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Skin cancer. Melanoma

Balazs Harangi
Skin cancer is a major public health problem with over 123,000 newly diagnosed cases worldwide in every year. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, responsible for over 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Thus, reliable automatic melanoma screening systems would provide a great help for clinicians to detect the malignant skin lesions as early as possible. In the last five years, the efficiency of deep learning-based methods increased dramatically and their performances seem to outperform conventional image processing methods in classification tasks...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Gagan Chhabra, Debra R Garvey, Chandra K Singh, Charlotte A Mintie, Nihal Ahmad
Melanoma incidences are increasing rapidly, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is believed to be its major contributing factor. UV exposure causes DNA damage in skin which may initiate cutaneous skin cancers including melanoma. Melanoma arises from melanocytes, the melanin-producing skin cells, following genetic dysregulations resulting into hyperproliferative phenotype and neoplastic transformation. Both UVA and UVB exposure to the skin are believed to trigger melanocytic hyperplasia and melanomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
J Ferlay, M Colombet, I Soerjomataram, T Dyba, G Randi, M Bettio, A Gavin, O Visser, F Bray
INTRODUCTION: Europe contains 9% of the world population but has a 25% share of the global cancer burden. Up-to-date cancer statistics in Europe are key to cancer planning. Cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 25 major cancers are presented for the 40 countries in the four United Nations-defined areas of Europe and for Europe and the European Union (EU-28) for 2018. METHODS: Estimates of national incidence and mortality rates for 2018 were based on statistical models applied to the most recently published data, with predictions obtained from recent trends, where possible...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Channay Naidoo, Cherie Ann Kruger, Heidi Abrahamse
This review article is based on specifically targeted nanoparticles that have been used in the treatment of melanoma. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, within 2017 an estimated 9730 people will die due to invasive melanoma. Conventional treatments for nonmalignant melanoma include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. For the treatment of metastatic melanoma, 3 therapeutic agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration: dacarbazine, recombinant interferon α-2b, and high-dose interleukin 2...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Kaiyuan Ji, Junzhen Zhang, Ruiwen Fan, Shanshan Yang, Changsheng Dong
Melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic malignant skin tumor with poor prognosis. Although several widely studied pure melanoma cell lines are available, the precise mechanism underlying transformation of melanocyte to melanoma remains unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a vast category of noncoding RNA molecules, and increasing evidence suggests that lncRNAs are crucial for various biological processes, including those in the skin. Herein, lncRNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq platform to identify lncRNAs expressed differently in murine B16 melanoma cells compared to normal mouse melanocytes...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Elisabetta Panza, Giuseppe Ercolano, Paola De Cicco, Chiara Armogida, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gerardo Botti, Giuseppe Cirino, Angela Ianaro
Malignant melanoma is one of the most leading form of skin cancer associated with a low patient survival rate. Increasing evidence revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence and development of several form of cancer including melanoma. In this study, we aimed at investigating the expression and role of miR-143-3p in human malignant melanoma. Our results showed that the expression of miR-143-3p was lower in human melanoma cells, as well as human biopsy specimens, when compared to normal human melanocytes...
August 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Valentina Nanni, Lorena Canuti, Angelo Gismondi, Antonella Canini
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet light exposure generates, in human tissues, radical species, which represent the main cause of photo-aging, DNA damage and skin cancer onset. On the other hand, Mediterranean plants, being continuously subjected to high solar radiation levels, are naturally adapted to take on this type of abiotic stress, thanks to the production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. For these reasons, several plant extracts were documented to be excellent antineoplastic drugs. PURPOSE: We investigated the potential antitumor activity of the flower extract obtained by Spartium junceum L...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Janet Y Li, Jeremy T Kampp
BACKGROUND: Alternative herbal remedies for skin cancer are commonly found on the Internet. Many websites contain inaccurate or false information regarding side effects and efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence behind several commonly advertised herbal remedies that claim to cure skin cancer: black salve, eggplant, frankincense, cannabis, black raspberry, milk thistle, St. John's wort, and turmeric. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the common and scientific names of frequently advertised herbal remedies along with the terms "nonmelanoma skin cancer," or "basal cell carcinoma" or "squamous cell carcinoma," or "melanoma...
