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gender discrimination

Emilie E Doan Van, Ethan H Mereish, Julie M Woulfe, Sabra L Katz-Wise
Bisexual individuals experience unique discrimination related to their sexual orientation, which may increase their risk of adverse health outcomes. The study goal was to investigate how bisexual and other non-monosexual individuals experience discrimination, understand how they perceive discrimination to affect their health, and examine the ways in which they cope with discrimination by analyzing responses to open-ended survey questions. The sample included 442 bisexual and other non-monosexual adults, ages 18-68 years (M = 28...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Yoshitsugu Obi, Danh V Nguyen, Hui Zhou, Melissa Soohoo, Lishi Zhang, Yanjun Chen, Elani Streja, John J Sim, Miklos Z Molnar, Connie M Rhee, Kevin C Abbott, Steven J Jacobsen, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk prediction model that would help individualize treatment and improve the shared decision-making process between clinicians and patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We developed a risk prediction tool for mortality during the first year of dialysis based on pre-end-stage renal disease characteristics in a cohort of 35,878 US veterans with incident end-stage renal disease who transitioned to dialysis treatment between October 1, 2007, and March 31, 2014 and then externally validated this tool among 4284 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) health care system who transitioned to dialysis treatment between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2015...
August 10, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Elisa Rachel Pisani Altafim, Dana Charles McCoy, Alexandra Brentani, Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar, Sandra J F E Grisi, Günther Fink
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to analyze the psychometric properties and general validity of the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments (CREDI) short form for the population-level assessment of early childhood development for Brazilian children under age 3. METHOD: The study analyzed the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity of the CREDI short-form tool. The study also analyzed the concurrent validity of the CREDI with a direct observational measure (Inter-American Development Bank's Regional Project on Child Development Indicators; PRIDI)...
August 10, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Lihong Chen, Congying Qiao, Yi Jiang
Spatial frequency (SF) information is essential for visual perception. By combining a sensitization procedure and the Ebbinghaus illusion, we investigated the effect of SF bias in context-dependent visual size perception. During the sensitization phase, participants were repeatedly presented with low- or high-pass filtered faces or gratings and were asked to discriminate the gender or the orientation of them, respectively. Immediately following the sensitization phase, the Ebbinghaus illusion strength was measured...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho, Paul H P Hanel, Lukas J Wolf
The need for cognition refers to people's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking and has become influential across social and medical sciences. Using three samples from the United States and the United Kingdom ( N = 1,596), we introduce a six-item short version of the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS-18). First, we reduced the number of items from 18 to 6 based on the items' discrimination values, threshold levels, measurement precision (item information curve), item-total correlations, and factor loadings. Second, we confirmed the one-factor structure and established measurement invariance across countries and gender...
August 10, 2018: Assessment
Felicitas J Detmer, Bong Jae Chung, Fernando Mut, Martin Slawski, Farid Hamzei-Sichani, Christopher Putman, Carlos Jiménez, Juan R Cebral
PURPOSE: Unruptured cerebral aneurysms pose a dilemma for physicians who need to weigh the risk of a devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage against the risk of surgery or endovascular treatment and their complications when deciding on a treatment strategy. A prediction model could potentially support such treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to develop and internally validate a model for aneurysm rupture based on hemodynamic and geometric parameters, aneurysm location, and patient gender and age...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Juanjuan Du, Tian Wang, Pei Huang, Shishuang Cui, Chao Gao, Yiqi Lin, Rao Fu, Junyi Shen, Yachao He, Yuyan Tan, Shengdi Chen
INTRODUCTION: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies revealed decreased coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) levels in the cerebellum and blood samples of MSA patients. But few studies focused on the associations of COQ10 with the clinical symptoms of MSA. In this study, we aimed to quantify plasma COQ10 and characterize its association with clinical features. METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MSA, 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 30 healthy participants...
