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Preterm AND Epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530269/telomere-length-and-salivary-cortisol-stress-reactivity-in-very-preterm-infants
#1
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Monica Fumagalli, Maddalena Brambilla, Fabio Mosca, Renato Borgatti, Rosario Montirosso
During the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay, very preterm (VPT) infants are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing skin-breaking procedures (i.e., NICU pain-related stress) which contribute to the programming of hypo-responsive HPA axis development during the first months of life. Unfortunately, to date the mechanisms linking NICU pain-related stress and altered HPA axis regulation are only limitedly known. Telomere length (TL) regulation is an epigenetic mechanism previously shown to be affected by early stress exposures and capable of associating with HPA axis reactivity in children...
December 6, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524370/family-history-of-diabetes-is-associated-with-delayed-fetal-postprandial-brain-activity
#2
Franziska Schleger, Katarzyna Linder, Laura Walter, Martin Heni, Johanna Brändle, Sara Brucker, Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich, Magdalene Weiss, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Hubert Preissl, Andreas Fritsche
Introduction: We have previously shown that fetuses of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance exhibit a prolongation of fetal auditory event-related brain responses (fAER) compared to fetuses of normal glucose tolerant women during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). This implies that maternal metabolism may program the developing fetal brain. We now asked whether a family history of type 2 diabetes without metabolic programing also impacts fetal brain activity. We therefore investigated brain activity in fetuses of normal glucose tolerant mothers with and without family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD+ and FHD-)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501650/effects-of-consuming-sugars-and-alternative-sweeteners-during-pregnancy-on-maternal-and-child-health-evidence-for-a-secondhand-sugar-effect
#3
M I Goran, J F Plows, E E Ventura
Consumption of sugar and alternative low- or no-energy sweeteners has increased in recent decades. However, it is still uncertain how consumption of sugar and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy affects pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring health. This review aims to collate the available evidence surrounding the consequences of sugar and alternative sweetener consumption during pregnancy, a so-called secondhand sugar effect. We found evidence that sugar consumption during pregnancy may contribute to increased gestational weight gain and the development of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and preterm birth...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424584/diabetes-in-pregnancy-and-micrornas-promises-and-limitations-in-their-clinical-application
#4
REVIEW
Adriana Ibarra, Begoña Vega-Guedes, Yeray Brito-Casillas, Ana M Wägner
Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of complications for the mother and her offspring. The latter have an increased risk of foetal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery, malformations and mortality but also of life-long development of obesity and diabetes. Epigenetics have been proposed as an explanation for this long-term risk, and microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role, both in short- and long-term outcomes. Gestation is associated with increasing maternal insulin resistance, as well as β-cell expansion, to account for the increased insulin needs and studies performed in pregnant rats support a role of miRNAs in this expansion...
November 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386170/preterm-birth-and-the-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-dysregulation
#5
REVIEW
Eamon Fitzgerald, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm Birth (PTB) accounts for approximately 11% of all births worldwide each year and is a profound physiological stressor in early life. The burden of neuropsychiatric and developmental impairment is high, with severity and prevalence correlated with gestational age at delivery. PTB is a major risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy, lower educational attainment and deficits in cognitive functioning, and individuals born preterm have higher rates of schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
November 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373633/dna-methylation-profiling-of-acute-chorioamnionitis-associated-placentas-and-fetal-membranes-insights-into-epigenetic-variation-in-spontaneous-preterm-births
#6
Chaini Konwar, E Magda Price, Li Qing Wang, Samantha L Wilson, Jefferson Terry, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Placental inflammation, often presenting as acute chorioamnionitis (aCA), is commonly associated with preterm birth. Preterm birth can have both immediate and long-term adverse effects on the health of the baby. Developing biomarkers of inflammation in the placenta can help to understand its effects and potentially lead to new approaches for rapid prenatal diagnosis of aCA. We aimed to characterize epigenetic variation associated with aCA in placenta (chorionic villi) and fetal membranes (chorion and amnion) to better understand how aCA may impact processes that lead to preterm birth...
