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Preterm AND Stress

Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Monica Fumagalli, Maddalena Brambilla, Fabio Mosca, Renato Borgatti, Rosario Montirosso
During the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay, very preterm (VPT) infants are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing skin-breaking procedures (i.e., NICU pain-related stress) which contribute to the programming of hypo-responsive HPA axis development during the first months of life. Unfortunately, to date the mechanisms linking NICU pain-related stress and altered HPA axis regulation are only limitedly known. Telomere length (TL) regulation is an epigenetic mechanism previously shown to be affected by early stress exposures and capable of associating with HPA axis reactivity in children...
December 6, 2018: Early Human Development
Marie Furuta, Antje Horsch, Edmond S W Ng, Debra Bick, Debbie Spain, Jacqueline Sin
Background: Approximately 3% of women in community samples develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. Higher prevalence rates are reported for high risk samples. Postpartum PTSD can adversely affect women's wellbeing, mother-infant relationships and child development. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPT), for postnatal women. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all clinical trials which reported post-traumatic stress symptoms for both the intervention and control groups or at least two time-points, pre- and post-intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tal Yatziv, Yoav Kessler, Naama Atzaba-Poria
Maternal mentalization refers to a mother's capacity to understand mental-states of herself and her child and to regard her child as a psychological agent. In mother-infant interactions, this capacity is commonly conceptualized as maternal mind-mindedness, which can be divided into two dimensions: appropriate and nonattuned interpretations of the infants' mental-states. Appropriate mind-mindedness refers to interpretations that seem to be compatible with the infant's behaviors, whereas nonattuned mind-mindedness refers to noncompatible interpretations...
2018: PloS One
Marliese Dion Nist, Tondi M Harrison, Deborah K Steward
The biological embedding of early life stress exposure may result in life-long neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants. Infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit are exposed to significant experiential, environmental, and physiologic stressors over the course of their extended hospitalization. Stress exposure during the sensitive period of brain development may alter biological processes, including functioning of the immune system, the autonomic nervous system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as gene expression...
November 29, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Zhi-Juan Li, Chun-Mei Liang, Xun Xia, Kun Huang, Shuang-Qin Yan, Rui-Wen Tao, Wei-Jun Pan, Jie Sheng, Yi-Ran Tao, Hai-Yun Xiang, Jia-Hu Hao, Qu-Nan Wang, Shi-Lu Tong, Fang-Biao Tao
Cobalt is an essential trace element and has been suggested to be involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. However, researches have paid little attention to the association between serum cobalt levels during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB, <37 week of gestation). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between maternal and umbilical cord serum cobalt concentrations and the risk of PTB. A total of 2951, 3080, and 2698 serum samples were obtained from pregnant women in the first, the second trimester, and the umbilical cord blood, respectively...
November 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Srikanth Ravisankar, Rodney Tatum, Parvesh M Garg, Maja Herco, Prem S Shekhawat, Yan-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of death in preterm infants. Neonates weighing <1500 grams are at the highest risk for acquiring NEC, with a prevalence of nearly 7-10%, mortality up to 30%, and several long-term complications among survivors. Despite advancements in neonatal medicine, this disease remains a challenge to treat. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of NEC on gut epithelial tight junctions and its barrier function using a NEC mouse model...
November 27, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
A Ranger, E Helmert, T S Bott, T Ostermann, H Als, D Bassler, M Hautzinger, J Vagedes
OBJECTIVE: Despite attempts to increase calmness in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU), preterm neonates still experience stress. The question arises how to further promote the infants' wellbeing. Therefore, the immediate effects of pentatonic live music on preterm infants and their mothers were examined. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a two-centre randomized controlled trial with crossover design preterm infants were exposed sequentially to two conditions: live pentatonic harp music (LPHM) used in Anthroposophic Medicine or standard care...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Rita Loch-Caruso, Iman Hassan, Sean M Harris, Anjana Kumar, Faith Bjork, Lawrence H Lash
Although epidemiology studies have associated maternal trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure with decreased birth weight and preterm birth, mechanistic explanations for these associations are currently lacking. We hypothesized that TCE targets the placenta with adverse consequences for pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed orally to vehicle or 480 mg TCE/kg body weight from gestational days (gd) 6-16, and tissues were collected on gd 16. Exposure to TCE significantly decreased average fetal weight without reducing maternal weight...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Mehmet Buyuktiryaki, Cuneyt Tayman, Ismail Koyuncu, Ufuk Cakir, Tugba Taskin Turkmenoglu, Esra Cakir, Nilufer Okur
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major neonatal health problem that especially affects preterm infants and causes severe morbidity and mortality. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, important risk factors include prematurity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antiapoptotic, and wound healing accelerant properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether treatment with ABS reduced the severity of NEC in rat pups in an experimental NEC model...
November 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Neidin Bussmann, Afif El-Khuffash, Colm R Breatnach, Naomi McCallion, Orla Franklin, Gautam K Singh, Philip T Levy
INTRODUCTION: Reduced left ventricular (LV) diastolic function can exert significant load to the right ventricle (RV) that can affect RV-pulmonary vasculature (PV) coupling. RV-PV can be assessed with the RV length-force relationship (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE] to pulmonary artery acceleration time [PAAT] ratio). We aimed to determine the association between LV diastolic function measured using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and TAPSE/PAAT. METHODS: A study of premature infants <29 weeks gestation...
