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Varicella Encephalitis

Irene González, Alejandro Molina-Ortega, Pilar Pérez-Romero, Juan E Echevarría, Lante He, David Tarragó
BACKGROUND: Despite childhood universal VZV immunization was introduced in 2015, there are no data on VZV clade distribution in Spain. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the varicella-zoster virus strains circulating in Spain between 1997 and 2016. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, we determined the VZV clades in 294 patients with different pathologies (mainly encephalitis, zoster and varicella) by sequencing three fragments within ORF 22, ORF 21 and ORF 50 and, subsequently analyzing 7 relevant SNPs...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Rujuta S Hadaye, Shruti Shastri, Sujata R Lavangare
INTRODUCTION: Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases in adults is the need of the hour. The student nurses by virtue of training are the frontline health workers dealing with patient care. They are exposed to maximum risk of contracting the diseases. Vaccine awareness is not a part of their induction training program. It is necessary to plan preventive measure related to vaccination in their interest. AIM: This study aims to assess awareness and practices of nursing students related to adult immunization...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Moussa Toudou-Daouda, Ahmed Filali-Adib, Aicha Slassi, Mohammed-Faouzi Belahsen, Zouhayr Souirti
OBJECTIVES: Histologically defined as an inflammation-degeneration of limbic structures, limbic encephalitis (LE) is a rare disease and often difficult to diagnose particularly in institutions with limited access to laboratory tests such as antineuronal antibodies or HSV-PCR, and functional imaging. We aimed to describe the demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and etiological features of LE, as well as its medium-term prognosis in Moroccan patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected retrospectively all patients diagnosed with LE in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez (Morocco) between September 2008 and December 2016...
November 25, 2018: Brain and Behavior
R I Tiwari, S S Bhullar, N H Chandak, N N Baheti, H F Daginawala, L R Singh, R S Kashyap
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur sporadically and have been extensively studied because of the potential for permanent neurological damage or death. The neurotropic viruses have been reported to lead to various CNS infections. The objective of the present study is to develop an antigen detection ELISA protocol for detection and quantification of viral antigen in CNS infections by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Chandipura virus (CHPV)...
2018: Acta Virologica
Pavel Dyachenko, Anatoly Dyachenko, Olga Smiianova, Victoria A Kurhanskay, Ruslan Efremin
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Herpesviruses (HVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that infect humans usually during childhood, followed by a life-long persistence in a latent state in many sites of a body including the nerve cells. After reactivation HVs can affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem very few population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Ukraine...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ruth F Itzhaki
Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Peter G E Kennedy, Anne A Gershon
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogenic human herpes virus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, following which it becomes latent in peripheral ganglia. Decades later, the virus may reactivate either spontaneously or after a number of triggering factors to cause herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella and its complications are more severe in the immunosuppressed. The most frequent and important complication of VZV reactivation is postherpetic neuralgia, the cause of which is unknown and for which treatment is usually ineffective...
November 2, 2018: Viruses
Durga Bhandari, Prativa Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Volunteers and humanitarian aid workers working in disaster struck areas of the world are a vulnerable group of travelers. Nepal saw an influx of these humanitarian aid workers following earthquakes in April and May 2015. This study was undertaken to find out the pre-travel preparation and to estimate the risk of disease while the volunteers were deployed in Nepal. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at CIWEC Hospital located in Kathmandu...
March 2018: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Miles H Beaman
Meningitis and encephalitis are medical emergencies. Patients need prompt evaluation and immediate empiric therapy to reduce the likelihood of fatal outcomes and chronic neurological sequelae. Conjugate bacterial vaccines have significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial meningitis, especially in children. As the results of changes in patterns of bacterial drug sensitivity, ceftriaxone is now part of the recommended empiric treatment for bacterial meningitis and should be administered as early as possible...
October 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Kelly J Baldwin, Christopher L Cummings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic disease associated with human herpesvirus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: As more patients are becoming therapeutically immunosuppressed, human herpesvirus infections are increasingly common. Historically, infections with human herpesviruses were described as temporal lobe encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2. More recently, however, additional pathogens, such as varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6 have been identified to cause serious neurologic infections...
October 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Anuradha Mehta, Aanchal Arora, Manoj Sharma, Rupali Malik, Yogesh Chandra Porwal
Chickenpox (varicella) is primarily a disease of childhood which occurs due to infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Primary VZV infection is rare in adults due to exposure in early childhood in our country. In adults, it is associated with some serious systemic and neurological complications which can follow both primary infection and reactivation of VZV. Neurological sequelae caused by primary VZV infection are rare and include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, myelitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, Reye syndrome, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and rarely stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT)...
