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gender discrimination

Paola Sampaio Gonzales, Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Edgard Michel-Crosato
The aim of the present study is to describe the simplified facial pattern of young Brazilian men and women using the facial index (FI), upper face index (UFI), and nasal index (NI) in indirect anthropometric measurements applied to frontal photographic images. The images were obtained from 660 adult white men and 689 adult white women aged 30 years ± 6 months, and classified according to regions of birth, as follows: south (S), southeast (SE), midwest (MW), northeast (NE), and north (N). The nasion, zygion, gnathion, stomion, subnasale, and alare landmarks were labeled on the images using the SAFF 2D® software...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Konstantinos Valsamidis, Konstantinos Titelis, Petros Karkos, Konstantinos Markou, Jiannis Constantinidis, Stefanos Triaridis
PURPOSE: Although septoplasty is considered to be the definitive treatment of septal deviation and is associated with an increase of nasal patency, patients are not always satisfied with the surgical outcome as assessed by its effect on their general Quality of Life (QOL).The aim of this study was to identify the predictive factors that influence the patients' QOL after surgery. METHODS: 60 patients with nasal obstruction and septal deviation were enrolled in this prospective study, and they all completed the follow-up survey of 6 postoperative months...
December 3, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Romain Niessen, Benoit Bihin, Maximilien Gourdin, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Olivier Cornu, Patrice Forget
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are at high risk for postoperative complications and increased mortality after hip fracture (HF) surgery due to frailty and co-morbidities. The prediction of postoperative outcome could be used for clinical decision making. A reliable score to predict postoperative mortality after HF surgery in this sub-population remains unavailable. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort study was performed in 782 patients who were operated on for HF...
December 3, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Guijuan Deng, Lu Yin, Weida Liu, Xiaoyun Liu, Quanyong Xiang, Zhenzhen Qian, Juntao Ma, Hui Chen, Yang Wang, Bo Hu, Wei Li, Yu Jiang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The association between hypertension and obesity has been confirmed, while no agreement has been reached about which anthropometric adiposity index is the best. This meta-analysis aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the associations of hypertension risk with body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and a prospective urban and rural epidemiology study from China (PURE-China) was added into this meta-analysis as an individual study...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Philip Taylor, Christopher McLoughlin, Catherine Earl
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to increase understanding of the nature and prevalence of discriminatory experiences in the workplace, focusing on issues of age and gender. METHODS: The concept of everyday discrimination was operationalised in a survey of a representative sample of Australian workers. RESULTS: It was observed that overall, experiences of everyday discrimination were rare. Among men, such experiences declined with age, whereas for women almost no age differences were observed...
December 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
L Berlingo, A Girault, E Azria, F Goffinet, C Le Ray
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gender and a career in academic medicine. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study. SETTING: Obstetrics-gynaecology postgraduate training programme in Paris, France. SAMPLE: Postgraduate trainees in obstetrics-gynaecology (n = 204). METHODS: Statistical analysis of quantitative survey data, thematic analysis of qualitative interview data and integrative analysis...
December 3, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Michael D Walsh, Harindra Jayasekara, Alvin Huang, Ingrid M Winship, Daniel D Buchanan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Loss of expression of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins is frequently observed in sebaceous skin lesions and can be a herald for Lynch syndrome. The aim of this study was to identify clinico-pathological predictors of MMR deficiency in sebaceous neoplasia that could aid dermatologists and pathologists in determining which sebaceous lesions should undergo MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC). METHODS: An audit of sebaceous skin lesions (excluding hyperplasia) where pathologist-initiated MMR IHC was performed between January 2009 to December 2016 was undertaken from a single pathology practice identifying 928 lesions from 882 individuals...
December 2, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Maneerat Raksayot, Natthaya Chuaypen, Apichaya Khlaiphuengsin, Nutcha Pinjaroen, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Yong Poovorawan, Yasuhito Tanaka, Pisit Tangkijvanich
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at evaluating the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PNPLA3, NCAN, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Thai patients according to underlying etiologies of liver disease. METHODS: These SNPs were determined by allelic discrimination in blood samples of 105 healthy controls and 530 patients with HCC [270 with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC), 131 with hepatitis C virus (HCV-HCC), and 129 with non-B, non-C HCC (NBNC-HCC) matched for age and gender]...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Maya I Ragavan, Kristie A Thomas, Anjali Fulambarker, Jill Zaricor, Lisa A Goodman, Megan H Bair-Merritt
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a methodological approach where community-academic teams build equitable relationships throughout the research process. In the domestic violence (DV) field, CBPR may be particularly important when conducting research with racial and ethnic minority DV survivors, as this group faces concurrent oppressions that inform their lived experiences. To our knowledge, no systematic review has synthesized articles using a CBPR approach to explore the needs and lived experiences of racial and ethnic minority DV survivors...
December 3, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Elizabeth Boskey, Amir Taghinia, Oren Ganor
Public accommodation laws (PALs) are used to address discrimination against minorities. There is broad discussion about using such laws to either protect or prohibit access to sex-segregated spaces for transgender people. Health care facilities are subject to PALs, which affect rooming assignments and access to sex-segregated environments. Around the time that a Massachusetts transgender PAL went into effect in October 2016, the first author (EB) facilitated 18 professional trainings at 5 health care facilities in greater Boston...
November 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Emma Ohlsson-Nevo, Jan Karlsson
Felt stigma is an internalized sense of shame about having an unwanted condition, along with fear of discrimination. The Stigma-related Social Problems (SSP) scale was constructed to measure the impact of health-related stigma on psychosocial functioning in people with different diseases and disorders. The performance of the SSP scale was tested in 3,422 subjects from the general population (Mid-Swed Health Survey) and in subgroups according to gender, age, occupation, and education. The homogeneity and construct validity of the Distress and Avoidance scales were confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and the two factors were accurately reproduced across gender and age subgroups...
