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Yu-Zu Wu, Jia-Yi Lin, Pei-Ling Wu, Ying-Fen Kuo
AIM: Physical inactivity can cause physical frailty and sarcopenia. We investigated the effects of a hybrid intervention combining commercial exergaming with physical therapy, and clarified the reasons for physical inactivity among older adults. METHODS: This was a pilot study of older participants recruited from a long-term care facility assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 90-min hybrid intervention twice a week for 12 weeks, whereas the control group received only assessment...
December 6, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Mathias Roberto Loch, Paulo Henrique Guerra
This essay aims to suggest food for thought on discrepancies between scientific evidence on physical inactivity and the associated factors and determinants and information communicated by the media on this topic. We specifically examine a case in which "laziness" was used as the "explanatory" factor for the high levels of physical inactivity in the Brazilian population. We use as examples a scientific article published in Nature and two news stories published in mainstream Brazilian media channels (Veja magazine and O Globo newspaper) that commented on the former...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Ahmad B A Hassanat
Big data classification is very slow when using traditional machine learning classifiers, particularly when using a lazy and slow-by-nature classifier such as the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN). This paper proposes a new approach which is based on sorting the feature vectors of training data in a binary search tree to accelerate big data classification using the KNN approach. This is done using two methods, both of which utilize two local points to sort the examples based on their similarity to these local points...
2018: PloS One
Eri Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Hirohiko Kakizaki
The Lazy-T procedure is used to correct moderate-to-severe punctal ectropion in the lower eyelid. It includes full-thickness wedge resection of the medial lower eyelid and horizontal tarso-conjunctival diamond excision inferior to the lower punctum. However, the skin wound vertical to the relaxed skin tension lines is often conspicuous and horizontal excision of a part of the tarsus may impair function of the meibomian gland. In this study, the authors developed a modified Lazy-T procedure, which includes subciliary incision, pentagonal tarso-conjunctival resection, and medial spindle excision for submerging the vertical wound after suturing the pentagonal tarso-conjunctival resection under the skin flap and minimizing damage to the tarsus...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Carolina Corchuelo-Maíllo, Irene Cienfuegos-Belmonte, Enrique Argüelles-Salido, Pedro Campoy-Martínez, Rafael Antonio Medina-López
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient compliance with treatment for urinary lithiasis and to detect differences in adherence, causes of this behavior and associated factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 93 patients with positive urinary metabolic study (UMS) for lithogenic pathology, diagnosed between 2013 and 2015, gathering data from the digital medical records and a structured telephonic questionnaire in 75 of them. Results were analyzed using the X2 test...
November 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Ali Asghar Habibi, Mahdia Gholami, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri
OBJECTIVES: Nowadays traditional training methods for promotion of oral health behaviors cannot meet the demand of the society and there is a need for effective new methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of social marketing approach versus the traditional method on promotion of tooth brushing habits in primary school students of Kahak and Jafariyeh, Qom, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the 2016-2017 academic year. First, the reasons for lack of interest in proper tooth brushing were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Gail Geller, Paul A Watkins
Context: Negative bias toward patients with obesity is an ethical challenge in patient care. Several interventions to mitigate medical students' negative weight bias have been tried but none with an explicit focus on ethics. Here we describe first-year medical students' attitudes toward obesity and our effort to improve their attitudes through an innovative ethics session embedded within the required course, "Obesity, Nutrition, and Behavior Change," at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine...
October 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Yijun Wang, Yali Wang, Jia Zhao, Jiayu Huang, Yining Shi, Dexiang Deng
We report coding and long noncoding RNAs in maize upon phytohormone gibberellin stimulation. Plant hormone gibberellin (GA) orchestrates various facets of biological processes. Dissection the transcriptomic dynamics upon GA stimulation has biological significance. Feature of maize transcriptome in response to GA application remains largely elusive. Herein, two types of plants, one was with normal height, the other was GA-sensitive dwarfism, were selected from advanced backcross population for GA3 treatment with different concentrations...
November 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Nghia Tuan Duong, Jayasubba Reddy Yarava, Julien Trébosc, Yusuke Nishiyama, Jean-Paul Amoureux
The combination of cross-polarization (CP) with flip-back (FB) pulse has enabled in NMR the enhancement of 13C sensitivity and the decrease of the recycling delay at both moderate and fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. However, only continuous-wave (CW) decoupling is presently compatible with FB-pulse (FB-CW), and depending on the CW radio-frequency (rf) field, either an insignificant sensitivity gain or an acquisition time-dependent gain and a low 13C resolution are obtained. In this study, we propose a new FB-pulse method in which radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) is used as the 1H-13C decoupling scheme to overcome these drawbacks...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Josephine Changole, Ursula Kafulafula, Johanne Sundby, Viva Thorsen
It is well-documented that obstetric fistula, a severe birth injury, is caused by a prolonged obstructed labour that has not been relieved on time. Lay people often understand causation differently. This study sought to explore the awareness and local meanings attached to obstetric fistula in the rural parts of Malawi. We conducted interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with community members in purposively selected communities in the central region of Malawi. We categorised data using Nvivo 10 and conducted a thematic analysis...
