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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096791/unpaxing-the-divergent-roles-of-pax2-and-pax8-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Laura R Hardy, Amrita Salvi, Joanna E Burdette
High-grade serous ovarian cancer is a deadly disease that can originate from the fallopian tube or the ovarian surface epithelium. The PAX (paired box) genes PAX2 and PAX8 are lineage-specific transcription factors required during development of the fallopian tube but not in the development of the ovary. PAX2 expression is lost early in serous cancer progression, while PAX8 is expressed ubiquitously. These proteins are implicated in migration, invasion, proliferation, cell survival, stem cell maintenance, and tumor growth...
August 8, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086162/mouse-models-of-sporadic-thyroid-cancer-derived-from-brafv600e-alone-or-in-combination-with-pten-haploinsufficiency-under-physiologic-tsh-levels
#2
Mika Shimamura, Nobuyuki Shibusawa, Tomomi Kurashige, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Hiroki Matsuzaki, Masahiro Nakashima, Masanobu Yamada, Yuji Nagayama
The BRAFV600E mutation is the most prevalent driver mutation of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). It was previously shown that prenatal or postnatal expression of BRAFV600E under elevated TSH levels induced thyroid cancers in several genetically engineered mouse models. In contrast, we found that postnatal expression of BRAFV600E under physiologic TSH levels failed to develop thyroid cancers in conditional transgenic Tg(LNL-BrafV600E) mice injected in the thyroid with adenovirus expressing Cre under control of the thyroglobulin promoter (Ad-TgP-Cre)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075157/anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-an-epidemiologic-histologic-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-single-institution-study
#3
Audrey Deeken-Draisey, Guang-Yu Yang, Juehua Gao, Borislav A Alexie
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer. A single institution thyroid cancer cohort of ATC was identified within the last ten years at our institution. Retrospective analysis revealed that the frequency of ATC was 0.5% (11/2106 thyroid carcinomas). The average age at diagnosis of ATC was 74 years, and the female to male ratio was 1.2:1. ATC presented as a rapidly enlarging neck mass involving predominantly the left thyroid lobe (7/11, 64%). Cervical adenopathy was present in 7/11 (64%) of cases...
July 31, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059455/undifferentiated-endometrial-carcinoma-an-immunohistochemical-study-including-pd-l1-testing-of-a-series-of-cases-from-a-single-cancer-center
#4
Maysa Al-Hussaini, Isam Lataifeh, Imad Jaradat, Ghadeer Abdeen, Lian Otay, Osama Badran, Areej Abu Sheikha, Abdulmajeed Dayyat, Mousa El Khaldi, Shaymaa Ashi Al-Loh
Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC) is a rare and poorly recognized entity, associated with a poor outcome. The clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of 17 cases diagnosed at our center are described. The median age was 60 yr. Postmenopausal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (76.9%). Most patients presented with advanced stage (64.7%). Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the commonly offered surgical treatment (80.0%). Nine (52.9%) patients received adjuvant treatment...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048507/prospective-and-longitudinal-natural-history-study-of-patients-with-type-2-and-3-spinal-muscular-atrophy-baseline-data-nathis-sma-study
#5
Aurélie Chabanon, Andreea Mihaela Seferian, Aurore Daron, Yann Péréon, Claude Cances, Carole Vuillerot, Liesbeth De Waele, Jean-Marie Cuisset, Vincent Laugel, Ulrike Schara, Teresa Gidaro, Stéphanie Gilabert, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Pierre-Yves Baudin, Pierre Carlier, Emmanuel Fournier, Linda Pax Lowes, Nicole Hellbach, Timothy Seabrook, Elie Toledano, Mélanie Annoussamy, Laurent Servais
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a monogenic disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 gene, which results in a broad range of disease severity, from neonatal to adult onset. There is currently a concerted effort to define the natural history of the disease and develop outcome measures that accurately capture its complexity. As several therapeutic strategies are currently under investigation and both the FDA and EMA have recently approved the first medical treatment for SMA, there is a critical need to identify the right association of responsive outcome measures and biomarkers for individual patient follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032344/pax-5-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-breast-cancer-cells-through-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-mirna-155-effectors
#6
Jason Harquail, Nicolas LeBlanc, Carine Landry, Nicolas Crapoulet, Gilles A Robichaud
Pax-5, an essential transcription factor in B cell development, is aberrantly expressed in various B cell cancer lesions and solid tumors such as breast carcinoma. We have recently shown that Pax-5 regulates NF-κB activity which lead to the modulation of breast cancer phenotypic features (EMT-MET). NF-κB is known as a central mediator in inflammation, stress response as well as being a gatekeeper of pro-tumorigenic activity. However, little is known as to how Pax-5 affects this modulation. We thus turned our attention to microRNAs as potential regulatory effectors...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023746/synthesis-self-assembly-and-drug-delivery-characteristics-of-poly-methyl-caprolactone-co-caprolactone-b-poly-ethylene-oxide-copolymers-with-variable-compositions-of-hydrophobic-blocks-combining-chemistry-and-microfluidic-processing-for-polymeric-nanomedicines
#7
Zheqi Xu, Changhai Lu, Carly Lindenberger, Yimeng Cao, Jeremy E Wulff, Matthew G Moffitt
The synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of a series of biocompatible poly(methyl caprolactone- co -caprolactone)- b -poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic block copolymers with variable MCL contents in the hydrophobic block are described. Self-assembly gives rise to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) with hydrophobic cores that decrease in crystallinity as the MCL content increases, and their morphologies and sizes show nonmonotonic trends with MCL content. PNPs loaded with the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PAX) give rise to in vitro PAX release rates and MCF-7 GI50 (50% growth inhibition concentration) values that decrease as the MCL content increases...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006815/unraveling-molecular-targets-of-bisphenol-a-and-s-in-the-thyroid-gland
#8
Clemilson Berto-Júnior, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Jones Bernades Graceli, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Paula Soares, Nelilma Correia Romeiro, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor with several effects on reproduction, development, and cancer incidence, and it is highly used in the plastic industry. Bisphenol S (BPS) was proposed as an alternative to BPA since it has a similar structure and can be used to manufacture the same products. Some reports show that BPA interferes with thyroid function, but little is known about the involvement of BPS in thyroid function or how these molecules could possibly modulate at the same time the principal genes involved in thyroid physiology...
