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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340295/long-term-agricultural-management-and-erosion-change-soil-organic-matter-chemistry-and-association-with-minerals
#1
Xiang Wang, Nicolas A Jelinski, Brandy Toner, Kyungsoo Yoo
The interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) and minerals is a critical mechanism for retaining SOM in soil and protecting soil fertility and long-term agricultural sustainability. The chemical speciation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mineral-associated SOM can be sensitive to both anthropogenic management practices and landscape positions, but these two aspects are rarely examined in tandem. Here we examined the effects of long-term (>100 years) agricultural management and erosion on mineral-associated SOM along grassland and agricultural hillslope transect...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338571/electronic-modifications-of-fluorescent-cytidine-analogues-control-photophysics-and-fluorescent-responses-to-base-stacking-and-pairing
#2
Kristine L Teppang, Raymond W Lee, Dillon D Burns, M Benjamin Turner, Melissa E Lokensgard, Andrew L Cooksy, Byron Willis Purse
The rational design of fluorescent nucleoside analogues is greatly hampered by the lack of a general method to predict their photophysics, a problem that is especially acute when base pairing and stacking change fluorescence. To better understand these effects, we have designed and synthesized a series of tricyclic cytidine (tC and tCO) analogues ranging from electron-rich to electron-deficient, incorporated them into oligonucleotides, and studied photophysical responses to base pairing and stacking. When inserted into double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, electron-rich analogues exhibit a fluorescence turn-on effect, in contrast with the electron-deficient compounds, which show diminished fluorescence...
October 18, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337937/improving-the-commercial-value-of-the-cal%C3%A3-ot-allium-cepa-l-landrace-influence-of-genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-chemical-composition-and-sensory-attributes
#3
Silvia Sans, Joan Casals, Joan Simó
Landraces are considered valuable for their close ties to local cultures, adaptation to low inputs, and quality. 'Calçots' are the immature floral stems of second-year sprouts of onions from the 'Blanca Tardana de Lleida' landrace. 'Calçots' grown in their traditional area of cultivation have been awarded Protected Geographic Indication (PGI) 'Calçot de Valls' from the European Union. Despite annual sales of about €15 million, 'calçot' germplasm and cultivation methods are under-researched. This study aimed to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the chemical and sensory characteristics of 'calçots' to enable strategies to improve their commercial value to be devised...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337921/hfa-bdp-metered-dose-inhaler-exhaled-through-the-nose-improves-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-bronchial-asthma-a-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Yoshiki Kobayashi, Hirotaka Yasuba, Mikiya Asako, Takahisa Yamamoto, Hiroshi Takano, Koichi Tomoda, Akira Kanda, Hiroshi Iwai
Background: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in Japanese. ECRS highly associated with asthma is a refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation and requires comprehensive care as part of the united airway concept. We recently reported a series of ECRS patients with asthma treated with fine-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) exhalation through the nose (ETN). Objective: To evaluate fine-particle ICS ETN treatment as a potential therapeutic option in ECRS with asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337890/cognitive-flexibility-predicts-ptsd-symptoms-observational-and-interventional-studies
#5
Ziv Ben-Zion, Naomi B Fine, Nimrod Jackob Keynan, Roee Admon, Nili Green, Mor Halevi, Greg A Fonzo, Michal Achituv, Ofer Merin, Haggai Sharon, Pinchas Halpern, Israel Liberzon, Amit Etkin, Talma Hendler, Arieh Y Shalev
Introduction: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, severe and tenacious psychopathological consequence of traumatic events. Neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying PTSD pathogenesis have been identified, and may serve as risk-resilience factors during the early aftermath of trauma exposure. Longitudinally documenting the neurobehavioral dimensions of early responses to trauma may help characterize survivors at risk and inform mechanism-based interventions. We present two independent longitudinal studies that repeatedly probed clinical symptoms and neurocognitive domains in recent trauma survivors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337082/transfer-learning-for-classification-of-cardiovascular-tissues-in-histological-images
#6
Claudia Mazo, Jose Bernal, Maria Trujillo, Enrique Alegre
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Automatic classification of healthy tissues and organs based on histology images is an open problem, mainly due to the lack of automated tools. Solutions in this regard have potential in educational medicine and medical practices. Some preliminary advances have been made using image processing techniques and classical supervised learning. Due to the breakthrough performance of deep learning in various areas, we present an approach to recognise and classify, automatically, fundamental tissues and organs using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335976/precise-identification-and-analysis-of-micro-nano-sized-pore-structure-in-shale-with-fe-3-o-4-au-hybrid-nanocomposite
#7
Na Li, Zhong Ting, Jialiang Liu, Jun Zheng, Hu-Cheng Deng, Wen Zhou, Ming Li, Mingshi Feng, Qijun Liu, ChongYing Li
Analysis and characterization of micro-/nano-sized pore structure are critical issues in shale geology and engineering. SEM imaging is one of the most widespread methods for the analysis of the micro-/nano-sized pores in shale, but precise identification of the ultra-fine pore structure in shale is still a big challenge because shale is so complex that some components may have overlap with pores based on the simple discrimination of grayscale under SEM microscopy. Here Fe3 O4 /Au nanocomposite with magnetic properties is synthesized, characterized, and introduced as a novel pore-marker to improve SEM identification and quantitation of micro-/nano-sized pores in shale...
