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Nghia Tuan Duong, Jayasubba Reddy Yarava, Julien Trébosc, Yusuke Nishiyama, Jean-Paul Amoureux
The combination of cross-polarization (CP) with flip-back (FB) pulse has enabled in NMR the enhancement of 13C sensitivity and the decrease of the recycling delay at both moderate and fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. However, only continuous-wave (CW) decoupling is presently compatible with FB-pulse (FB-CW), and depending on the CW radio-frequency (rf) field, either an insignificant sensitivity gain or an acquisition time-dependent gain and a low 13C resolution are obtained. In this study, we propose a new FB-pulse method in which radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) is used as the 1H-13C decoupling scheme to overcome these drawbacks...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Josephine Changole, Ursula Kafulafula, Johanne Sundby, Viva Thorsen
It is well-documented that obstetric fistula, a severe birth injury, is caused by a prolonged obstructed labour that has not been relieved on time. Lay people often understand causation differently. This study sought to explore the awareness and local meanings attached to obstetric fistula in the rural parts of Malawi. We conducted interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with community members in purposively selected communities in the central region of Malawi. We categorised data using Nvivo 10 and conducted a thematic analysis...
October 3, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
H Reddon, Y Patel, M Turcotte, M Pigeyre, D Meyre
The recent global obesity epidemic is attributed to major societal and environmental changes, such as excessive energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. However, exposure to 'obesogenic' environments does not necessarily result in obesity at the individual level, as 40-75% of body mass index variation in population is attributed to genetic differences. The thrifty genotype theory posits that genetic variants promoting efficient food sequestering and optimal deposition of fat during periods of food abundance were evolutionarily advantageous for the early hunter-gatherer and were positively selected...
September 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Kameran H Ismail
Objectives: The rapidly rising incidence of plagiarism among students at universities throughout the world requires attention. This study aimed to determine the extent to which medical and nursing students in Erbil, Iraq, plagiarise, their knowledge, understanding and perceptions of plagiarism and the underlying factors that may lead them to plagiarise. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2017 among a sample of 400 undergraduate medical and nursing students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil...
May 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Kelly C Allison, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Robert I Berkowitz, Olivia Walsh, Jena Shaw Tronieri
Obesity is frequently attributed to causes such as laziness and lack of willpower and personal responsibility. The current study identified causal attributions for obesity among patients seeking bariatric surgery and compared them to those among patients seeking less invasive weight loss treatment (behavioral/pharmacological). The 16-item Causal Attributions for Obesity scale (CAO; rated 1-7) was administered to 102 patients seeking bariatric surgery (sample 1) and 178 patients seeking behavioral/pharmacological weight loss treatment (sample 2)...
November 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, E Y K Ng
Early detection of breast tumors, feet pre-ulcers diagnosing in diabetic patients, and identifying the location of pain in patients are essential to physicians. Hot or cold regions in medical thermographic images have potential to be suspicious. Hence extracting the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images is an important task. Lazy snapping is an interactive image cutout algorithm that can be applied to extract the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images quickly with easy detailed adjustment...
August 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Harm Hoekstra, Jasper Vanhees, Juriaan van den Berg, Stefaan Nijs
We describe the operative management of extended lateral column fractures according to the revised three-column classification approach in a step-by-step fashion. We show that direct reduction and stable fixation of extended lateral column tibial plateau fractures via a limited arthrotomy and tibia condyle osteotomy, with the use of free subchondral 2.7 mm locking screws is a reliable technique. Subsequently, diverging VA-LCP locking screws further improve the structural properties. It is a straightforward technique and the single lateral approach (Lazy-S) facilitates direct reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation of the fracture fragments under direct vision with good radiological and fair functional outcome...
July 27, 2018: Injury
Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Wangyuan Yao, Mujahid Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Aoyun Li, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is one of the important pesticides, which is extensively used in agriculture, but if it is combined with the cell membrane, then it causes membrane damage, bone morphogenic inactivation, and inhibited angiogenesis. Thiram has been considered a common cause of tibial dyschondrolplasia (TD) in various avian species, because it becomes the part of feed due to environmental contamination and its overuse in agriculture as pesticides or fungicide. However, there is no systematic study on the changes of the correlation indexes with toxic effect of the thiram in chickens...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Gajewski, L Bijlmakers, G Mwapasa, E Borgstein, C Pittalis, R Brugha
OBJECTIVES: Surgical services at district level in Malawi are poor, yet the majority of the population resides in rural areas. This study aimed to explore the perceived obstacles to surgery from the perspective of the cadre directly responsible for surgical service delivery at district hospitals. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 clinical officers (COs) receiving surgical training in eight public district hospitals and their 12 trainers. Thematic analysis of data was conducted using a top-down coding method...
October 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
R Paul, N Knowles, J Chaoui, M-O Gauci, L Ferreira, G Walch, G S Athwal
Aims: The Walch Type C dysplastic glenoid is characterized by excessive retroversion. This anatomical study describes its morphology. Patients and Methods: A total of 29 shoulders with a dysplastic glenoid were analyzed. CT was used to measure retroversion, inclination, height, width, radius-of-curvature, surface area, depth, subluxation of the humeral head and the Goutallier classification of fatty infiltration. The severity of dysplasia and deficiency of the posterior rim of the glenoid were recorded...
