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mushroom DNA

Roberta Saltarelli, Francesco Palma, Anna Maria Gioacchini, Cinzia Calcabrini, Umberto Mancini, Roberta De Bellis, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. (also known as Linghzhi and Reishi) is the most appreciated and revered medicinal mushroom across many Asian countries, but its properties have also attracted interest in Western countries. Indeed, in the West, it is now commercially available as a dietary supplement in preparations mainly made from spores, fruiting bodies and mycelia. It is employed in both nutraceutical and pharmacological formulations either for its immuno-modulating anti-inflammatory properties or as an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of several chronic diseases as well as in cancer treatment...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fabricio Rocha Vieira, John Andrew Pecchia, Fernando Segato, Igor Polikarpov
AIMS: Characterization of the bacterial community composition and functionality and their impact on substrate biodegradation as well as mushroom yield. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial diversity, composition, and functionality were accessed by DNA-derived analysis for a sugarcane straw-based substrate composted for either 5, 10 or 15 days. In addition, carbon and nitrogen losses, carbohydrates conversion as well as mushroom yields were measured for the different treatments...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gloria I Solano-Aguilar, Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Richi Gupta, Ethiopia Beshah, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Bryan Vinyard, Aleksey Molokin, Patrick M Gillevet, Joseph F Urban
A study was designed to determine the potential prebiotic effect of dietary mushrooms on the host immune response, and intestinal microbiota composition and function. Thirty-one six-week-old pigs were fed a pig grower diet alone or supplemented with either three or six servings of freeze-dried white button (WB)-mushrooms for six weeks. Host immune response was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and alveolar macrophages (AM) after stimulation with Salmonella typhymurium -Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 9, 2018: Nutrients
Ryoiti Kiyama, Yoshiyuki Furutani, Kayoko Kawaguchi, Toshio Nakanishi
Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine because it contains materials with pharmacological activity. Here, we report its 39.0-Mb genome, encoding 13,157 predicted genes, obtained using next-generation sequencing along with RNA-seq mapping data. A phylogenetic analysis by comparison with 25 other fungal genomes revealed that S. crispa diverged from Postia placenta, a brown-rot fungus, 94 million years ago. Several features specific to the genome were found, including the A-mating type locus with the predicted genes for HD1 and HD2 heterodomain transcription factors, the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP), and the B-mating type locus with seven potential pheromone receptor genes and three potential pheromone precursor genes...
October 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clare H Scott Chialvo, Brooke E White, Laura K Reed, Kelly A Dyer
Adaptive radiations provide an opportunity to examine complex evolutionary processes such as ecological specialization and speciation. While a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis is critical to completing such studies, the rapid rates of evolution in these groups can impede phylogenetic studies. Here we study the quinaria and testacea species groups of the immigrans-tripunctata radiation of Drosophila, which represent a recent adaptive radiation and are a developing model system for ecological genetics. We were especially interested in understanding host use evolution in these species...
October 23, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Patrick M Arnott, Himanshu Joshi, Aleksei Aksimentiev, Stefan Howorka
Lipid-anchored DNA can attach functional cargo to bilayer membranes in DNA nanotechnology, synthetic biology, and cell biology research. To optimize DNA anchoring, an understanding of DNA-membrane interactions in terms of binding strength, extent, and structural dynamics is required. Here we use experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine how the membrane binding of cholesterol-modified DNA depends on electrostatic and steric factors involving the lipid headgroup charge, duplexed or single-stranded DNA, and the buffer composition...
October 10, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Venkatachalam Angamuthu, M Shanmugavadivu, G Nagarajan, Bharath Kumar Velmurugan
Antrodia camphorata is an expensive mushroom that grows on the inner cavity of an endangered native tree of Taiwan namely Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata. It is used as a traditional medicine in Taiwan and has several health benefits including free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, and free radical-induced DNA damage protecting activities. Antroquinonol is a tetrahydro ubiquinone derivative found predominately in the mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, and is characterized by numerous biological and pharmacological activities...
October 19, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mouthana N Al-Habib, John Holliday, Mohammad S Aladahmy
In this study, the aqueous extracts of fruiting bodies of Psathyrella candolleana and Agaricus bisporus were assessed in vitro for their genotoxic potential. Extracts of these 2 fungi were tested with regard to their capacity to protect genetic material against DNA damage caused by the anticancer chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Using chromosomal aberration, micronucleus, and comet assays, the genotoxic and genoprotective potential of these 2 fungi was assessed using P. candolleana strain RM-0861 and A. bisporus strain AB-62...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Qiang Li, Qiangfeng Wang, Xin Jin, Zuqin Chen, Chuan Xiong, Ping Li, Qiaofeng Liu, Wenli Huang
Lactarius is one of the most prominent genera of mushroom-forming fungi in the world. In the present study, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from six Lactarius species were sequenced and assembled. The six mitogenomes were all composed of circular DNA molecules, with total lengths ranging from 38,445 bp to 60,843 bp. The GC contents, GC skews, and AT skews of the mitogenomes varied among the six species. Mitogenomic synteny analysis revealed the presence of gene rearrangements among the mitogenomes...
January 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Idan Alyagor, Victoria Berkun, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Neta Marmor-Kollet, Eyal David, Oded Mayseless, Noa Issman-Zecharya, Ido Amit, Oren Schuldiner
Developmental neuronal remodeling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism required for precise wiring of nervous systems. Despite its fundamental role in neurodevelopment and proposed contribution to various neuropsychiatric disorders, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we uncover the fine temporal transcriptional landscape of Drosophila mushroom body γ neurons undergoing stereotypical remodeling. Our data reveal rapid and dramatic changes in the transcriptional landscape during development...