July 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Bansidhar Tarai, Poonam Das
BACKGROUND: Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME) is a syndrome of central nervous system (CNS) infections, which could lead to neurological damage and fatality. This study evaluates the multiplex FilmArray® ME Panel which is aimed to diagnose agents causing suspect CNS infections in north India. METHODS: A total number of 969 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2016 and January 2018 from patients who showed clinical symptoms of CNS infections were analyzed using the FilmArray® ME Panel...
September 25, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Vedran Premužić, Marija Santini, Mario Laganović, Marijana Ćorić, Bojan Jelaković
Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is distributed worldwide and is highly contagious. In adults and immunosuppressed patients of any age, the clinical course is much more severe. The most severe complications are pneumonia (the main cause of lethal outcomes in this infection), encephalitis, and very rarely Reye syndrome and hepatitis. Case Presentation: We present a 59-year-old man who came to the emergency department due to varicella and diarrhea. During initial evaluation acute kidney failure (AKF) was diagnosed, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Akira Inagaki, Takanari Toyoda, Masahiro Mutou, Shingo Murakami
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is an acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis typically accompanied by erythematous vesicular lesions of the auricular skin. The etiology is considered to be geniculate ganglionitis due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Encephalitis is a rare but serious complication of VZV reactivation. Clarifying the regional and temporal evolution of the lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would help with understanding the pathology of the lesion, but this information is lacking in encephalitis with RHS...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Madalina E Carter-Timofte, Søren R Paludan, Trine H Mogensen
In most individuals, varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster during reactivation. However, in a subset of individuals, VZV may cause severe disease, including encephalitis. Host genetics is believed to be the main determinant of exacerbated disease manifestations. Recent studies have demonstrated that defects in the DNA sensor RNA polymerase III (POL III) confer selective increased susceptibility to VZV infection, thus providing fundamental new insight into VZV immunity...
October 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Damla Hanalioğlu, Yasemin Özsürekci, Ayşe Büyükçam, Ayşe Gültekingil-Keser, Özlem Tekşam, Mehmet Ceyhan
Hanalioğlu D, Özsürekci Y, Büyükçam A, Gültekingil-Keser A, Tekşam Ö, Ceyhan M. Acute peripheral facial paralysis following varicella infection: An uncommon complication. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 99-101. Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV/HHV-3), which is one of the eight human herpes viruses. Although chickenpox has a good prognosis, neurologic complications including encephalitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, myelitis and meningitis may seldom be associated with the disease. Peripheral facial palsy (PFP) is an extremely rare complication in patients with chickenpox...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
I D Grice, G L Mariottini
There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compounds) have in very recent decades made outstanding contributions to the development of novel therapeutics. This review brings together these significant facets of modern drug discovery by presenting the reported literature on glycans derived from marine organisms that possess antiviral activity...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Matthew M Griffith, Munehisa Fukusumi, Yusuke Kobayashi, Yusuke Matsui, Shingo Nishiki, Reiko Shimbashi, Saeko Morino, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
Introduction: In 2019 and 2020, Japan will host two international sporting events estimated to draw a combined 22 million visitors. Mass gatherings like these ones increase the risk of spread of infectious disease outbreaks and international transmission. Pre-travel advice reduces that risk. Methods: To assist ministries of health and related organizations in developing pre-travel advice, we summarized national surveillance data in Japan (2000-2016, to the extent available) for rubella, invasive pneumococcal disease, measles, non-A and non-E viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, tetanus, typhoid fever, invasive meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, influenza, varicella, mumps and pertussis by calculating descriptive statistics of reported cases and reviewing trends...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Wim Maenhoudt, Ricky Rasschaert, Hugo Bontinck, Harry Pinson, Dirk Van Roost, Giorgio Hallaert
BACKGROUND: Spinal cystic arachnoiditis is a rare complication of a subarachnoid haemorrhage or infectious meningitis. The inflammatory process leads to fibrosis, adhesions, and in severe cases cyst formation. Large arachnoid cysts are an uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The majority are located posterior of the spinal cord at the thoracic level. Anterior cyst formation is exceptional, especially at the cervical region. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present 2 cases of progressive myelopathy secondary to anterior arachnoid cyst formation...
October 2018: World Neurosurgery
Daniel P Depledge, Juliana Cudini, Samit Kundu, Claire Atkinson, Julianne R Brown, Tanzina Haque, Charlotte J Houldcroft, Evelyn S Koay, Fiona McGill, Richard Milne, Tom Whitfield, Julian W Tang, Gillian Underhill, Tomas Bergstrom, Peter Norberg, Richard Goldstein, Tom Solomon, Judith Breuer
Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) may cause encephalitis, both with and without rash. Here we investigate whether viruses recovered from the central nervous system (CNS; encephalitis or meningitis) differ genetically from those recovered from non-CNS samples. Methods: Enrichment-based deep sequencing of 45 VZV genomes from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and vesicles was carried out with samples collected from 34 patients with and without VZV infection of the CNS...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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