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Big data medicine

Pirracchio Romain, Mitchell J Cohen, Malenica Ivana, Cohen Jonathan, Chambaz Antoine, Maxime Cannesson, Christine Lee, Resche-Rigon Matthieu, Hubbard Alan
Historically, personalised medicine has been synonymous with pharmacogenomics and oncology. We argue for a new framework for personalised medicine analytics that capitalises on more detailed patient-level data and leverages recent advances in causal inference and machine learning tailored towards decision support applicable to critically ill patients. We discuss how advances in data technology and statistics are providing new opportunities for asking more targeted questions regarding patient treatment, and how this can be applied in the intensive care unit to better predict patient-centred outcomes, help in the discovery of new treatment regimens associated with improved outcomes, and ultimately how these rules can be learned in real-time for the patient...
October 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
W D Liu, H B Zhou, H P Hu
The application of artificial intelligence is developing rapidly in various fields with the improvement of computing power, big data processing, and diversity of algorithms. It has a great potential value in the field of medical and healthcare, especially in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it can analyze a large amount of data, information, and knowledge instantaneously. Therefore, it serves as a powerful tool for doctors to make the best treatment decisions. Notably, the development of science and technology truly transform into the actual interests of patients...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Per E Jørgensen
A number of current trends will affect and probably change laboratory medicine, as we know it. Scientific and technological developments, digital health with big data and artificial intelligence, and centralization will change the interfaces among the specialties of laboratory medicine. They might even challenge the identity of some specialties. Other trends such as demographic changes, increased complexity of health care, digital health with electronic health records, and more demanding and well-informed patients will change the way laboratory medicine specialties deliver their services...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Marcia DA Fonseca Valbuza, Alfonso Neri García Aldrete, Marcos Roberto Potenza, Ana Eugênia DE Carvalho Campos
In Brazil, the production of dried herbs and condiments is on a smaller scale than that of its other agricultural sectors; however, it has been growing and attracting new producers, driven by the stimulus to provide healthy and gourmet foods. Insects in the order Psocoptera may cause loss of quality in such dried foods, and because of their small size, these insects can be easily transported by commerce. No information is available on how these insects may be entering Brazil via the importation of dehydrated products or how they may be exported with the increase of Brazilian dried food production...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ceyda Oksel, Sadia Haider, Sara Fontanella, Clement Frainay, Adnan Custovic
Advances in big data analytics have created an opportunity for a step change in unraveling mechanisms underlying the development of complex diseases such as asthma, providing valuable insights that drive better diagnostic decision-making in clinical practice, and opening up paths to individualized treatment plans. However, translating findings from data-driven analyses into meaningful insights and actionable solutions requires approaches and tools which move beyond mining and patterning longitudinal data. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in phenotyping of asthma, to discuss key hurdles currently hampering the translation of phenotypic variation into mechanistic insights and clinical setting, and to suggest potential solutions that may address these limitations and accelerate moving discoveries into practice...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Franchino Porciuncula, Anna Virginia Roto, Deepak Kumar, Irene Davis, Serge Roy, Conor J Walsh, Louis N Awad
Recent technologic advancements have enabled the creation of portable, low-cost, and unobtrusive sensors with tremendous potential to alter the clinical practice of rehabilitation. The application of wearable sensors to track movement has emerged as a promising paradigm to enhance the care provided to patients with neurologic or musculoskeletal conditions. These sensors enable quantification of motor behavior across disparate patient populations and emerging research shows their potential for identifying motor biomarkers, differentiating between restitution and compensation motor recovery mechanisms, remote monitoring, telerehabilitation, and robotics...
September 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Wen Y Ding, Michael W Beresford, Moin A Saleem, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Stratified medicine in paediatrics is increasingly becoming a reality, as our understanding of disease pathogenesis improves and novel treatment targets emerge. We have already seen some success in paediatrics in targeted therapies such as cystic fibrosis for specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator variants. With the increased speed and decreased cost of processing and analysing data from rare disease registries, we are increasingly able to use a systems biology approach (including '-omics') to screen across populations for molecules and genes of interest...
September 28, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Vural Özdemir
Industry 4.0 is an innovation framework launched initially at the 2011 Hanover Fair in Germany. It is premised on extreme digital connectivity to build smart factories and deliver extreme automation in science and society. Industry 4.0 has recently scaled up worldwide beyond Germany and Europe. Industry 4.0 employs the Internet of Things (IoT) to connect, communicate, and collect big data from embedded sensors in living and inanimate objects. When we add artificial intelligence (AI) powered real-time data analyses to the IoT, a state of worldwide extreme connectivity, or "The Quantified Planet," is created...
September 27, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
John Torous, Adam Haim
The uptake and clinical adoption of digital mental health tools, such as smartphone apps, remain limited. Although some technology barriers remain, the greatest challenges are no longer technical. Instead, dichotomous directions and efforts divide the space and limit the potential of digital tools. This column focuses on six of these dichotomies, including randomized trials versus pragmatic studies, precision medicine versus population health, free market versus regulation, consumer versus clinical uses, big data versus privacy, and open versus proprietary software...
September 26, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Thomas R Mackie, Edward F Jackson, Maryellen Giger
BACKGROUND: This article is a summary of the quantitative imaging subgroup of the 2017 AAPM Practical Big Data Workshop (PBDW-2017) on progress and challenges in big data applied to cancer treatment and research supplemented by a draft white paper following an American Association of Physicists in Medicine FOREM meeting on Imaging Genomics in 2014. AIMS: The goal of PBDW-2017 was to close the gap between theoretical vision and practical experience with encountering and solving challenges in curating and analyzing data...