August 9, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Pravin Shende, Jai Vaidya, R S Gaud
Cancer is the largest family of diseases that involve abnormal uncontrolled cell growth which metastasizes to other parts of the body. The most common type of cancers includes lung, liver, colorectal, prostate, stomach, breast and cervical cancer with skin cancer excluding melanoma (contribute up to 40% of the cases). The conventional treatment approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, etc., have several side effects such as severe inflammation and pain. Hence, pharmacotherapeutic approaches of antineoplastic agents can be advantageous for treating various forms of cancer through the skin...
August 10, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Harshita Mishra, Pawan K Mishra, Adam Ekielski, Manu Jaggi, Zeenat Iqbal, Sushama Talegaonkar
INTRODUCTION: Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer causing most of the skin cancer-related deaths. The incidence of melanoma has risen so dramatically over past few years that no other solid or blood malignancy comes close to it in terms of increased incidence. The main problem associated with the treatment of melanoma is low response rate to the existing treatment modalities, which in turn is due to the incomplete response by chemotherapeutic agents and inherent resistance of melanoma cells...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Pauline Zaenker, Johnny Lo, Robert Pearce, Phillip Cantwell, Lester Cowell, Mark Lee, Christopher Quirk, Henry Law, Elin Gray, Mel Ziman
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that is curable by surgical excision in the majority of cases, if detected at an early stage. To improve early stage melanoma detection, the development of a highly sensitive diagnostic test is of utmost importance. Here we aimed to identify antibodies to a panel of tumour associated antigens that can differentiate primary melanoma patients and healthy individuals. A total of 245 sera from primary melanoma patients and healthy volunteers were screened against a high-throughput microarray platform containing 1627 functional proteins...
July 17, 2018: Oncotarget
Naomi D Herz, Anastasia Chalkidou, Fiona Reid, Stephen F Keevil, Andrew Coleman, Emma Craythorne, Rakesh Patalay
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, 350,000 patients per year are referred to hospital clinics with suspicious moles, and approximately half undergo a biopsy to identify the 5%-10% who require further treatment. If cancer cannot be ruled out clinically and on the basis of biopsy results, the lesion is surgically removed. One type of precancerous mole, called lentigo maligna, is particularly challenging to delineate and treat. Reflectance confocal microscopy (VivaScope, Caliber Imaging & Diagnostics) is an imaging technique that can supplement dermoscopy in identifying whether a clinically suspicious mole is malignant and can better assess lentigo maligna margins for excision...
August 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
T Kueder-Pajares, M A Descalzo, I García-Doval, L Ríos-Buceta, D Moreno-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: A series of quality indicators for melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer were recently approved within a project promoted by the Healthy Skin Foundation of the Spanish AEDV. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to these indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In November 2016, an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 32 items was sent to the heads of Spanish dermatology and venereology departments listed in the AEDV's database. The questions referred to the above-mentioned quality of care indicators...
August 6, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Martina Taborelli, Pierluca Piselli, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Umberto Baccarani, Patrizia Burra, Augusto Lauro, Laura Galatioto, Maria Rendina, Sarah Shalaby, Raffaella Petrara, Francesco Nudo, Luca Toti, Giovanni Fantola, Claudia Cimaglia, Alessandro Agresta, Giovanni Vennarecci, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Andrea Risaliti, Alfredo Di Leo, Massimo Rossi, Giuseppe Tisone, Fausto Zamboni, Diego Serraino
In the setting of liver transplant (LT), the survival after the diagnosis of de novo malignancies (DNMs) has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the impact of DNMs on survival of LT recipients as compared to corresponding LT recipients without DNM. A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 2818 LT recipients enrolled in nine Italian centres between 1985 and 2014. Cases were 244 LT recipients who developed DNMs after LT. For each case, 2 controls matched for gender, age, and year at transplant were selected by incidence density sampling among cohort members without DNM...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Julia Brütting, Maike Bergmann, Marlene Garzarolli, Ricarda Rauschenberg, Christiane Weber, Carola Berking, Wolfgang Tilgen, Dirk Schadendorf, Friedegund Meier
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the information-seeking behavior (ISB) of melanoma patients (MPs) and MP subgroups, in order to provide data for needs-based adaptation of information provision. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey in 27 German skin cancer centers, we explored characteristics of the ISB of MPs with the aid of a standardized questionnaire. Sub-group differences were determined with the chi-squared test and predictors of media preferences with logistic regression...