July 26, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Xiushi Zhou, Renping Wang, Tian Zhang, Fei Liu, Wei Zhang, Guili Wang, Guorong Gu, Qinqi Han, Demin Xu, Chenling Yao, Daqiao Guo, Weiguo Fu, Yunpeng Qi, Lixin Wang
OBJECTIVES: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe clinical emergency with a high mortality, and is easily misdiagnosed in its early stage. This study aimed at discovering serum metabolomic markers with the potential to diagnose AAD and distinguish between two subtypes of AAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with AAD, including 20 with Stanford type A and 15 with Stanford type B were enrolled in this study, together with 20 healthy controls. All patients with AAD were admitted within 72 h of onset...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Brian J Lithgow, Zahra Moussavi, Caroline Gurvich, Jayashri Kulkarni, Jerome J Maller, Paul B Fitzgerald
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mood disorder that lacks established electrophysiological, neuroimaging or biological markers to assist with both diagnosis and monitoring disease severity. This study's aim is to describe the potential of new neurophysiological features assistive in BD diagnosis and severity measurement utilizing the recording of electrical activity from the outer ear canal called Electrovestibulography (EVestG). From EVestG data sensory vestibulo-acoustic features were extracted from a single supine-vertical translation stimulus to distinguish 50 depressed and partly remitted/remitted bipolar disorder patients [18 symptomatic (BD-S, MADRS > 19), 32 reduced symptomatic (BD-R, MADRS ≤ 19)] and 31 age and gender matched healthy individuals (controls)...
August 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Dan Hu, Feng Peng, Xiandong Lin, Gang Chen, Binying Liang, Ying Chen, Chao Li, Hejun Zhang, Guohui Fan, Guodong Xu, Yan Xia, Jinxiu Lin, Xiongwei Zheng, Wenquan Niu
BACKGROUND: As we previously reported, the presence of preoperative metabolic syndrome can predict the significant risk of gastric cancer mortality. As a further extension, we evaluated the prediction of three lipid derivatives generated from triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and LDLC) at baseline for postoperative gastric cancer mortality by prospectively analysing 3012 patients. The three lipid derivatives included the ratio of TC minus HDLC to HDLC known as atherogenic index (AI), the ratio of TG to HDLC abbreviated as THR and the ratio of LDLC to HDLC abbreviated as LHR...
August 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Goverdhan Mehta, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam, Alain Krief, Henning Hopf, Stephen Alan Matlin
There has been mounting concern over the absence of gender equality in the sciences in recent years. This has been accompanied by a broadening of the perspective, in order to address issues of equality, diversity and inclusion, relating to a wide range of circumstances in which individuals suffer discrimination. While some progress has been made in some countries, nationally or at the level of institutions, much more needs to be done. The chemical sciences can play a leading role in addressing biases, through (1) becoming a model of good systemic practice in policies, processes and actions; (2) developing practical skills through training in cultural competence; and (3) promoting a stronger evidence base, to uncover both the extent of problems and the degree to which approaches to improve equality, diversity and inclusion are working...
August 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Joana Carvalho, Oleg Czop, Marta Rocha, Pedro Nobre, Sandra Soares
INTRODUCTION: Gender differences in sexual responses and cognitive and emotional processing to romantic and sexually explicit stimuli have been reported. However, these differences seem to depend on the automaticity of the task that is being used, thus suggesting that gender differences may be the result of specific mechanisms rather than a generalized effect. AIM: To expand previous basic processes research on gender differences to romantic vs sexually explicit stimuli, focusing on potential differentiating mechanisms influencing male and female sexual responses, we aim to investigate gender differences on automatic attention to sexual stimuli, and to test its relationship with sexual excitation proneness...
August 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Rui Dong, Jingying Jiang, Shouhua Zhang, Zhen Shen, Gong Chen, Yanlei Huang, Yijie Zheng, Shan Zheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The overlapping features of biliary atresia (BA) and the other forms of neonatal cholestasis (NC) with different causes (non-BA) has posed challenges for the diagnosis of BA. This study aimed at developing new and better diagnostic models for BA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 1728 newborn infants with neonatal obstructive jaundice (NOJ). New prediction models, including decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and multivariate logistic regression-based nomogram for BA were created and externally validated in an independent set of 508 infant patients...