October 3, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
H Reddon, Y Patel, M Turcotte, M Pigeyre, D Meyre
The recent global obesity epidemic is attributed to major societal and environmental changes, such as excessive energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. However, exposure to 'obesogenic' environments does not necessarily result in obesity at the individual level, as 40-75% of body mass index variation in population is attributed to genetic differences. The thrifty genotype theory posits that genetic variants promoting efficient food sequestering and optimal deposition of fat during periods of food abundance were evolutionarily advantageous for the early hunter-gatherer and were positively selected...
September 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Kameran H Ismail
Objectives: The rapidly rising incidence of plagiarism among students at universities throughout the world requires attention. This study aimed to determine the extent to which medical and nursing students in Erbil, Iraq, plagiarise, their knowledge, understanding and perceptions of plagiarism and the underlying factors that may lead them to plagiarise. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2017 among a sample of 400 undergraduate medical and nursing students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil...
May 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Kelly C Allison, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Robert I Berkowitz, Olivia Walsh, Jena Shaw Tronieri
Obesity is frequently attributed to causes such as laziness and lack of willpower and personal responsibility. The current study identified causal attributions for obesity among patients seeking bariatric surgery and compared them to those among patients seeking less invasive weight loss treatment (behavioral/pharmacological). The 16-item Causal Attributions for Obesity scale (CAO; rated 1-7) was administered to 102 patients seeking bariatric surgery (sample 1) and 178 patients seeking behavioral/pharmacological weight loss treatment (sample 2)...
November 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, E Y K Ng
Early detection of breast tumors, feet pre-ulcers diagnosing in diabetic patients, and identifying the location of pain in patients are essential to physicians. Hot or cold regions in medical thermographic images have potential to be suspicious. Hence extracting the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images is an important task. Lazy snapping is an interactive image cutout algorithm that can be applied to extract the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images quickly with easy detailed adjustment...
August 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Harm Hoekstra, Jasper Vanhees, Juriaan van den Berg, Stefaan Nijs
We describe the operative management of extended lateral column fractures according to the revised three-column classification approach in a step-by-step fashion. We show that direct reduction and stable fixation of extended lateral column tibial plateau fractures via a limited arthrotomy and tibia condyle osteotomy, with the use of free subchondral 2.7 mm locking screws is a reliable technique. Subsequently, diverging VA-LCP locking screws further improve the structural properties. It is a straightforward technique and the single lateral approach (Lazy-S) facilitates direct reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation of the fracture fragments under direct vision with good radiological and fair functional outcome...
October 2018: Injury
Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Wangyuan Yao, Mujahid Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Aoyun Li, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is one of the important pesticides, which is extensively used in agriculture, but if it is combined with the cell membrane, then it causes membrane damage, bone morphogenic inactivation, and inhibited angiogenesis. Thiram has been considered a common cause of tibial dyschondrolplasia (TD) in various avian species, because it becomes the part of feed due to environmental contamination and its overuse in agriculture as pesticides or fungicide. However, there is no systematic study on the changes of the correlation indexes with toxic effect of the thiram in chickens...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Gajewski, L Bijlmakers, G Mwapasa, E Borgstein, C Pittalis, R Brugha
OBJECTIVES: Surgical services at district level in Malawi are poor, yet the majority of the population resides in rural areas. This study aimed to explore the perceived obstacles to surgery from the perspective of the cadre directly responsible for surgical service delivery at district hospitals. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 clinical officers (COs) receiving surgical training in eight public district hospitals and their 12 trainers. Thematic analysis of data was conducted using a top-down coding method...
October 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
R Paul, N Knowles, J Chaoui, M-O Gauci, L Ferreira, G Walch, G S Athwal
Aims: The Walch Type C dysplastic glenoid is characterized by excessive retroversion. This anatomical study describes its morphology. Patients and Methods: A total of 29 shoulders with a dysplastic glenoid were analyzed. CT was used to measure retroversion, inclination, height, width, radius-of-curvature, surface area, depth, subluxation of the humeral head and the Goutallier classification of fatty infiltration. The severity of dysplasia and deficiency of the posterior rim of the glenoid were recorded...
August 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Jacinta Dusabe, Joseph Akuze, Angela Nakanwagi Kisakye, Benon Kwesiga, Peter Nsubuga, Elizabeth Ekirapa
Introduction: World Health Organization estimates that the appropriate caesarean section rates should range from 10% to 15% at the population level. There is limited access and utilisation of caesarean section services in Uganda. This case-control study explored factors associated with caesarean section delivery, focusing on service-related and individual level factors. Methods: we interviewed 134 cases that had a caesarean section and 134 controls that had a "normal" vaginal delivery...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Mindaugas Marozas, Sergej Sosunkevič, Miglė Francaitė-Daugėlienė, Džilda Veličkienė, Arunas Lukoševičius
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in pregnancy period, leading to possible complications for both mother and fetus during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to build an objective method to evaluate diabetes mellitus (DM) risk from past GDM data recorded 15 years ago and find a short list of most informative indicators. The dataset consists of demographic, lifestyle, clinical, genetic and pregnancy related information recorded 15 years ago. Due to the large time gap data are limited and have missing values (MVs)...
2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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