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laboratory haematology

Edamisan Olusoji Temiye, Oluwafunmilayo Funke Adeniyi, Iretiola Bamikeolu Fajolu, Ann Abiola Ogbenna, Taiwo Augustine Ladapo, Christopher Imokhuede Esezobor, Adebola Olumide Akinsulie, Cecilia Abimbola Mabogunje
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus and protein energy malnutrition are still prevalent in Nigeria and the occurrence of the two conditions together confers a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the current categories of malnutrition amongst under-5 children in Lagos, document their HIV status and determine any peculiarities in the clinical features, haematological and some biochemical profile in these children. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Paediatric departments of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and the Massey Street Children's Hospital, both in Lagos, over a 6-month period...
2018: PloS One
Aishatu Muhammad Nalado, Johnny N Mahlangu, Raquel Duarte, Graham Paget, Gbenga Olorunfemi, Barry F Jacobson, Saraladevi Naicker
INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) worsens the prognosis and outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, while the haemoglobin level is unreliable for early detection of IDA, reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) and hypochromic red cells (%HYPO) are early markers of IDA. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of black adult participants (n = 258) with CKD and apparently healthy members of staff and patients' relatives (n = 141) at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa, between 1 June 2016 and 31 December 2016...
2018: PloS One
George Ramsay, Duncan T Ritchie, Craig MacKay, Craig Parnaby, Graeme Murray, Leslie Samuel
BACKGROUND: Outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer are improved by neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgical resection. Some patients respond completely to preoperative treatment. Therefore, predicting the pathological response to preoperative therapy is of clinical importance. Accurate prediction would allow for tailored approaches to neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: All patients undergoing resection of rectal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant therapy between 2006 and 2015 were included in this cohort study...
September 28, 2018: Digestive Surgery
F Adeola Balogun, O Gabriel Fasanmi, T Ademola Oladipo, M Abiola Popoola, J Folami Olona, Y Dorcas Adeoye
This study utilised epidemiological, haematological, pathological findings and serological detection of specific antibodies to evaluate and confirm a peste des petit ruminants (PPR) outbreak in a herd of West African dwarf (WAD) goats in Ibadan, Nigeria. The morbidity and mortality rates post exposure (PE) were 96% and 60% respectively. Laboratory analyses revealed significant differences ( P  < 0.05) in mean values of the haematological and serum biochemical indices between the PE and control groups. The PE group experienced a significant ( P  < 0...
December 2017: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Elise Schapkaitz, Shilla RabuRabu, Marcel Engelbrecht
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide laboratories have adopted the use of modified or alternate methods for measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The iSED from Alcor Scientific is a novel, alternate ESR method based on photometric aggregometry which offers improved operator safety and reduced analysis time. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of the iSED in a South African patient population with a range of inflammatory disorders. METHODS: We compared the iSED with the predicate modified Westergren method (StaRRsed, Mechatronics, Zwaag, the Netherlands) measured at 60 minutes...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Jakub Kollar, Vladimir Frecer
Inhibitors of histone deacetylase superfamily (HDAC), which induce cell cycle arrest, trigger cell death and reduce angiogenesis appear as promising anti-cancer drugs targeting the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Approved HDAC inhibitors were found effective against haematological and solid malignancies, other HDACIs are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of neurological diseases or immune disorders. Among those, diarylcyclopropane hydroxamic acids (DCHA) were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of the class IIa HDACs, specifically HDAC4, a pharmacological target for the treatment of Huntington's disease and muscular atrophy...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Randall Arguedas, David Steinberg, Gregory A Lewbart, Diane Deresienski, Kenneth J Lohmann, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos A Valle
The San Cristóbal lava lizard, Microlophus bivittatus , is one of nine species of lava lizards endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. No information presently exists about baseline health parameters for any of these species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 47 lizards (25 males and 22 females) captured at two locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for total CO2 , lactate, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose and haemoglobin...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Luca Trotta, Anna Norberg, Mervi Taskinen, Vivien Béziat, Sofie Degerman, Ulla Wartiovaara-Kautto, Hannamari Välimaa, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Mikko Seppänen, Janna Saarela, Minna Koskenvuo, Timi Martelius
BACKGROUND: The telomere biology disorders (TBDs) include a range of multisystem diseases characterized by mucocutaneous symptoms and bone marrow failure. In dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), the clinical features of TBDs stem from the depletion of crucial stem cell populations in highly proliferative tissues, resulting from abnormal telomerase function. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical presentations and lack of a conclusive laboratory test it may be challenging to reach a clinical diagnosis, especially if patients lack the pathognomonic clinical features of TBDs...
August 17, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Susanna Esposito, Laura Elisabetta Claut, Valeria Daccò, Carla Colombo
BACKGROUND: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious life-treating condition characterized by skin eruption, fever, haematologic abnormalities, and multi-organ involvement that can be fatal if unrecognized, especially in patients with liver failure. Diagnosis may be difficult because it is rarely described in children and can mimic many different conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of DRESS syndrome due to prolonged antibiotic treatment in young children in whom recovery occurred following different therapeutic approaches...