October 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335927/zwitterionic-polyurethanes-with-tunable-surface-and-bulk-properties
#8
Huifeng Wang, Yang Hu, Dylan Lynch, Megan Young, Shengxi Li, Hongbo Cong, Fu-Jian Xu, Gang Cheng
To address the lack of blood compatibility and antifouling properties of polyurethanes (PUs), a novel zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine urethane) (PCBHU) platform with excellent antifouling and tunable mechanical properties is presented. PCBHU was synthesized via the condensation polymerization of diisocyanate with carboxybetaine (CB)-based triols. Postpolymerization hydrolysis of triol segments at the interface generates zwitterionic CB functional groups that provide superior antifouling properties via the enhanced hydration capacities of CB groups...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335759/running-in-the-wheel-defining-individual-severity-levels-in-mice
#9
Christine Häger, Lydia M Keubler, Steven R Talbot, Svenja Biernot, Nora Weegh, Stephanie Buchheister, Manuela Buettner, Silke Glage, André Bleich
The fine-scale grading of the severity experienced by animals used in research constitutes a key element of the 3Rs (replace, reduce, and refine) principles and a legal requirement in the European Union Directive 2010/63/EU. Particularly, the exact assessment of all signs of pain, suffering, and distress experienced by laboratory animals represents a prerequisite to develop refinement strategies. However, minimal and noninvasive methods for an evidence-based severity assessment are scarce. Therefore, we investigated whether voluntary wheel running (VWR) provides an observer-independent behaviour-centred approach to grade severity experienced by C57BL/6J mice undergoing various treatments...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335497/noninvasive-measurement-of-pulmonary-gas-exchange-comparison-with-data-from-arterial-blood-gases
#10
John B West, Daniel L Wang, Gordon Kim Prisk, Janelle M Fine, Amy Bellinghausen, Matthew P Light, Daniel R Crouch
A new noninvasive method was used to measure the impairment of pulmonary gas exchange in 34 patients with lung disease, and the results were compared with the traditional ideal alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (A-aDO2 ) calculated from arterial blood gases. The end-tidal PO2 was measured from the expired gas during steady-state breathing, the arterial PO2 was derived from a pulse oximeter if the SpO2 was 95% or less, which was the case for 23 patients. The difference between the end-tidal and the calculated PO2 was defined as the Oxygen Deficit...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335175/hemorrhagic-and-cystic-brain-metastases-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-leptomeningeal-dissemination-after-surgical-resection-and-adjuvant-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#11
Robert H Press, Chao Zhang, Mudit Chowdhary, Roshan S Prabhu, Matthew J Ferris, Karen M Xu, Jeffrey J Olson, Bree R Eaton, Hui-Kuo G Shu, Walter J Curran, Ian R Crocker, Kirtesh R Patel
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) treated with surgical resection and focal postoperative radiotherapy have been associated with an increased risk of subsequent leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). BMs with hemorrhagic and/or cystic features contain less solid components and may therefore be at higher risk for tumor spillage during resection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hemorrhagic and cystic BMs treated with surgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery and the risk of LMD...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334787/geometric-validation-of-continuous-finely-sampled-3d-reconstructions-from-aoct-and-ct-in-upper-airway-models
#12
Hillel B Price, Julia S Kimbell, Ruofei Bu, Amy L Oldenburg
Identification and treatment of obstructive airway disorders (OADs) is greatly aided by imaging of the geometry of the airway lumen. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) is a promising high-speed and minimally-invasive endoscopic imaging modality for providing micrometer-resolution scans of the upper airway. Resistance to airflow in OADs is directly caused by reduction in luminal cross-sectional area (CSA). It is hypothesized that aOCT can produce airway CSA measurements as accurate as that from computed tomography (CT)...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334786/knowledge-based-collaborative-deep-learning-for-benign-malignant-lung-nodule-classification-on-chest-ct
#13
Yutong Xie, Yong Xia, Jianpeng Zhang, Yang Song, Dagan Feng, Michael Fulham, Weidong Cai
The accurate identification of malignant lung nodules on chest CT is critical for the early detection of lung cancer, which also offers patients the best chance of cure. Deep learning methods have recently been successfully introduced to computer vision problems, although substantial challenges remain in the detection of malignant nodules due to the lack of large training datasets. In this paper, we propose a multi-view knowledge-based collaborative (MV-KBC) deep model to separate malignant from benign nodules using limited chest CT data...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333848/detailed-structural-characterization-of-arabinans-and-galactans-of-14-apple-cultivars-before-and-after-cold-storage
#14
Daniel Wefers, Ramona Flörchinger, Mirko Bunzel
Physiological and textural properties of apples are greatly influenced by both cultivar and structural composition of their pectic polysaccharides. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that neutral pectic side chains (arabinans and galactans) play a major role during fruit development and postharvest processes. However, these complex polymers have a high structural heterogeneity, and some structural elements such as side chain substituents and substitution of neighboring residues cannot be analyzed by using conventional analytical methods...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332664/removal-of-pm-2-5-and-secondary-inorganic-aerosols-in-the-north-china-plain-by-dry-deposition
#15
Jiao Du, Xiaodong Zhang, Tao Huang, Hong Gao, Jingyue Mo, Xiaoxuan Mao, Jianmin Ma
The North China Plain (NCP) has experienced heavy air pollution in the past several decades featured by high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ). PM2.5 removal from the atmosphere in the NCP by dry deposition was estimated from 1999 through 2013 using the inferential method, which combined PM2.5 air concentrations retrieved from satellite remote sensing and dry deposition velocities (Vd ) calculated using a bulk particle dry deposition model. Dry deposition of the three major inorganic ions in PM2.5 , namely NH4 + (ammonium), NO3 - (nitrate), and SO4 2- (sulfate), with their concentrations in 2000 and 2010 obtained from WRF-Chem model simulations, were also investigated considering their important roles in PM2...
