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Big data medicine

Winter Spence
Prostate cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Canadian men. The introduction of routine screening and advanced treatment options have allowed for a decrease in prostate cancer-related mortality, but outcomes following treatment continue to vary widely. In addition, the overtreatment of indolent prostate cancers causes unnecessary treatment toxicities and burdens health care systems. Accurate identification of patients who should undergo aggressive treatment, and those which should be managed more conservatively, needs to be implemented...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Justin B Miller
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychology is poised for a fundamental shift as we modernize the ways in which behavior is measured. The amount and complexity of data generated by these new methods will be several orders of magnitude greater than what is currently created by analog measures and will quickly adopt characteristics of "Big Data." Adequate preparation for managing the influx of data will be critical for technology integration and modernization to be successful. Drawing from information technology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering, as well as, biology, genetics, and medicine, the field of biomedical informatics has rapidly evolved from its early days in computational biology to a burgeoning independent discipline that has much to offer neuropsychology...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Sarah Liptrott
The European CanCer Organisation (ECCO) held its first European Cancer Summit in Vienna, Austria, from 7-9 September 2018. The summit, 'From Science to Real-life Oncology', attracted over 370 participants from across the globe. The aim of the event was connecting science with real life through policy evolution. A broad range of stakeholders attended the event including representatives of ECCO Member Societies, healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical company representatives, patient organisations including patient advocates, commercial providers to the healthcare sector, EU and national/regional government officials as well as academic researchers and regulatory professionals...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Tracy Petrie, Ravikant Samatham, Alexander M Witkowski, Andre Esteva, Sancy A Leachman
Innovative technologies, including novel communication and imaging tools, are affecting dermatology in profound ways. A burning question for the field is whether we will retrospectively react to innovations or proactively leverage them to benefit precision medicine. Early detection of melanoma is a dermatologic area particularly poised to benefit from such innovation. This session of the Montagna Symposium on Biology of Skin focused on provocative, potentially disruptive advances, including crowdsourcing of patient advocacy efforts, rigorous experimental design of public education campaigns, research with mobile phone applications, advanced skin imaging technologies, and the emergence of artificial intelligence as a diagnostic supplement...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Marco Sardella, Glyn Belcher
The assessment of the safety of medicines for rare diseases during the development phase is often limited by the few data available from small numbers of patients. This also applies to a lesser extent during the postmarketing phase of the lifecycle of a medicine. By using all available sources of data for rare diseases drugs, and by carefully assessing these data, the most informed safety profile can be obtained. This should also allow a clear view of data that are not available at any given time point and facilitates planning of strategies to obtain data through appropriate postmarketing risk management...
November 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Bibiana Török, Eszter Sipos, Nela Pivac, Dóra Zelena
Animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder are useful tools to reveal the neurobiological basis of the vulnerability to traumatic events, and to develop new treatment strategies, as well as predicting treatment response contributing to personalized medicine approach. Different models have different construct, face and predictive validity and they model different symptoms of the disease. The most prevalent models are the single prolonged stress, electric foot-shock and predator odor. Freezing as 're-experiencing' in cluster B and startle as 'arousal' in cluster E according to DSM-5 are the most frequently studied parameters; however, several other symptoms related to mood, cognitive and social skills are part of the examinations...
November 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Catherine M Stein, Roselle Ponsaran, Erika S Trapl, Aaron J Goldenberg
PURPOSE: While there has been a recent increase in scholarship around developing policies for the return of results from genetic sequencing, it is not clear whether these approaches are appropriate for genetic epidemiology studies. Because genetic epidemiological research increasingly utilizes genome sequencing methods, particularly in large data sets where researchers did not directly ascertain the subjects, it is important to understand researchers' perspectives on the return of results...
November 23, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Shuhui Song, Xu Fei Teng, Jing Fa Xiao
With the implementation of the international human genome project and 1000 genome project, hundreds of Chinese individual genome sequences have been published. Establishing a high-precision Chinese population reference genome and identifying the unique genome variations are fundamental for future precision medicine research in China. To further meet the needs of scientific management and deep mining on the rapidly growing Chinese genomic data, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed a Virtual Chinese Genome Database (VCGDB, http://bigd...
November 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Ying Huang, Qi Liu, Lian Jiang Chi, Cheng Min Shi, Zhen Wu, Min Hu, Hong Shi, Hua Chen
The next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been playing important roles in genetic diagnosis of diseases in recent years, and serving as a technological basis of precision medicine. In analyzing NGS data, the variant annotation is an important step. In this study, we developed a computationally efficient software (BIG-Annotator) to perform functional annotation for whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms. BIG-Annotator integrates the widely used databases and pipelines for variant annotation of genetic diseases and tumors, and follows the 2015 ACMG-AMP Standard Guide for Interpretation and Reporting of Clinical Variants...
November 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Aliuska Duardo-Sánchez, Iñigo De Miguel Beriaina
In the last years the fields of Medicinal Chemistry and especially the ones related to the so-called Personalized Medicine, has received a great attention. Significant investment and remarkable researches surround the matter; however, not all those promising advances are reaching patients as quickly as they should. The absence of an adequate regulatory framework could be not helping. The complete and/or massive sequencing of individual genomes faces many ethical-legal challenges. Some of them are the access to Personalized Medicine; the treatment of a large volume of sensitive information and the use of tools produced by "big data" systems in clinical care or in predictive models...
November 20, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Benedikt E Maissenhaelter, Ashley L Woolmore, Peter M Schlag
Background: In recent years there has been an increasing, partially also critical interest in understanding the potential benefits of generating real-world evidence (RWE) in medicine. Objectives: The benefits and limitations of RWE in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are described along with a view on how they may complement each other as partners in the generation of evidence for clinical oncology. Moreover, challenges and success factors in building an effective RWE network of cooperating cancer centers are analyzed and discussed...