August 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
M Martini, F Paluan
Between nineteenth and twentieth centuries, medicine knew the beginning of an incessant development: the birth of new medical specialties (radiology, for instance), the introduction of new devices in medical and surgical wards, and the discovery of bacteria represented important milestones in that first historical period. The Medical School of the University of Genoa, head by Edoardo Maragliano, full professor of internal medicine, took on a relevant role in the battle against tuberculosis, through the experimental demonstration of the existence of an immune response against M...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Joanna Wyszkowska, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Jakub Piotrowski, Anna Wojciechowska, Maria Stankiewicz, Wieslaw Kozak
PURPOSE: Epidemiological data suggest that there is a link between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), immune response, and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. The exact nature of this phenomenon remains speculative and requires detailed laboratory investigation. In the present study, we evaluate changes in plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as alternations of the hematological parameters in rats exposed to an ELF-MF...
October 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Emmanuel Liénard, Adriana Nabuco, Sophie Vandenabeele, Bertrand Losson, Irène Tosi, Émilie Bouhsira, Françoise Prévot, Shukri Sharif, Michel Franc, Caroline Vanvinckenroye, Yannick Caron
BACKGROUND: Besnoitiosis is caused by different species of intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to the family Sarcocystidae and affecting multiple host species worldwide. Including B. besnoiti, ten species are described infecting animals. Among ungulates, Besnoitia bennetti infects horses, donkeys and zebras and was described in Africa and in the USA where donkey besnoitiosis is considered as an emerging disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A two-year-old male donkey was purchased in May 2016 in poor body condition (cachexia, alopetic areas and pruritus mainly on neck and head) by the present owner in Le Roeulx (Belgium) from a milk producing donkey farm in Frasnes-lez-Buissenal (Belgium)...
July 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M Samarkos, O Kampouropoulou, V Theofanis, G Tsoumi, I Eliadi, S Smilakou, G L Daikos
OBJECTIVES: The '3-day rule' for stool culture ordering suggests that only selected inpatients with nosocomial diarrhoea should have stool cultures for enteropathogenic bacteria (EPBs). Patients with haematological malignancies are not included in this group. We have analysed the ordering of stool cultures at Laikon Hospital to investigate whether all patients with haematological malignancies should be excluded from the 3-day rule. METHODS: We have retrospectively analysed all inpatient stool specimens sent to the microbiology laboratory for enteropathogenic bacteria culture at Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece, between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014...
July 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhao-Qi Tang, Rui-Hua Jiang, Hong-Bin Xu
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care on treatment outcomes for patients with first-time pulmonary tuberculosis in China was assessed. METHODS: In this study, patients were randomized either to the usual care (UC) group (n = 72) where patients received routine medical and nursing care or to the pharmaceutical care (PC) group (n = 59) where patients were simultaneously provided with pharmaceutical care. The primary objectives were to evaluate whether treatment outcomes and patient adherence improved more in the PC group than in the UC group...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Emmanuelle A Kuntz, Srinivas Kammanadiminti
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new member of the isoxazoline class for treatment of flea and tick infestations in cats. This laboratory study with lotilaner vanilla-yeast flavoured chewable tablets (CredelioTM , Elanco) investigated the safety in healthy kittens starting at 8 weeks of age in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design. Lotilaner tablets were given orally once a month over eight months at one, three and five times the upper level of the maximum recommended dose range (26 mg/kg)...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti Neupane
The present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sighting study step-I (300 mg/kg) & sighting study step-II (2000 mg/kg) and main study (2000 mg/kg)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Fiona Chatterton, Vanessa Kay
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a devastating consequence of some medical and surgical interventions. Men can protect their fertility by storing or 'banking' sperm before beginning treatment. This is called fertility preservation. Fertility preservation is traditionally offered to cancer patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. AIMS: This study reports the results of an audit of the Ninewells Hospital fertility preservation service. It aims to characterise the patients who attended our service and assess their utilisation rate and outcome of treatment...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
María Martínez, Jesica Montero, Adriana Pineda, Víctor Mijares, María Lares, Emily Catalano, Elizabeth Ferrer
Background: Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis caused by canine and feline Toxocara spp. In Venezuela, seroepidemiological studies in Aragua State have been carried out only in preschool children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies and identify clinical symptoms and risk factors of Toxocara spp. infection in school children in two municipalities of Aragua State of Venezuela. Methods: A cross-sectional field study with 259 children between 6 and 12 y of age was conducted in six schools in Aragua State...
June 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nadine Schmidt, Tim Luhmann, Liane Hüther, Ulrich Meyer, Stefanie A Barth, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Jana Frahm, Sven Dänicke
Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and performance in cattle. The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. Active and passive immunization of calves with Shiga toxoids (rStxMUT ) was recently shown to reduce the STEC shedding...
October 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Lauren Kearney, Mary Kynn, Rachel Reed, Lisa Davenport, Jeanine Young, Keppel Schafer
BACKGROUND: In industrialised countries the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is increasing, for which exact etiology is not well understood. Studies have relied upon retrospective data with estimated blood loss as the primary outcome, known to be underestimated by clinicians. This study aimed to explore variables associated with PPH in a cohort of women birthing vaginally in coastal Queensland, Australia, using the gravimetric method to measure blood loss. METHODS: Women were prospectively recruited to participate using an opt-out consent process...
June 7, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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