October 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349508/common-cervicovaginal-microbial-supernatants-alter-cervical-epithelial-function-mechanisms-by-which-lactobacillus-crispatus-contributes-to-cervical-health
#7
Lauren Anton, Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Ann DeVine, Guillermo Barila, Laura Heiser, Amy G Brown, Michal A Elovitz
Cervicovaginal (CV) microbiota is associated with vaginal health and disease in non-pregnant women. Recent studies in pregnant women suggest that specific CV microbes are associated with preterm birth (PTB). While the associations between CV microbiota and adverse outcomes have been demonstrated, the mechanisms regulating the associations remain unclear. As the CV space contains an epithelial barrier, we postulate that CV microbiota can alter the epithelial barrier function. We investigated the biological, molecular, and epigenetic effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners , and Gardnerella vaginalis on the cervical epithelial barrier function and determined whether L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254992/differential-expression-and-methylation-of-integrin-subunit-alpha-11-and-thrombospondin-in-the-amnion-of-preterm-birth
#8
Jae Young Yoo, Young-Ah You, Eun Jin Kwon, Mi Hye Park, Sunah Shim, Young Ju Kim
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between preterm birth and epigenetic mechanisms in the amnion. Methods: We examined the association between differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEG) using a cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation array and whole-transcriptome sequencing from the amnion (preterm birth, n=5; full term, n=5). We enrolled 35 participants for mRNA expression analysis and pyrosequencing: 16 full-term and 19 preterm subjects...
September 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239759/epigenetic-changes-in-preterm-birth-placenta-suggest-a-role-for-adamts-genes-in-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#9
Sneha Mani, Jayashri Ghosh, Yemin Lan, Suneeta Senapati, Teri Ord, Carmen Sapienza, Christos Coutifaris, Monica Mainigi
PTB affects approximately 1 in 10 pregnancies and contributes to approximately 50% of neonatal mortality. However, despite decades of research, little is understood about the etiology of Preterm Birth (PTB), likely due to the multifactorial nature of the disease. In this study, we examined preterm and term placentas, from unassisted conceptions and those conceived using in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF increases the risk of PTB and causes epigenetic change in the placenta and fetus, therefore we utilized these patients as a unique population with a potential common etiology...
September 18, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233496/the-implications-of-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-on-mother-and-her-developing-child
#10
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis
Pregnancy is a time of tremendous growth and physiological changes for mother and her developing fetus with lifelong implications for the child. The concert of actions that must occur so mother does not reject the foreign tissue of the fetus is substantial. There must be exquisite balance between maternal tolerance to these foreign proteins of paternal origin but also immune surveillance and function such that the mother is not immunocompromised. When this process goes awry, the mother may experience such pregnancy complications as preeclampsia and infections...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172660/necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-intestinal-microbiome-metabolome-and-inflammatory-mediators
#11
REVIEW
Josef Neu, Mohan Pammi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of preterm infants and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Although the pathogenesis of NEC is not clear, microbial dysbiosis, with a bloom of the phylum Proteobacteria, has been reported. Antibiotics and the use of H2 blockers, which affect the gut microbiome, are associated with increased incidence of NEC. In association with dysbiosis, inflammatory processes are upregulated with increased Toll-like receptor signaling, leading to translocation of nuclear factor kappa-β, a transcription factor that induces transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
December 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172427/the-oxygen-load-supplied-during-delivery-room-stabilization-of-preterm-infants-modifies-the-dna-methylation-profile
#12
Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Antonio Núñez-Ramiro, María Cernada, David Hervás, Nuria Boronat, Juan Sandoval, Maximo Vento
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the amount of oxygen provided during postnatal stabilization changes the DNA methylome in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, observational study included 32 preterm infants ≤32 weeks of gestation who received oxygen in the delivery room. Patients were monitored using a respiratory function monitor to determine the amount of oxygen received upon stabilization. Blood samples were processed for comparison of DNA methylation before and after resuscitation using a DNA methylation high-resolution microarray Infinium Human DNA methylation EPIC 850K BeadChip...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144857/prevention-of-prematurity-advances-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Balaji Govindaswami, Priya Jegatheesan, Matthew Nudelman, Sudha Rani Narasimhan
Preterm birth (PTB) rate varies widely and has significant racial and ethnic disparities. Although causal mechanisms are ill understood, socioenvironment, phenotype, and genotype provide insight into pathways for preventing PTB. Data suggest varied response to current medical interventions is explicable Approved by underlying pharmacogenomics. Currently, prevention focuses on minimizing iatrogenic PTB and risk reduction especially in those with prior PTB using proven medical and public health strategies. In the future, preventive approaches will be based on better understanding of sociodemography, nutrition, lifestyles, and underlying individual genetic and epigenetic variation...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131711/the-role-of-abnormal-placentation-in-congenital-heart-disease-cause-correlate-or-consequence