2018: Der Onkologe: Organ der Deutschen Krebsgesellschaft E.V
Kevin A Dorrance, Dennis A Robbins, Linda Kimsey, Jeffrey S LaRochelle, Steven Durning
Over a century ago, Abraham Flexner's landmark report on medical education resulted in the most extensive reforms of medical training in history. They led to major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the relief of suffering. His prediction that "the physician's function is fast becoming social and preventive, rather than individual and curative," however, was never realized.Instead, with the rise of biomedical science, the scientific method and the American Medical Association, the health care system became increasingly distanced from a holistic approach to life that recognizes the critical role social determinants play in people's health...
November 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Alec Davies, Mark A Green, Alex D Singleton
The availability alongside growing awareness of medicine has led to increased self-treatment of minor ailments. Self-medication is where one 'self' diagnoses and prescribes over the counter medicines for treatment. The self-care movement has important policy implications, perceived to relieve the National Health Service (NHS) burden, increasing patient subsistence and freeing resources for more serious ailments. However, there has been little research exploring how self-medication behaviours vary between population groups due to a lack of available data...
2018: PloS One
Mika Kortesniemi, Virginia Tsapaki, Annalisa Trianni, Paolo Russo, Ad Maas, Hans-Erik Källman, Marco Brambilla, John Damilakis
Big data and deep learning will profoundly change various areas of professions and research in the future. This will also happen in medicine and medical imaging in particular. As medical physicists, we should pursue beyond the concept of technical quality to extend our methodology and competence towards measuring and optimising the diagnostic value in terms of how it is connected to care outcome. Functional implementation of such methodology requires data processing utilities starting from data collection and management and culminating in the data analysis methods...
November 16, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Halit Necmi Uçar, Şafak Eray, Ömer Kocael, Lütfi Uçar, Müslüm Kaymak, Emanuele Lettieri, Ayşe Pinar Vural
BACKGROUND: Fascinating developments in big data technologies and unprecedented diffusion of social networking sites (SNSs) generate unseen opportunities for scientific fields, including psychiatry. This study focuses on the use of SNSs by adolescent psychiatric patients and the potential use of SNS-generated data to help medical practitioners diagnose and treat patients' mental health. Our objective is to understand and measure the psychiatric and individual conditions in which symptom-sharing occurs on SNSs and the frequency of these conditions...
December 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Mukesh Maithani, Harpreet Grover, Richa Raturi, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
BACKGROUND: A large part of the population of India prefers the traditional medicine (ayurvedic formulations) for primary health care. However, the effective quality control of herbal medicine is still a big challenge. Numerous reports indicate noncompliance with Compromised Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines by the manufacturers which may lead to adverse drug reactions or toxic effects. Asava and arishta are the classical herbal dosage forms wherein fermentation occurs during production leading to the generation of ethanol...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Hui Peng, Yi Zheng, Zhixun Zhao, Tao Liu, Jinyan Li
Motivation: CRISPR/Cas9 is driving a broad range of innovative applications from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine. One of its current issues is the effect of off-target editing that should be critically resolved and should be completely avoided in the ideal use of this system. Results: We developed an ensemble learning method to detect the off-target sites of a single guide RNA (sgRNA) from its thousands of genome-wide candidates. Nucleotide mismatches between on-target and off-target sites have been studied recently...
September 1, 2018: Bioinformatics
Sameer H Halani, Safoora Yousefi, Jose Velazquez Vega, Michael R Rossi, Zheng Zhao, Fatemeh Amrollahi, Chad A Holder, Amelia Baxter-Stoltzfus, Jennifer Eschbacher, Brent Griffith, Jeffrey J Olson, Tao Jiang, Joseph R Yates, Charles G Eberhart, Laila M Poisson, Lee A D Cooper, Daniel J Brat
Oligodendrogliomas are diffusely infiltrative gliomas defined by IDH -mutation and co-deletion of 1p/19q. They have highly variable clinical courses, with survivals ranging from 6 months to over 20 years, but little is known regarding the pathways involved with their progression or optimal markers for stratifying risk. We utilized machine-learning approaches with genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to objectively identify molecular factors associated with clinical outcomes of oligodendroglioma and extended these findings to study signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis and clinical endpoints associated with glioma progression...
2018: NPJ Precision Oncology
Amaryllis Mavragani, Gabriela Ochoa, Konstantinos P Tsagarakis
BACKGROUND: In the era of information overload, are big data analytics the answer to access and better manage available knowledge? Over the last decade, the use of Web-based data in public health issues, that is, infodemiology, has been proven useful in assessing various aspects of human behavior. Google Trends is the most popular tool to gather such information, and it has been used in several topics up to this point, with health and medicine being the most focused subject. Web-based behavior is monitored and analyzed in order to examine actual human behavior so as to predict, better assess, and even prevent health-related issues that constantly arise in everyday life...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Lu Wang, Xiangtian Yu, Chengming Zhang, Tao Zeng
BACKGROUNDS: The targeted therapy is the foundation of personalized medicine in cancer, which is often understood as the right patient using the right drug. Thinking from the viewpoint of determinates during personalized drug treatment, the genetics, epigenetics and metagenomics would provide individual-specific biological elements to characterize the personalized responses for therapy. METHODS: Such personalized determinates should be not extremely understood as specificity for only one person, while they should have certain replicate observations in a group of individuals but no all, which actually provide more credible and reproducible personalized biological features...
November 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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