October 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329154/high-definition-point-of-view-intraoperative-recording-using-a-smartphone-a-hands-free-approach
#16
Amir A Hakimi, Allison C Hu, Tiffany T Pham, Brian J F Wong
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Intraoperative recording devices are being increasingly used to provide video for contemporary surgical training. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a smartphone as a low-cost alternative to obtain high-resolution video from the surgeon's perspective. STUDY DESIGN: A study evaluating the feasibility of using a head-mounted smartphone with a telephoto lens for point-of-view surgical videography. METHODS: Video recordings of a rhinoplasty procedure were taken using a head-mounted smartphone and two handheld cameras, a Canon Powershot SD1400 IS and a Sony HandyCam HDR-CX160...
October 17, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327890/annotating-early-esophageal-cancers-based-on-two-saliency-levels-of-gastroscopic-images
#17
Dingyun Liu, Nini Rao, Xinming Mei, Hongxiu Jiang, Quanchi Li, ChengSi Luo, Qian Li, Chengshi Zeng, Bing Zeng, Tao Gan
Early diagnoses of esophageal cancer can greatly improve the survival rate of patients. At present, the lesion annotation of early esophageal cancers (EEC) in gastroscopic images is generally performed by medical personnel in a clinic. To reduce the effect of subjectivity and fatigue in manual annotation, computer-aided annotation is required. However, automated annotation of EEC lesions using images is a challenging task owing to the fine-grained variability in the appearance of EEC lesions. This study modifies the traditional EEC annotation framework and utilizes visual salient information to develop a two saliency levels-based lesion annotation (TSL-BLA) for EEC annotations on gastroscopic images...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327253/geographic-transmission-hubs-of-the-2009-influenza-pandemic-in-the-united-states
#18
Stephen M Kissler, Julia R Gog, Cécile Viboud, Vivek Charu, Ottar N Bjørnstad, Lone Simonsen, Bryan T Grenfell
A key issue in infectious disease epidemiology is to identify and predict geographic sites of epidemic establishment that contribute to onward spread, especially in the context of invasion waves of emerging pathogens. Conventional wisdom suggests that these sites are likely to be in densely-populated, well-connected areas. For pandemic influenza, however, epidemiological data have not been available at a fine enough geographic resolution to test this assumption. Here, we make use of fine-scale influenza-like illness incidence data derived from electronic medical claims records gathered from 834 3-digit ZIP (postal) codes across the US to identify the key geographic establishment sites, or "hubs", of the autumn wave of the 2009 A/H1N1pdm influenza pandemic in the United States...
October 10, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327031/preparation-and-performance-evaluation-of-cold-mix-asphaltic-liquid
#19
Zhilin Sun, Yawen Li, Junhui Zhang, Sanchun He
High-performance cold mix asphalt was prepared based on suitable cold mix asphaltic liquid. First, the contents of raw materials were estimated. The optimum composition of asphaltic liquid was determined by the orthogonal experimental design method. The properties of evaporated residue, adhesiveness, and construction workability were determined. At the same time, the microscopic characteristics of cold mix asphaltic liquid were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that Brookfield viscosity was greatly influenced by diluent content at 60 °C...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326620/fusion-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-panchromatic-and-hyperspectral-images-combining-joint-skewness-kurtosis-figures-and-a-non-subsampled-contourlet-transform
#20
Jinling Zhao, Chengquan Zhou, Linsheng Huang, Xiaodong Yang, Bo Xu, Dong Liang
To obtain fine and potential features, a highly informative fused image created by merging multiple images is usually required. In our study, a novel fusion algorithm called JSKF-NSCT is proposed for fusing panchromatic (PAN) and hyperspectral (HS) images by combining the joint skewness-kurtosis figure (JSKF) and the non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). The JSKF model is used first to derive the three most sensitive bands from the original HS image according to the product of the skewness and the kurtosis coefficients of each band...
October 15, 2018: Sensors
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