October 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
Md Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania
BACKGROUND: Cordycepin is a nucleotide analogue from Cordyceps mushrooms, which have a notable place in traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: In this review article, we have discussed the recent findings on the molecular aspects of cordycepin interactions with its recognized cellular targets, and possible mechanisms of its anticancer activity. METHOD: We have explored databases like pubmed, google scholar, scopus and web of science for the update information on cordycepin and mechanisms of its anticancer activity, and reviewed in this study...
September 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mobolaji Adeniyi, Yinka Titilawo, Anthonia Oluduro, Olu Odeyemi, Motebang Nakin, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Identification of fungal species based on morphological characteristics is tedious, complex, prone to errors, and thus cannot be completely relied upon. In this study, internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4)-polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify DNA of 19 mushroom isolates collected at Environmental Pollution Science and Technology farm, Ilesa, Southwest Nigeria. The PCR amplification of ITS1 and 4 of the mushrooms isolates yielded approximately 850 bp. Amplicons obtained were sequenced and identified using BLASTn in the NCBI...
September 20, 2018: AMB Express
Hsin-Ling Yang, Ruei-Wan Lin, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Dony Chacko Mathew, Varadharajan Thigarajan, Chuan-Chen Lee, Chih-Jung Hsu, You-Cheng Hseu
Antrodia salmonea is well known in Taiwan as a traditional Chinese medicinal fungus and has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, the anticancer activity of A. salmonea against human ovarian cancer is still elusive. Therefore, we investigated the antiovarian tumor activity of a fermented culture broth of A. salmonea and exhibits its underlying molecular mechanism. A. salmonea shows a significant effect on cell viability in human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 or A2780) cell lines with an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
March 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Andrew L Loyd, Brantlee S Richter, Michelle A Jusino, Camille Truong, Matthew E Smith, Robert A Blanchette, Jason A Smith
Species of Ganoderma , commonly called reishi (in Japan) or lingzhi (in China), have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, and their use has gained interest from pharmaceutical industries in recent years. Globally, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species is chaotic, and the taxon name Ganoderma lucidum has been used for most laccate (shiny) Ganoderma species. However, it is now known that G. lucidum sensu stricto has a limited native distribution in Europe and some parts of China. It is likely that differences in the quality and quantity of medicinally relevant chemicals occur among Ganoderma species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Janne Koskinen, Tomas Roslin, Tommi Nyman, Nerea Abrego, Craig Michell, Eero J Vesterinen
Fruiting bodies of fungi constitute an important resource for thousands of other taxa. The structure of these diverse assemblages has traditionally been studied with labour-intensive methods involving cultivation and morphology-based species identification, to which molecular information might offer convenient complements. To overcome challenges in DNA extraction and PCR associated with the complex chemical properties of fruiting bodies, we developed a pipeline applicable for extracting amplifiable total DNA from soft fungal samples of any size...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Hairui Yang, Wenbo Sun, Jinsong Zhang, Yaping Zhang, Henan Zhang, Yan Yang, Di Wu, Yanfang Liu, Zheng Qiankun, Li Min, Wen-Han Wang, Wei Jia
Taiwanofungus camphoratus has been reported to have antitumor effects against various cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct inhibitory effect of By-1 (3-isobutyl-l-methoxy-4-[4'-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), a compound from spent broth from submerged cultures of T. camphoratus, on human lung adenocarcinoma cells and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. The growth-inhibitory assay and colony formation assay showed that cell viability was significantly decreased...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Bai-Xiong Chen, Tao Wei, Zhi-Wei Ye, Fan Yun, Lin-Zhi Kang, Hong-Biao Tang, Li-Qiong Guo, Jun-Fang Lin
Cordyceps militaris is a well-known edible medicinal mushroom in East Asia that contains abundant and diverse bioactive compounds. Since traditional genome editing systems in C. militaris were inefficient and complicated, here, we show that the codon-optimized cas9 , which was used with the newly reported promoter Pcmlsm3 and terminator Tcmura3, was expressed. Furthermore, with the help of the negative selection marker ura3 , a CRISPR-Cas9 system that included the Cas9 DNA endonuclease, RNA presynthesized in vitro and a single-strand DNA template efficiently generated site-specific deletion and insertion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Bert W Hoeksema, Sofya V Mudrova, Mikhail A Nikitin, Alejandro Martínez, Nadezda N Rimskaya-Korsakova, Michael L Berumen, Diego Fontaneto
The radiation of symbiotic copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) living in association with stony corals (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) is considered host-specific and linked to the phylogenetic diversification of their hosts. However, symbiotic copepods are poorly investigated, occurrence records are mostly anecdotal, and no explicit analysis exists regarding their relationship with the hosts. Here, we analysed the occurrence of symbiotic copepods on different co-occurring and phylogenetically closely related scleractinian corals...
October 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, Hossein Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying intellectual disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next-generation sequencing revealed Zinc Finger and BTB Domain Containing 11 (ZBTB11) as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a little-studied transcription regulator, and the two identified missense variants in this study are predicted to disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
September 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Emily Jensen-Vargas, Christine Marizzi
Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of fungal diversity, identification based on phenotype can be difficult, even for trained experts. Fungi typically have a cryptic nature and can have a similar appearance to distantly related species. Moreover, the appearance of industrially processed mushrooms complicates species identification, as they are often sold sliced and dried. Here we present a small-scale citizen science project, wherein the participants generated and analyzed DNA sequences from fruiting bodies of dried and fresh fungi that were sold for commercial use in New York City supermarkets...
June 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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