November 19, 2018: Early Human Development
Zhou Li, Yuqing Tang, Xin Song, Lissy Lazar, Zhen Li, Jinshun Zhao
PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) refers to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of equal and less than 2.5 µm that tends to be suspended for long periods of time and travel over long distances in both outdoor and indoor atmospheres. PM2.5 , along with the toxic compounds attached on it, may cause a wide range of disorders. The fetus is considered to be highly susceptible to a variety of toxicants including atmospheric pollutants such as PM2.5 through prenatal exposure...
November 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Luisa Cescutti-Butler, Ann Hemingway, Jaqui Hewitt-Taylor
OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on one element of a study exploring the experiences of women who are caring for late preterm baby/babies (LPBs) and focuses on their experiences of breastfeeding. DESIGN: As this study aimed to privilege women's experiences, a feminist approach was utilised, with individual qualitative interviews in two phases conducted with a purposefully selected sample of women who were caring for a late preterm baby or babies. Template Analysis linked to Birth Territory Theory (BTT) was used to identify key issues and experiences of women...
November 9, 2018: Midwifery
Kharah M Ross, Steve W Cole, Judith E Carroll, Christine Dunkel Schetter
BACKGROUND: Stress exposure is associated with risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, potentially in part through dysregulated immune and inflammatory activity. Evidence suggests that stress during pregnancy is associated with inflammation during pregnancy, consistent with risk for preterm birth. However, research has not tested whether complementary changes are reflected in immune cell gene expression, or upstream regulation of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test associations between preconception and prenatal stress exposure and third trimester immune cell gene expression, focusing specifically on sets of genes previously linked to stress in non-pregnant samples: Pro-inflammatory genes, and antiviral and antibody genes...
November 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Emma M Rosen, Thomas J van 't Erve, Jonathan Boss, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Emily S Barrett, Ruby H N Nguyen, Nicole R Bush, Ginger L Milne, Thomas F McElrath, Shanna H Swan, Kelly K Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in numerous birth outcomes, including spontaneous preterm birth. However, the relationship with presentation at delivery has been less well studied. We assessed the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and gestational duration with a focus on spontaneous presentation for delivery. METHODS: Our sample included 740 women from a multi-center prospective cohort study, recruited from 2010 to 2012. Resultant measures of oxidative stress in pregnancy prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ), and the primary 8-iso-PGF2α metabolite were measured in third trimester urine samples...
November 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sevinc Akkoyun, Fatma Tas Arslan
BACKGROUND: The birth and hospitalisation of a premature infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are stressful experiences for the mother and the family. The support of neonatal nurses is necessary to control and reduce the stress of mothers. And nurse-parent support may play a role in effective stress management and make a positive contribution to the health of mothers. AIM: To determine the correlation of stress and nurse-parent support levels with mothers' age and educational status, number of children, gestational week of the infant and the hospitalisation period of the infant among mothers of premature infants hospitalised in the NICU...
November 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Elizabeth Taglauer, Steven H Abman, Roberta L Keller
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major cause of late morbidities and death after preterm birth. BPD is characterized by an arrest of vascular and alveolar growth and high risk for pulmonary hypertension; yet mechanisms contributing to its pathogenesis and early strategies to prevent BPD are poorly understood. Strong epidemiologic studies have shown that the "new BPD" reflects the long-lasting impact of antenatal factors on lung development, partly due to placental dysfunction, as reflected in recent data from animal models...
November 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Rory E Morty
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be one of the most common complications of preterm birth and is characterized histopathologically by impaired lung alveolarization. Extremely preterm born infants remain at high risk for the development of BPD, highlighting a pressing need for continued efforts to understand the pathomechanisms at play in affected infants. This brief review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the how the development of the newborn lung is stunted, highlighting recent reports on roles for growth factor signaling, oxidative stress, inflammation, the extracellular matrix and proteolysis, non-coding RNA, and fibroblast and epithelial cell plasticity...
November 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Vasilis G Moisiadis, Alexandros Mouratidis, Alisa Kostaki, Stephen G Matthews
Treatment with a single course of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) is the standard of care for pregnant women who are at risk for preterm delivery. Animal studies have demonstrated that multiple course sGCs can program altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress in first-generation (F1) and second-generation (F2) offspring. In this study, we sought to determine whether HPA axis activity and stress-associated behaviors (i.e., locomotor activity, attention) are altered after a single course of sGC in F1 and F2 female and male offspring...
December 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Carlotta Spagnoli, Raffaele Falsaperla, Michela Deolmi, Giovanni Corsello, Francesco Pisani
Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological event in newborns, showing higher prevalence in preterm than in full-term infants. In the majority of cases they represent acute symptomatic phenomena, the main etiologies being intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system infections and transient metabolic derangements.Current definition of neonatal seizures requires detection of paroxysmal EEG-changes, and in preterm newborns the incidence of electrographic-only seizures seems to be particularly high, further stressing the crucial role of electroencephalogram monitoring in this population...
November 1, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Wen-Xing Li, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu, Jun Tang
White matter injury in preterm infants has a complex etiology and can lead to long-term neurocognitive and behavioral deficits, but there are still no specific treatment methods for this disease at present. More and more studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of white matter injury in preterm infants and might be a common subcellular mechanism of white matter developmental disorder, which involves oxidative stress, reduced ATP synthesis, and disequilibrium of calcium homeostasis...
October 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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