October 2018: Medical Physics
Harbil Bediaga, Sonia Arrasate, Humbert González-Díaz
Determining the target proteins of new anticancer compounds is a very important task in Medicinal Chemistry. In this sense, chemists carry out preclinical assays with a high number of combinations of experimental conditions (c j ). In fact, ChEMBL database contains outcomes of 65 534 different anticancer activity preclinical assays for 35 565 different chemical compounds (1.84 assays per compound). These assays cover different combinations of c j formed from >70 different biological activity parameters ( c0 ), >300 different drug targets ( c1 ), >230 cell lines ( c2 ), and 5 organisms of assay ( c3 ) or organisms of the target ( c4 )...
October 3, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Hugo Fitipaldi, Mark I McCarthy, Jose C Florez, Paul W Franks
The detailed characterization of human biology and behaviors is now possible at scale owing to innovations in biomarkers, bioimaging, and wearable technologies; "big data" from electronic medical records, health insurance databases, and other platforms becoming increasingly accessible; and rapidly evolving computational power and bioinformatics methods. Collectively, these advances are creating unprecedented opportunities to better understand diabetes and many other complex traits. Identifying hidden structures within these complex data sets and linking these structures to outcome data may yield unique insights into the risk factors and natural history of diabetes, which in turn may help optimize the prevention and management of the disease...
October 2018: Diabetes
Subha Madhavan, Somasundaram Subramaniam, Thomas D Brown, James L Chen
Precision medicine is at the forefront of innovation in cancer care. With the development of technologies to rapidly sequence DNA from tumors, cell-free DNA, proteins, and even metabolites coupled with the rapid decline in the cost of genomic sequencing, there has been an exponential increase in the amount of data generated for each patient diagnosed with cancer. The ability to harness this explosion of data will be critical to improving treatments for patients. Precision medicine lends itself to big data or "informatics" approaches and is focused on storing, accessing, sharing, and studying these data while taking necessary precautions to protect patients' privacy...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Michael J Hall, Arden M Morris, Weijing Sun
With the advances of technologic revolution that provides new insights into human biology, genetics and cancer, as well as advantages of big data which amasses large amounts of information for us to approach cancer treatment and prevention, we are facing challenges of organically combining data from studies based on general population and information from individual testing and setting out precisional recommendations in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. We are obligated to accelerate the adaptation of new scientific discoveries into effective treatments and prevention for cancer...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
C S Mayo, M Phillips, T R McNutt, J Palta, A Dekker, R C Miller, Y Xiao, J M Moran, M M Matuszak, P Gabriel, A S Ayan, J Prisciandaro, M Thor, N Dixit, R Popple, J Killoran, E Kaleba, M Kantor, D Ruan, R Kapoor, M L Kessler, T S Lawrence
The term Big Data has come to encompass a number of concepts and uses within medicine. This paper lays out the relevance and application of large collections of data in the radiation oncology community. We describe the potential importance and uses in clinical practice. The important concepts are then described and how they have been or could be implemented are discussed. Impediments to progress in the collection and use of sufficient quantities of data are also described. Finally, recommendations for how the community can move forward to achieve the potential of big data in radiation oncology are provided...
September 18, 2018: Medical Physics
Ferruccio Ceriotti
The classical role of the clinical laboratory, seen as the central place where the samples converge and from where the results are distributed, will be challenged by the development of digital health, the application of information technology (big data) and genomics to health care. When the development of disruptive new technologies will allow the production of accurate results outside the laboratory, its role will dramatically change. However, several factors are slowing down these evolutions. The quality of the existing data is relatively poor: lack of standardization of results, different units, different reference intervals, etc...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Wendy P J den Elzen, Nannette Brouwer, Marc H Thelen, Saskia Le Cessie, Inez-Anne Haagen, Christa M Cobbaert
Background External quality assessment (EQA) programs for general chemistry tests have evolved from between laboratory comparison programs to trueness verification surveys. In the Netherlands, the implementation of such programs has reduced inter-laboratory variation for electrolytes, substrates and enzymes. This allows for national and metrological traceable reference intervals, but these are still lacking. We have initiated a national endeavor named NUMBER (Nederlandse UniforMe Beslisgrenzen En Referentie-intervallen) to set up a sustainable system for the determination of standardized reference intervals in the Netherlands...
September 15, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Cary Jo R Schlick, Joshua P Castle, David J Bentrem
Clinical research has boomed over the past decade, with the development of multiple clinical datasets that are available for retrospective review. However, data remain incomplete based on fragmented reporting, provider change, and loss of follow-up. New technologies are being developed to assist with this limitation, by joining health care systems' medical records, and tracking Medicare claims files. The future of health care will rely more heavily on these systems, and artificial intelligence to quickly pull relevant clinical and genomic data regarding particular diagnoses, as a means to personalize medicine...
October 2018: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
Marieke A R Bak, Marieke T Blom, Hanno L Tan, Dick L Willems
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for half of all cardiac deaths in Europe. In recent years, large-scale SCA registries have been set up to enable observational studies into risk factors and the effect of treatment approaches. The increasing scale and variety of data sources, coupled with the implementation of a new European data protection legal framework, causes researchers to struggle with how to handle these 'big data'. Data protection in the SCA setting is especially complex since patients become at least temporarily incapacitated, and are thus unable to provide prospective informed consent, and because the majority of patients do not survive...
September 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ming-Chin Lin, Usman Iqbal, Yu-Chuan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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