July 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005148/epstein-barr-virus-positive-mucocutaneous-ulcer-a-case-report
#9
Vasantha Gali, Jonathan S Bleeker, Douglas Lynch
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV-MCU) is a recently described entity observed in immunocompromised individuals. EBV-MCU is an aggressive appearing ulcerated lesion seen in the skin, oral cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The process has Hodgkin-like features with a self-limited, indolent course, generally responding well to conservative management. We present a case of EBV-MCU recently encountered in a 54-year-old renal transplant recipient...
June 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003945/fast-and-slow-twitching-muscles-are-differentially-affected-by-reduced-cholinergic-transmission-in-mice-deficient-for-vacht-a-mouse-model-for-congenital-myasthenia
#10
Matheus P S Magalhães-Gomes, Daisy Motta-Santos, Luana P L Schetino, Jéssica N Andrade, Cristiane P Bastos, Diogo A S Guimarães, Sydney K Vaughan, Patrícia M Martinelli, Silvia Guatimosim, Grace S Pereira, Candido C Coimbra, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Gregorio Valdez, Cristina Guatimosim
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) result from reduced cholinergic transmission at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). While the etiology of CMS varies, the disease is characterized by muscle weakness. To date, it remains unknown if CMS causes long-term and irreversible changes to skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined skeletal muscles in a mouse line with reduced expression of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT, mouse line herein called VAChT-KDHOM ). We examined this mouse line for several reasons...
July 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979246/downregulated-pancreatic-beta-cell-genes-indicate-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#11
Atsushi Kudo, Keiichi Akahoshi, Sakiko Ito, Takumi Akashi, Shu Shimada, Toshiro Ogura, Kosuke Ogawa, Hiroaki Ono, Yusuke Mitsunori, Daisuke Ban, Ukihide Tateishi, Shinji Tanaka, Minoru Tanabe
OBJECTIVE: To predict metachronous liver metastasis after pancreatectomy for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (Pan-NENs). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Liver metastasis determines the prognosis of patients with Pan-NENs, but no index exists in the WHO 2017 classification for this prediction. METHODS: Between April 2014 and March 2018, resected primary tumors from 20 patients with or without simultaneous liver metastasis were examined using genome-wide gene expression analysis...