August 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Jacinta Dusabe, Joseph Akuze, Angela Nakanwagi Kisakye, Benon Kwesiga, Peter Nsubuga, Elizabeth Ekirapa
Introduction: World Health Organization estimates that the appropriate caesarean section rates should range from 10% to 15% at the population level. There is limited access and utilisation of caesarean section services in Uganda. This case-control study explored factors associated with caesarean section delivery, focusing on service-related and individual level factors. Methods: we interviewed 134 cases that had a caesarean section and 134 controls that had a "normal" vaginal delivery...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Mindaugas Marozas, Sergej Sosunkevič, Miglė Francaitė-Daugėlienė, Džilda Veličkienė, Arunas Lukoševičius
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in pregnancy period, leading to possible complications for both mother and fetus during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to build an objective method to evaluate diabetes mellitus (DM) risk from past GDM data recorded 15 years ago and find a short list of most informative indicators. The dataset consists of demographic, lifestyle, clinical, genetic and pregnancy related information recorded 15 years ago. Due to the large time gap data are limited and have missing values (MVs)...
2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Natalia Oli, Abhinav Vaidya, Katja Pahkala, Gabriele Eiben, Alexandra Krettek
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in low and middle-income countries; Nepal's population shows a high prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Our cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS), located near the capital Kathmandu, explored knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of mothers with young children regarding diet and physical activity and mothers' perception of their children's attitude and behavior toward the same issues. The purpose of our study was to assess needs of the mothers concerning cardiovascular health in general and more specifically regarding diet and physical activity, and to establish a baseline for future intervention in the community by comparing two villages of JD-HDSS...
2018: PloS One
S A Larson
During the early twentieth century, public health campaigns taught Americans from all strata of society to recognize that a great threat to the health and prosperity of the South was not an enemy abroad, but rather a bloodsucking parasite living underfoot in Southern soil: hookworm. According to the information widely disseminated by these campaigns, hookworm infection was responsible for the physical "backwardness" of Southern men, women, and children. By linking physical and cognitive symptoms to a parasitic source, the public health campaign introduced a new literary tool for constructing characters who are not "quite right" that continues to be employed in contemporary fiction...
2018: Literature and Medicine
Gordon Pennycook, David G Rand
Why do people believe blatantly inaccurate news headlines ("fake news")? Do we use our reasoning abilities to convince ourselves that statements that align with our ideology are true, or does reasoning allow us to effectively differentiate fake from real regardless of political ideology? Here we test these competing accounts in two studies (total N = 3446 Mechanical Turk workers) by using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) as a measure of the propensity to engage in analytical reasoning. We find that CRT performance is negatively correlated with the perceived accuracy of fake news, and positively correlated with the ability to discern fake news from real news - even for headlines that align with individuals' political ideology...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Thanh M Nguyen, Syed A Muhammad, Sara Ibrahim, Lin Ma, Jinlei Guo, Baogang Bai, Bixin Zeng
In this paper, we propose DeCoST (Drug Repurposing from Control System Theory) framework to apply control system paradigm for drug repurposing purpose. Drug repurposing has become one of the most active areas in pharmacology since the last decade. Compared to traditional drug development, drug repurposing may provide more systematic and significantly less expensive approaches in discovering new treatments for complex diseases. Although drug repurposing techniques rapidly evolve from "one: disease-gene-drug" to "multi: gene, dru" and from "lazy guilt-by-association" to "systematic model-based pattern matching," mathematical system and control paradigm has not been widely applied to model the system biology connectivity among drugs, genes, and diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Christoph Helma, David Vorgrimmler, Denis Gebele, Martin Gütlein, Barbara Engeli, Jürg Zarn, Benoit Schilter, Elena Lo Piparo
This study compares the accuracy of (Q)SAR/read-across predictions with the experimental variability of chronic lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) from in vivo experiments. We could demonstrate that predictions of the lazy structure-activity relationships (lazar) algorithm within the applicability domain of the training data have the same variability as the experimental training data. Predictions with a lower similarity threshold (i.e., a larger distance from the applicability domain) are also significantly better than random guessing, but the errors to be expected are higher and a manual inspection of prediction results is highly recommended...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tapio Ojala, Arja Häkkinen, Jaro Karppinen, Kirsi Sipilä, Timo Suutama, Arja Piirainen
Background Research has emphasised the essential role of psychosocial risk factors in chronic pain. In practice, pain is usually verified by identifying its physical cause. In patients without any distinct pathology, pain is easily defined as imaginary pain. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the invisibility of chronic pain, from the patients' perspective. Methods Thirty-four participants with chronic pain were interviewed. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, and 19 of them were women...
January 1, 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tommaso Bocci, Francesco Nasini, Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani, Davide Barloscio, Gianluca Ardolino, Alberto Priori, Lamberto Maffei, Marco Nardi, Ferdinando Sartucci
Objective: Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity loss, refractory to pharmacological and optical treatments in adulthood. In animals, the corpus callosum (CC) contributes to suppression of visual responses of the amblyopic eye. To investigate the role of interhemispheric pathways in amblyopic patients, we studied the response of the visual cortex to transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied over the primary visual area (V1) contralateral to the "lazy eye...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrea Boni, Giovanni Cochetti, Stefano Ascani, Michele Del Zingaro, Francesca Quadrini, Alessio Paladini, Diego Cocca, Ettore Mearini
BACKGROUND: The management of metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically in the last 20 years, and the role of surgery in the immunotherapy's era is under debate. Metastatic lesions interesting pancreas are infrequent, but those harbouring from RCC have an high incidence. If metachronous resections are not rare, synchronous resection of primary RCC and its pancreatic metastasis is uncommonly reported, and accounts for a bad prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 68 years old woman, who presented hematuria at hospital incoming, with radiological appearance of a 13 cm left renal mass, with a 2...
June 13, 2018: BMC Surgery
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