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Preterm AND Stress

Shannon L Gillespie, Cindy M Anderson
RATIONALE: Psychological stress-induced cortisol elevations appear to contribute to preterm birth. Yet, some studies suggest that the biological ramifications of racial discrimination-associated stress are unique and may involve development of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity despite normalized cortisol levels. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the effects of racial discrimination on maternal cortisol output, leukocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity, and the degree of correspondence between cortisol levels and birth timing in an African American cohort...
November 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Asako Kumagai, Atsuo Itakura, Daisuke Koya, Keizo Kanasaki
Although the global maternal mortality ratio has been consistently reduced over time, in 2015, there were still 303,000 maternal deaths throughout the world, of which 99% occurred in developing countries. Understanding pathophysiology of pregnancy complications contributes to the proper prenatal care for the reduction of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity ratio. In this review, we focus on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a regulator of pregnancy complications. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is conserved within eukaryotes...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alissa L Meister, Kim K Doheny, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that a decreased high-frequency spectrum of heart rate variability (HF-HRV), indicative of reduced vagal tone, shows promise in predicting neonates likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) before its clinical onset. We hypothesized that NEC induction in rat pups decreases HF-HRV power; subdiaphragmatic vagotomy worsens the severity of the NEC phenotype, increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and alters the myenteric phenotype. METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats, representative of preterm human neonates, were subjected to 7-8 days of brief periods of cold stress and hypoxia to induce NEC with or without unilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
October 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kelly K Baker, William T Story, Evan Walser-Kuntz, M Bridget Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Globally, preterm birth (PTB) and low infant birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Inadequate water and sanitation access (WASH) are risk factors for PTB and LBW in low-income countries. Physical stress from carrying water and psychosocial stress from addressing sanitation needs in the open may be mechanisms underlying these associations. If so, then living in a community with strong social capital should be able to buffer the adverse effects of WASH on birth outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Gina Ancora, Paola Lago, Elisabetta Garetti, Daniele Merazzi, Patrizia Savant Levet, Carlo Valerio Bellieni, Luisa Pieragostini, Anna Pirelli
AIM: This review informed pain control guidelines for clinicians performing mechanical ventilation, nasal continuous positive airway pressure and endotracheal intubation on term and preterm newborn infants. METHODS: We reviewed literature published between 1986 and June 2017 on analgesia and sedation during assisted ventilation and before endotracheal intubation in newborn infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. The subsequent guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach...
October 5, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Stephanie S Spielmann, Susanne Brummelte
Preterm infants are exposed to many stressors while in the neonatal intensive care unit including pain and reduced maternal care. Both stressors can have a profound negative impact on brain development, and the present study sought to investigate some of the biological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Rat pups underwent a series of repetitive needle pokes and/or reduced maternal care through a novel tea-ball infuser encapsulation model during the first four days of life. On postnatal day four, pups were sacrificed and serum was analyzed for corticosterone, while brains were tested for various neurotransmitters and brain metabolites through magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 4, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Laxmi Singh, Madhu Anand, Saroj Singh, Ajay Taneja
Preterm birth is a significant public reproductive health concern globally; Furthermore, preterm birth has long-lasting medical and pecuniary burdens on the society. Moreover, preterm birth is well-established as the underlying cause of low birth weight in infants as well as neonatal mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that the etiology of preterm delivery in women is elusive; however, countless environmental factors are considered responsible for preterm birth. Environmental contaminants that are toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury are familiar confounding factors for preterm birth globally...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
R M Schiller, K Allegaert, Maayke Hunfeld, G E van den Bosch, John van den Anker, D Tibboel
Inadequate pain and/or stress management in preterm- and term-born infants has been associated with increased morbidity and even mortality. However, exposure to analgosedatives during early infancy may also be one of the risk factors for subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment, at least in animal studies. Because infants admitted to neonatal or pediatric intensive care units may receive high amounts of these drugs for prolonged periods of time and the majority of these infants nowadays survive to discharge, this is of major concern...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Leila Jouybari, Ezzat Abbariki, Maryam Jebeli, Fatemeh Mehravar, Leila Asadi, Negarin Akbari, Akram Sanagoo, Zahra Moradi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the effect of narrative writing and art therapy on maternal stress in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) during infants' hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: randomized controlled clinical trial with three parallel arms study was conducted among three groups of mothers with preterm infants in the NICUs of two teaching hospitals of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. Pre- and post-tests were administered to a sample size of 105 during 9 months...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rachel E Lean, Rachel A Paul, Tara A Smyser, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which social and family factors explain variability in cognitive, language, and motor development among very preterm (<30 weeks of gestation) children from 2 to 5 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: As part of a longitudinal study, very preterm children recruited as neonates were assessed at 2 (n = 87) and 5 (n = 83) years of age using standardized tests of cognitive, language, and motor ability alongside demographically matched full term (FT) children (n = 63)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Mateusz Jagła, Izabela Szymońska, Katarzyna Starzec, Olga Gach, Aneta Włodarczyk, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Glucose variability (GV) is a matter of interest for researches in recent years. It is connected with oxidative stress, which is crucial in the development of multiple complication of prematurity. However, glycemic variability in preterm infants was poorly investigated. This study aims to investigate glycemic variability obtained from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system in a cohort of very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A prospective, single-center, open cohort study enrolled 74 VLBW infants with a mean birthweight of 1066 g and median gestational age of 28 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Mary C Sullivan, Suzy Barcelos Winchester, Michael E Msall
BACKGROUND: Theories of early stress exposure and allostatic load offer a lifespan perspective to adult health after prematurity based on these early stressors affecting endocrine and metabolic systems. In this study, we examine cardiovascular and metabolic risk by comparing two groups of preterm infants who experienced a full spectrum of neonatal illness and a term-born group at age 23. METHODS: Of the 215 infants recruited at birth, 84% participated at age 23...