#14
Jennifer A Courtney, James F Cnota, Helen N Jones
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting ~1% of all live births (van der Linde et al., 2011). Despite improvements in clinical care, it is the leading cause of infant mortality related to birth defects (Yang et al., 2006) and burdens survivors with significant morbidity (Gilboa et al., 2016). Furthermore, CHD accounts for the largest proportion (26.7%) of birth defect-associated hospitalization costs-up to $6.1 billion in 2013 (Arth et al., 2017). Yet after decades of research with a primary focus on genetic etiology, the underlying cause of these defects remains unknown in the majority of cases (Zaidi and Brueckner, 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101715/preterm-birth-long-term-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences
#15
Hassib Chehade, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Pierre Guignard, Farid Boubred
Cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases are part of non-communicable chronic diseases, the leading causes of premature death worldwide. They are recognized as having early origins through altered developmental programming, due to adverse environmental conditions during development. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as such an adverse factor. Rates of preterm birth have increased the last decades, however, with the improvement in perinatal and neonatal care, a growing cohort have survived to the neonatal period and are now entering adulthood...
August 13, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045669/long-noncoding-rna-expression-in-the-cervix-mid-pregnancy-is-associated-with-the-length-of-gestation-at-delivery
#16
Heather H Burris, Allan C Just, Miriam J Haviland, Dayna T Neo, Andrea A Baccarelli, Alexandra E Dereix, Kasey J Brennan, Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Steven J Ralston, Jonathan L Hecht, Michele R Hacker
Infants born preterm are at increased risk of multiple morbidities and mortality. Why some women deliver preterm remains poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cervical microRNA expression and DNA methylation are associated with the length of gestation. However, no study has examined the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the cervix during pregnancy. To determine whether expression of lncRNAs is associated with length of gestation at delivery, we analyzed RNA from cervical swabs obtained from 78 women during pregnancy (mean 15...
2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983834/epigenetic-signature-of-preterm-birth-in-adult-twins
#17
Qihua Tan, Shuxia Li, Morten Frost, Marianne Nygaard, Mette Soerensen, Martin Larsen, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen
Background: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term health consequences. Epigenetic mechanisms may have been at play in preterm birth survivors, and these could be persistent and detrimental to health later in life. Methods: We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in adult twins of premature birth to identify genomic regions under differential epigenetic regulation in 144 twins with a median age of 33 years (age range 30-36)...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938128/intrauterine-inflammation-epigenetics-and-microbiome-influences-on-preterm-infant-health
#18
REVIEW
Lei Lu, Erika C Claud
Purpose of Review: Significant research reveals that the microbiome modulates perinatal and postnatal health. This review aims to examine mechanisms by which intrauterine infection, the epigenome, and microbiome specifically influence preterm infant health outcomes. Recent Findings: Intrauterine infection is a primary cause of preterm birth and can cause alterations in gene expression and epigenetic programming as well as postnatal inflammatory responses in the offspring...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852488/perinatal-origins-of-adult-disease
#19
Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Baptiste Armengaud, Benazir Siddeek, Jean-François Tolsa
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the peri-conception period, pregnancy, and infancy are windows of particular sensibility to environmental clues which influence lifelong trajectories across health and disease. Nutrition, stress, and toxins induce epigenetic marks that control long-term gene expression patterns and can be transmitted transgenerationally. Chronic diseases of adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity thus have early, developmental origins in the perinatal period...
2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741588/paternal-developmental-toxicant-exposure-is-associated-with-epigenetic-modulation-of-sperm-and-placental-pgr-and-igf2-in-a-mouse-model
#20
Tianbing Ding, Shilpa Mokshagundam, Paolo F Rinaudo, Kevin G Osteen, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran
Preterm birth (PTB), parturition prior to 37 weeks' gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. The causes of spontaneous PTB are poorly understood; however, recent studies suggest that this condition may arise as a consequence of the parental fetal environment. Specifically, we previously demonstrated that developmental exposure of male mice (F1 animals) to the environmental endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with reduced sperm quantity/quality in adulthood and control female partners frequently delivered preterm...
October 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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