DNA-analysis. This data was then combined with chemical profiling, generated from LC-HRMS full scan analysis. The untargeted data was processed and the 720 most abundant peaks in the LC-HRMS chromatogram were used to build a multivariate PLS-DA model...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hanan Aref Hasan, Ahmad Mohamad Almomany, Shireen Hasan, Ayed M Al-Abdallat
Pleurotus is considered an important genus that belongs to the family Pleurotaceae and includes the edible King Oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus eryngii ). In the present study, 19 Pleurotus isolates were collected from two locations in the north of Jordan (Tell ar-Rumman and Um-Qais). The morphological characteristics among collected isolates revealed that there was a morphological similarity among the collected isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1⁻5.8S rDNA⁻ITS4 region) and 28S nuclear large subunit (nLSU) in the ribosomal DNA gene of the isolated stains showed that all of them share over 98% sequence similarity with P...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Shah Hussain, Habib Ahmad, Sadiq Ullah, Najam-Ul-Sehar Afshan, Donald H Pfister, Hassan Sher, Haidar Ali, Abdul N Khalid
Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1 α gene ( TEF1α ) show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola ...
2018: MycoKeys
Alla V Shnyreva, Anastasia A Shnyreva, Cesar Espinoza, José M Padrón, Ángel Trigos
We analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 6 medicinal wood-destroying mushrooms (Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum biforme, Inonotus obliquus, and Coniophora puteana) that are common in deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in Central Russia. Morphological identification of strains collected from the wild was confirmed based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogenetic analysis. We observed cytotoxic and cell growth-inhibitory effects of hot water extracts from mycelial biomass of 5 species-T...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Himangshu Sonowal, Kirtikar Shukla, Sumedha Kota, Ashish Saxena, Kota V Ramana
Increased side toxicities and development of drug resistance are the major concern for the cancer chemotherapy using synthetic drugs. Therefore, identification of novel natural antioxidants with potential therapeutic efficacies is important. In the present study, we have examined how the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of vialinin A, a p-terphenyl compound derived from Chinese edible mushroom T. terrestris and T. vialis , prevents human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) neovascularization in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Genevieve Laperriere, Isabel Desgagné-Penix, Hugo Germain
Lobster mushroom is a wild edible mushroom with potential commercial value. It is the product resulting of the infection, most commonly of Russula brevipes, by Hypomyces lactifluorum. This study undertook quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissues sampled at different infection stages to investigate R. brevipes - H. lactifluorum interaction. We followed the colonization of R. brevipes sporocarps by H. lactifluorum that leads to the edible lobster mushrooms. In parallel, metabolomics analysis was performed to detect differences in metabolite profile among non-infected R...
May 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Wei Yang, Yang Gao
The number of DNA polymerases identified in each organism has mushroomed in the past two decades. Most newly found DNA polymerases specialize in translesion synthesis and DNA repair instead of replication. Although intrinsic error rates are higher for translesion and repair polymerases than for replicative polymerases, the specialized polymerases increase genome stability and reduce tumorigenesis. Reflecting the numerous types of DNA lesions and variations of broken DNA ends, translesion and repair polymerases differ in structure, mechanism, and function...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Daniel Stec, Kazuharu Arakawa, Łukasz Michalczyk
Tardigrade research in Japan dates back over 100 years, and to date, 167 species of this ecdysozoan phylum have been reported from the country. Of these species, the Macrobiotus hufelandi complex has been represented only by the nominal taxon of this group, Macrobiotus hufelandi. In this article, a new species of the hufelandi group from Japan, Macrobiotus shonaicus sp. nov., is described using integrative taxonomy. In addition to the detailed morphological and morphometric data, obtained using phase contrast light microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we provide DNA sequences of four molecular markers (both nuclear and mitochondrial)...
2018: PloS One
Shi Zheng, Luying Shan, Yongliang Zhuang, Ying Shang
As a well-known edible fungus rich in nutrients, Pleurotus ostreatus has been used as an alternative to expensive wild edible fungi. Specifically, the fact that using P. ostreatus instead of other expensive wild edible fungi has damaged the rights and interests of consumers. Among the existing methods for detection of food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference gene is the most accurate method. However, an ideal endogenous reference gene for P. ostreatus has yet to be developed. In this study, a DNA extraction method for P...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science
María Soledad Vela Gurovic, Fátima R Viceconte, Marcelo T Pereyra, Maximiliano A Bidegain, María Amelia Cubitto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is a medicinal mushroom historically used in Asian countries to treat a wide variety of diseases and prolong life. In the last years, G. lucidum has been internationally recognized as an effective adjuvant in cancer treatment. Among active components, the most recent research indicates that polysaccharides modulate the immune response favoring the recovery from toxicity of chemo and radiotherapy while triterpenes are cytotoxic to tumoral cells mainly by altering gene expression...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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