August 9, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Caragh P Stapleton, Kelly A Birdwell, Amy Jayne McKnight, Alexander P Maxwell, Patrick B Mark, M Lee Sanders, Fiona A Chapman, Jessica van Setten, Paul J Phelan, Claire Kennedy, Alan Jardine, Jamie P Traynor, Brendan Keating, Peter J Conlon, Gianpiero L Cavalleri
Renal transplant recipients have an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) compared to in the general population. Here, we show polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of NMSC in general, non-transplant setting, can predict risk of, and time to post-transplant skin cancer. Genetic variants, reaching pre-defined p-value thresholds were chosen from published squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) non-transplant GWAS. Using these genome-wide association studies, BCC and SCC PRS were calculated for each sample across three European-ancestry renal-transplant cohorts (n=889) and tested as predictors of case:control status and time to NMSC post-transplant...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Isabel Rodríguez-Blanco, Ángeles Flórez, Carmen Paredes-Suárez, Romina Rodríguez-Lojo, Daniel González-Vilas, Aquilina Ramírez-Santos, Sabela Paradela, Ignacio Suárez Conde, Manuel Pereiro-Ferreirós
Actinic cheilitis is thought to be a premalignant lesion or a superficial squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of actinic cheilitis in Europe is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of actinic cheilitis in the Galicia region (north-west Spain). Secondary objectives were the description of risk factors of actinic cheilitis. A cross-sectional multicentre study in patients ≥ 45 years of age was performed in 8 dermatology departments in Galicia region during a 1-year period. The prevalence of actinic cheilitis was 31...
August 7, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Juliana Rosa, Isabella Suzuki, Marcelo Kravicz, Angelo Caron, Ana Vitoria Pupo, Fabiola Garcia Praca, Maria Vitoria Lopes Badra Bentley
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy is a new approach to discover and treat many diseases. It has attracted considerable attention from researchers in the last decades. The gene therapy through RNA interference has been considered one of the most recent and revolutionary approaches used in individualized therapy. In the last years, we have witnessed the rapid development in the field of the gene silencing and knockdown by topical siRNA. Its application in gene therapy has become an attractive alternative for drug development...
August 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Alessandro Mantovani, Ilaria Teobaldi, Vincenzo Stoico, Fabrizia Perrone, Marina Zannoni, Luca Cima, Massimiliano Bruti, Lucia Mingolla, Maddalena Trombetta, Enzo Bonora
After basal cell carcinoma, the cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer worldwide, and, classically, arises from the upper coats of the epidermis of sun-exposed areas or from skin areas constantly exposed to a chronic inflammatory stimulus. The occurrence of cSCC seems to be linked to several factors, including exposure to sunlight (or other ultraviolet radiations), immunosuppression, chronic scarring conditions and some familial cancer syndromes. Although the majority of cSCCs are adequately eradicated by surgical excision, a subgroup of cSCC may be linked with an increased risk of recurrence, metastasis and death...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Mohammed T Lilo, Youdinghuan Chen, Robert E LeBlanc
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an extremely aggressive skin cancer that must be distinguished from other basaloid cutaneous neoplasms that have different treatments and prognoses. This is sometimes challenging in small shave specimens, crushed samples, lymph nodes, and core needle biopsies. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) immunohistochemistry is a sensitive nuclear marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. INSM1 staining was performed on 56 MCC (47 primary tumors, 9 nodal metastases), 50 skin control cases that included basal cell carcinomas, basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, Bowen disease, sebaceous neoplasms, melanoma, and B-cell lymphomas, and 28 lymph node control cases that included metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas, and adenocarcinomas...
August 4, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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