July 3, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978744/validation-of-pressure-reactivity-and-pulse-amplitude-indices-against-the-lower-limit-of-autoregulation-part-i-experimental-intra-cranial-hypertension
#12
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Jennifer Lee, Peter Smieleweski, Ken Brady, Dong-Joo Kim, Marek Czosnyka
To provide validation of intracranial pressure (ICP) derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity against the lower limit of autoregulation (LLA). Utilizing an intra-cranial hypertension model within white New Zealand rabbits, ICP, TCD, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and arterial blood pressure were recorded. Data was retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 12 rabbits with adequate signals for interrogating the LLA. We derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity: PRx (correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP)), PAx (correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP (AMP) and MAP), and Lx (correlation between LDF based cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CPP)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928489/smad-proteins-directly-suppress-pax2-transcription-downstream-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signalling-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
Gagandeep Kaur, Caiyun Grace Li, Andrew Chantry, Cherie Stayner, Julia Horsfield, Michael R Eccles
Canonical TGF-β1 signalling promotes tumor progression by facilitating invasion and metastasis, whereby release of TGF-β1, by (for example) infiltrating immune cells, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAX2, a member of the Paired box family of transcriptional regulators, is normally expressed during embryonic development, including in the kidney, where it promotes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). PAX2 expression is silenced in many normal adult tissues. However, in contrast, PAX2 is expressed in several cancer types, including kidney, prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913415/reduction-in-co-2-emissions-in-roro-pax-ports-equipped-with-automatic-mooring-systems
#14
REVIEW
Emma Díaz-Ruiz-Navamuel, Andrés Ortega Piris, Carlos A Pérez-Labajos
Faced with the unavoidable reality of the emission of pollutant gases by vessels both while sailing and when performing in-port manoeuvres, the international community has devised an extensive set of rules to limit greenhouse gas emissions and the emission of other pollutants which are bad for our health. In order to make these reductions in the emissions, the areas addressed are the engine regime or speed control, the quality of the fuel used, the state of conservation of the vessel and its hull or the time taken to perform the manoeuvres of mooring and unmooring...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885658/ebv-associated-lymphoepithelioma-like-thyroid-carcinoma-with-favorable-outcome-case-report-with-cytopathologic-and-histopathologic-study
#15
Chih-Yi Liu, Shih-Hung Huang
BACKGROUND: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare entity among thyroid tumors. Based on the limited number of case reports that exist, the association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with primary thyroid LELCs seems inconsistent. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a confusing cytological case of lymphoepithelioma-like thyroid carcinoma with expression of EBV. The patient presented with a central neck mass and bilateral lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed three-dimensional and syncytial fragments of epithelioid cells accompanied by small lymphocytes...
June 9, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877569/dynamic-patterns-of-mononucleated-myogenic-cell-populations-in-the-developing-rat-hindlimb
#16
Antonio S J Lee, Nara Yoon, Maree Gould, Ming Zhang
Formation of an organ is governed by both the genetic programming of individual cells and dynamic interactions amongst different cell communities or the 'community effect'. Using the developing vertebrate limb muscle, we identified myogenic stem cell communities derived from migratory somitic cells. These cells express Pax3, a gene from the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors and Pax7, a paralog of Pax3. Both Pax genes act upstream of myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) whose activation marks a specified myogenic lineage and subsequent differentiation...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875411/a-molecular-rheostat-adjusts-auxin-flux-to-promote-root-protophloem-differentiation
#17
P Marhava, A E L Bassukas, M Zourelidou, M Kolb, B Moret, A Fastner, W X Schulze, P Cattaneo, U Z Hammes, C Schwechheimer, C S Hardtke
Auxin influences plant development through several distinct concentration-dependent effects 1 . In the Arabidopsis root tip, polar auxin transport by PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins creates a local auxin accumulation that is required for the maintenance of the stem-cell niche2-4 . Proximally, stem-cell daughter cells divide repeatedly before they eventually differentiate. This developmental gradient is accompanied by a gradual decrease in auxin levels as cells divide, and subsequently by a gradual increase as the cells differentiate5,6 ...
June 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858052/cryptotanshinone-protects-cartilage-against-developing-osteoarthritis-through-the-mir-106a-5p-glis3-axis
#18
Quanbo Ji, Dengbin Qi, Xiaojie Xu, Yameng Xu, Stuart B Goodman, Lei Kang, Qi Song, Zhongyi Fan, William J Maloney, Yan Wang
Cryptotanshinone (CTS) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory agent in osteoarthritis (OA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its potent therapeutic effect on OA remains largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as crucial regulators in maintaining cartilage homeostasis. To investigate whether CTS protects against developing OA through regulation of miRNAs, we examined the potential CTS-mediated miRNA molecules using microarray analysis. We found that CTS significantly promoted miR-106a-5p expression in chondrocytes...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843820/successful-treatment-of-primary-bone-marrow-hodgkin-lymphoma-with-brentuximab-vedotin-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Keiki Nagaharu, Masahiro Masuya, Yuki Kageyama, Takanori Yamaguchi, Ryugo Ito, Keiki Kawakami, Masafumi Ito, Naoyuki Katayama
BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma usually presents with sequential enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow invasion rarely occurs (approximately 3-5%). However, several cases have been reported as "primary" bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma, especially among patients with human immunodeficiency virus and the elderly. This type of Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by no peripheral lymphadenopathies and has been reported to have poorer prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of fever of unknown origin and pancytopenia without lymphadenopathies...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808745/validation-of-icp-derived-cerebrovascular-reactivity-indices-against-the-lower-limit-of-autoregulation-part-ii-experimental-model-of-arterial-hypotension
#20
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Jennifer Lee, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ken Brady
To explore the relationship between intra-cranial pressure (ICP) derived indices of cerebrovascular reactivity and the lower limit of autoregulation (LLA) during arterial hypotension. We retrospectively reviewed recorded physiologic data from piglets that underwent controlled hypotension. Hypotension was induced by inflation of a balloon catheter in the inferior vena cava. ICP, cortical laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring was conducted. ICP derived indices were calculated: pressure reactivity index (PRx - correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP)), pulse amplitude index (PAx - correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP (AMP) and MAP), and RAC (correlation between AMP and CPP)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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