August 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
Mihai Dorin Vartolomei, Matteo Ferro, Francesco Cantiello, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Savino Di Stasi, Rodolfo Hurle, Giorgio Guazzoni, Gian Maria Busetto, Ettore De Berardinis, Rocco Damiano, Sisto Perdona, Paolo Verze, Roberto La Rocca, Marco Borghesi, Riccardo Schiavina, Eugenio Brunocilla, Gilberto L Almeida, Pierluigi Bove, Estevao Lima, Giovanni Grimaldi, Riccardo Autorino, Nicolae Crisan, Abdal Rahman Abu Farhan, Michele Battaglia, Vincenzo Serretta, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Giuseppe Morgia, Daniela Terracciano, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio de Cobelli, Vincenzo Mirone, Shahrokh F Shariat
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the prognostic role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and to validate the NLR cutoff of 3 in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients with primary T1 HG/G3 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study period was from January 2002 through December 2012. A total of 1046 patients with primary T1 HG/G3 who had NMIBC on re-transurethral bladder resection (TURB) who received adjuvant intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy with maintenance from 13 academic institutions were included...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Carlomagno C Panlilio, Sheridan Miyamoto, Sarah A Font, Hannah M C Schreier
The objective of this study was to assess item characteristics indicative of the severity of risk for commercial sexual exploitation among a high-risk population of child welfare system involved youth to inform the construction of a screening tool. Existing studies have discerned factors that differentiate Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) victims from sexual abuse victims, yet no research has been conducted to discriminate which items in a high risk population of youth are most predictive of CSEC...
August 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rekha Narasimhan, Roxana Coras, Sara B Rosenthal, Shannon R Sweeney, Alessia Lodi, Stefano Tiziani, David Boyle, Arthur Kavanaugh, Monica Guma
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is an emerging field of biomedical research that may offer a better understanding of the mechanisms of underlying conditions including inflammatory arthritis. Perturbations caused by inflamed synovial tissue can lead to correlated changes in concentrations of certain metabolites in the synovium and thereby function as potential biomarkers in blood. Here, we explore the hypothesis of whether characterization of patients' metabolomic profiles in blood, utilizing 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), predicts synovial marker profiling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
August 3, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Camila Silva Bicalho, Renato Dos Reis Oliveira, Daísa Ribeiro David, Maria Cristina Domingues Silva Fink, Fabiana Agena, Maria Cristina Castro, Cláudio Panutti, Elias David-Neto, Ligia Camera Pierrotti
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is a consequence of BKPyV replication in the urinary tract in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the prevalence of BKPyV replication and BKPyVAN, risk factors associated to sustained viremia and BKPyVAN, and viremia cut-off that best predict the occurrence of sustained viremia and nephropathy in KTR of a single University Hospital Kidney Transplant Center...
August 3, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Tehmina Sattar, Saeed Ahmad, Rubeena Zakar, Fauzia Maqsood
The current study sets forth the cultural underpinnings for daughters' devaluation over son preferences in South Punjab, Pakistan. The major purpose of the present study was to provide an accurate description of women's attitude on different aspects of sex-selected abortions (SSAs). Women, with a rural background, either forced to devalue their female fetus clinically or based on violence, were the targeted participants. Using ethnographic exploration with 161 obtrusive observations, 37 in-depth interviews, and 10 focus group discussions (FGD), comprising of 85 narrated case studies, the attitudes of rural married females toward daughters' devaluation through SSAs were recorded...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Fan Wang, Mengyun Zhu, Xiaoyu Wang, Wei Zhang, Yang Su, Yuyan Lu, Xin Pan, Di Gao, Xianling Zhang, Wei Chen, Yawei Xu, Yuxi Sun, Dachun Xu
BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage morphology has been proved to be an important predictor of left atrial thrombus (LAT) and left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) and stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, the relation between left atrial appendage (LAA) lobes and LAT or LASEC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the number of left atrial appendage lobes and LAT/LASEC in patients with NVAF. METHODS: This monocentric cross-sectional study enrolled 472 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, who had transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) prior to cardioversion or left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) from July 2009 to August 2015 in department of cardiology of Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital...
July 31, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Hai-Yan Zhou, Pei Huang, Qian Sun, Juan-Juan Du, Shi-Shuang Cui, Yun-Yun Hu, Wei-Wei Zhan, Ying Wang, Qin Xiao, Jun Liu, Yu-Yan Tan, Sheng-Di Chen
Background: The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) remains a challenge, especially in the early stage. Here, we assessed the value of transcranial sonography (TCS) to discriminate non-tremor dominant (non-TD) PD from MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P). Methods: Eighty-six MSA-P patients and 147 age and gender-matched non-TD PD patients who had appropriate temporal acoustic bone windows were included in this study...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
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