November 29, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Jinlin Wu, Juntao Qiu, Wenxiang Jiang, Jiawei Qiu, Liang Zhang, Rui Zhao, Cuntao Yu
INTRODUCTION: The study aims to build and validate a nomogram for estimating the probability of patients developing type A aortic dissection at a diameter less than 55 mm. METHODS: A primary cohort of 896 patients diagnosed with acute type A aortic dissection by computed tomography angiography (CTA) were used for model development, with data collected between January 2005 and March 2012. The subjects were assigned to two groups based on ascending aorta diameter (group A<55 mm, Group B ≥ 60 mm)...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Kristin J Conover, Tania Israel
PURPOSE: Prejudice and discrimination have been associated with mental and physical health disparities among people with disabilities (Emerson, 2010) and sexual minorities (American Psychological Association [APA], 2012b). Subtle everyday communications of prejudice, known as microaggressions, are one form of oppressive experience that contribute to minority stress among these groups. As sexual minority people with disabilities (SMPWDs) embody at least two marginalized statuses, they may face unique levels of risk...
November 29, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Rachel M Butler, Arielle Horenstein, Matt Gitlin, Rylan J Testa, Simona C Kaplan, Michaela B Swee, Richard G Heimberg
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals are at heightened risk for psychological distress, including social anxiety (SA). The current study aimed to examine whether gender-affirming medical interventions (GAMIs) are associated with lower SA among TGNC individuals. Two hundred ninety-one transfeminine and 424 transmasculine participants completed the Trans Health Survey, which assessed SA and interest in or utilization of GAMIs (genital surgery, chest surgery, hormone use, speech therapy, tracheal shave or Adam's apple removal, hair removal)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Erin A Vogel, Johannes Thrul, Gary L Humfleet, Kevin L Delucchi, Danielle E Ramo
OBJECTIVE: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals are more likely to smoke than are non-SGM individuals. It is unclear whether smoking cessation interventions for young adults are effective in the SGM population. The purpose of this study was to compare smoking cessation, other health risk behaviors, and intervention usability between SGM and non-SGM young adult smokers participating in a digital smoking cessation intervention trial. METHODS: Young adult smokers ( N = 500; 135 SGM) were assigned to a 90-day Facebook smoking cessation intervention (treatment) or referred to Smokefree...
November 29, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Mary K Bryson, Evan T Taylor, Lorna Boschman, Tae L Hart, Jacqueline Gahagan, Genevieve Rail, Janice Ristock
Canadian and American population-based research concerning sexual and/or gender minority populations provides evidence of persistent breast and gynecologic cancer-related health disparities and knowledge divides. The Cancer's Margins research investigates the complex intersections of sexual and/or gender marginality and incommensurabilities and improvisation in engagements with biographical and biomedical cancer knowledge. The study examines how sexuality and gender are intersectionally constitutive of complex biopolitical mappings of cancer health knowledge that shape knowledge access and its mobilization in health and treatment decision-making...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Cristina Nunes, Lara Ayala-Nunes, Pedro Pechorro, Annette M La Greca
Background/Objective: Social anxiety is a common issue arising in adolescence that can cause significant impairment and have detrimental consequences for development in the absence of treatment. In this study we examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of a 12-item short form of the Portuguese-Language Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A-SF). Method: A community adolescent sample ( N = 835) and a young offender sample ( N = 244) completed the SAS-A, the Basic Empathy Scale and the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire...
September 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Claire M Nolan, Matthew Maddocks, Toby M Maher, Winston Banya, Suhani Patel, Ruth E Barker, Sarah E Jones, Peter George, Paul Cullinan, William D-C Man
The four metre gait speed (4 MGS), a simple physical performance measure and surrogate marker of frailty, consistently predicts adverse prognosis in older adults. We hypothesised that 4 MGS could predict all-cause mortality and non-elective hospitalisation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).4 MGS and lung function were measured at baseline in 130 outpatients newly diagnosed with IPF. Survival status and non-elective hospital admissions were recorded over one year. We assessed the predictive value of 4 MGS (as a continuous variable and as a binary variable: slow versus preserved 4 MGS) by calculating hazard ratios (HR) using Cox proportional regression, adjusting for potential confounding variables...
November 28, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
X Y Gai, L J Zhang, Y Liang, C L Guo, Abulikemu Mairitifei, W X Li, C Chang, Y H Chen, W Z Yao, X Zhang
Objective: To determine whether asthma has a different metabolic glycerophospholipid profile in serum between women and men with asthma. Methods: Fifty-one outpatients with asthma (17 men, 34 women) were enrolled from Peking University Third Hospital from Jan 2015 to Dec 2015. Clinical data such as gender, age, body mass index, pulmonary function were recorded. Glycerophospholipid profile were measured in serum using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics analysis. Projections to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare the differences of glycerophospholipid level between men and women...
November 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Sayma Sabrina Khanam, Eunhee Choi, Jung-Woo Son, Jun-Won Lee, Young Jin Youn, Junghan Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jang-Young Kim, Sung Gyun Ahn, Min-Soo Ahn, Seok-Min Kang, Sang Hong Baek, Eun-Seok Jeon, Jae-Joong Kim, Myeong-Chan Cho, Shung Chull Chae, Byung-Hee Oh, Dong-Ju Choi, Byung-Su Yoo
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, a risk prediction model is an effective solitary program to predict prognosis in particular patient groups. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are widely recognized outcome-predicting factors for patients with heart failure (HF).This study derived external validation of a risk score to predict 1-year mortality after discharge in hospitalized patients with HF using the Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC)program data...
2018: PloS One
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