September 21, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Jenn Gonya, Tondi Harrison, Keith Feldman, Melanie Stein, Nitesh Chawla
AIMS: This pilot study explored how maternal stress experienced in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is affected by the individual nursing structure and the network that provides care to extremely preterm infants. BACKGROUND: Mothers experience high stress when their extremely preterm infants are hospitalized in the NICU. This often translates into maladaptive parenting behaviours that negatively affect the long-term cognitive, social, and emotional development of the infant...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Atul Malhotra, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Yen Pham, Anna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Michael C Fahey, Graeme R Polglase, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne Lee Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity are associated with risk of brain injury and long-term neurological deficits. FGR infants born preterm are commonly exposed to mechanical ventilation, but it is not known whether ventilation differentially induces brain pathology in FGR infants, compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. We investigated markers of neuropathology in preterm FGR lambs, compared with AGA lambs, delivered by caesarean birth and ventilated under standard neonatal conditions for 24 hours...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Subhash Chandra Shaw, M Jeeva Sankar, Anu Thukral, Ramesh Agarwal, Ashok K Deorari, Vinod K Paul
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the markers of stress before and after a session of assisted physical exercise in infants born before 35 weeks' gestation. METHODS: 25 infants born at 280/7 to 346/7 weeks were subjected to assisted physical exercise daily for about 10-15 min at one week of postnatal age or 33 weeks of post menstrual age, whichever was later. Primary outcome was salivary cortisol and secondary outcome was Premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score. Outcomes were measured, on day 5 (±1) of exercise...
August 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Maria J O Miele, Rodolfo C Pacagnella, Maria J D Osis, Carina R Angelini, Jussara L Souza, José G Cecatti
BACKGROUND: The principal aim of this study was to understand how communication between parents and health professionals concerning prematurity occurs, from delivery to admission to the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative methodology. Data were collected using tape-recorded and Focal Groups technique interview with mothers of premature newborns and health professionals involved in caring for preterm infants, at southeast Brazil...
September 12, 2018: Reproductive Health
Megan M Marvin, Fumiyuki C Gardner, Kristin M Sarsfield, R Alberto Travagli, Kim K Doheny
OBJECTIVE:  An estimation of the individual's ability to cope to environmental adversity, that is, stress resiliency, can be extrapolated by measuring cardiac vagal tone, that is, high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV); indeed, higher HF-HRV is associated with health and developmental advantages for preterm neonates. Previous studies show skin-to-skin contact (SSC) improves stress resiliency; however, linkages between SSC and HF-HRV on outcomes have not been assessed. We aimed to test the hypothesis that increased SSC frequency would enhance HF-HRV, reduce neonatal morbidity, and improve developmental outcomes...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Giuseppina Sgandurra, Elena Beani, Matteo Giampietri, Riccardo Rizzi, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: Congenital brain lesions expose infants to be at high-risk for being affected by neurodevelopmental disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP). Early interventions programs can significantly impact and improve their neurodevelopment. Recently, in the framework of the European CareToy (CT) Project ( ), a new medical device has been created to deliver an early, intensive, customized, intervention program, carried out at home by parents but remotely managed by expert and trained clinicians...
September 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Lucas M Ritschl, Veronika Heinrich, Florian D Grill, Maximilian Roth, Dennis M Hedderich, Andrea Rau, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Franz X Bauer, Denys J Loeffelbein
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during nasoalveolar molding. Methods: Finite element models of 3 different healthy neonates at different times of life (date of birth, 4 weeks, and 3.5 months) were generated on the basis of computed tomography scans. A validated workflow, including segmentation, meshing, setting of boundary conditions, and implementation of a bone density-dependent material model, was carried out for each model...
July 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Ruben Alfaro Blazquez, Esperanza Ferrer Ferrandiz, Sonia Pardo Moya, Vicente Gea Caballero, Silvia Corchon
BACKGROUND: Preterm labour and birth are two of the most important issues in perinatal care. The birth of a preterm baby is often a stressful and traumatic time for parents. Assessment of satisfaction with maternity services is crucial and questionnaires are the most common method as long as they are well-constructed. Only one, The Preterm Birth Experience and Satisfaction Scale (P-BESS), developed in United Kingdom, has been designed for this specific birth type. OBJECTIVES: To translate, transculturally adapt and assess the psychometric properties of the P-BESS into Spanish...
August 17, 2018: Midwifery
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