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Stress Related Pathologies

Tamara G Denisova, Liudmila Ivanovna Gerasimova, Nadezhda L Pakhmutova, Seema Mahesh, George Vithoulkas
BACKGROUND Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally and challenging to treat because of the multifactorial etiology and presentation. Individualized homeopathy takes into account factors that led to a patient's health condition and hence may have a role in the treatment of obesity and related co-morbidities; co-morbidities that may arising from the same etiology may respond as a whole to homeopathy treatment. CASE REPORT A 39-year-old Russian female who developed multiple problems after severe emotional stress was treated with individualized classical homeopathic therapy...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Zhen Zhang, Hanlin Yang, Jingyu Yang, Jun Xie, Jiaoyan Xu, Chen Liu, Chunfu Wu
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are thought to be the two key early events during the process of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Therefore, effective regulation of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation is an important aspect of preventing and improving MCI. We previously found that pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol-type saponin, markedly reduced cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice and oAβ1-42 -injected mice. In the present study, we further evaluate the effect of PF11 on learning and memory dysfunction in d‑galactose (d‑gal)-treated mice model of MCI...
December 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Rowena Almonte-Baldonado, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo, Damien Gerald, Laura E Benjamin, George C Prendergast, Lisa D Laury-Kleintop
Neovascularization in cancer or retinopathy is driven by pathological changes that foster abnormal sprouting of endothelial cells. Mouse genetic studies indicate that the stress-induced small GTPase RhoB is dispensable for normal physiology but required for pathogenic angiogenesis. In diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or age-related wet macular degeneration (AMD), progressive pathologic anatomic changes and ischemia foster neovascularization are characterized by abnormal sprouting of endothelial cells...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Maria Cristina Morganti-Kossmann, Bridgette D Semple, Sarah C Hellewell, Nicole Bye, Jenna M Ziebell
This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons...
December 7, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Shahnaz Akil, Fredrik Hedeer, Marcus Carlsson, Håkan Arheden, Jenny Oddstig, Cecilia Hindorf, Jonas Jögi, David Erlinge, Henrik Engblom
BACKGROUND: To relate findings of qualitative evaluation of first-pass perfusion-CMR and anatomical evaluation on coronary angiography (CA) to the reference standard of quantitative perfusion, cardiac PET, in patients with suspected or known stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one patients referred for CA due to suspected stable CAD, prospectively performed adenosine stress/rest first-pass perfusion-CMR as well as 13 N-NH3 PET on the same day, 4 ± 3 weeks before CA...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hua-Ying Chen, Dan Guo, Zhen-Fei Gan, Lei Jiang, Shuai Chang, Da-Wei Li
A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based nanoprobe was developed for detection and imaging of endogenous peroxynitrite in living cells. The probe was fabricated by assembling 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid pinacol ester onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The detection of peroxynitrite is accomplished via measurement of the changes in the SERS spectra (at 882 cm-1 ) that are caused by the reaction between probe and peroxynitrite. The probe has a fast response (<30 s), a 0.4 μM lower detection limit and a wide linearity range from 5...
December 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Jingkun Lu, Yuchong Hu, Lechun Wang, Yuewu Wang, Shengsang Na, Jian Wang, Yuhui Shun, Xiaoqin Wang, Peifeng Xue, Pengwei Zhao, Liping Su
GuangZao and RouDouKou ( Fructus Choerospondiatis and Nutmeg , FCN) are one of the most common herb pairs in traditional Mongolian medicine for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, evidence for the protective effect of FCN is limited, and its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study employed a network pharmacology approach to identify the potentially active ingredients and synergistic effects of the herb pair FCN as traditional Mongolian medicine. We predicted the targets of all available FCN ingredients with PharmMapper, SWISS, and SuperPred Server and clustered CHD-related targets from the DrugBank and the OMIM database...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Min Su, Chao Guo, Meizhen Liu, Xiaoliu Liang, Bin Yang
In our previous studies, vitamin C (VC) exerts potent pharmacological activities against liver injury (LI). Therefore, this report was designed to use network pharmacology-based strategy to predict therapeutic targets of VC against LI, and further to investigate the pharmacological molecular mechanisms. Pathological targets of LI were identified, followed by acquisition of verified targets of VC. After constructing target-functional protein interaction network of VC against LI, the core therapeutic targets of VC against LI were obtained...
December 5, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Katarzyna Polak-Kraśna, Sandra Robak-Nawrocka, Sylwia Szotek, Marcin Czyż, Daniel Gheek, Celina Pezowicz
BACKGROUND: Damage to the spinal cord is one of the most debilitating pathologies with considerable health, economic and social impact. Improved prevention, treatment and rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the complex biomechanics of the spinal cord with all its structural elements and the injury mechanism to be understood. This comprehensive understanding will also allow development of models and tools enabling better diagnosis, surgical treatment with increased safety and efficacy and possible development of regenerative therapies...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ewa Laskowska, Dorota Kuczyńska-Wiśnik, Barbara Lipińska
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) refers to the ability of cells to preserve the correct balance between protein synthesis, folding and degradation. Proteostasis is essential for optimal cell growth and survival under stressful conditions. Various extracellular and intracellular stresses including heat shock, oxidative stress, proteasome malfunction, mutations and aging-related modifications can result in disturbed proteostasis manifested by enhanced misfolding and aggregation of proteins. To limit protein misfolding and aggregation cells have evolved various strategies including molecular chaperones, proteasome system and autophagy...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures (FNF) after internal fixation of trochanteric fractures (AIFTF) with the implant in situ (WIIS) are uncommon. Publications of FNFAIFTFWIIS are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the frequency, risk factors, mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes and the eventual prevention of this complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction...
December 2018: Injury
María Orejana Martín, Clara Cornejo Bauer, Silvia Ana Torrente Vela, Carlos García Fuentes, Candelas López López, Juan Carlos Montejo González
BACKGROUND: the effective contribution of enteral nutrition (EN) in intensive care units (ICU) is due to multiple factors. OBJECTIVES: to determine the efficacy of caloric intake in critically ill patients with traumatic pathology receiving enteral nutrition, and to analyze cause and time of interruption of EN. METHOD: prospective observational study (November 2015 - August 2016). INCLUSION CRITERIA: patient with EN ≥ 48 hours and age ≥ 18 years...
October 17, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Li Lu, Yating Qin, Chen Chen, Xiaomei Guo
Atherosclerosis, a chronic luminal stenosis disorder occurred in large and medium arteries, is the principle pathological basis of cardiovascular diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In oriental countries, traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan has been widely used for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related illnesses for thousands of years. Paeonol, a bioactive monomer extracted from Cortex Moutan, is an important pharmacological component responsible for the antiatherosclerotic effects...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lorena Pochini, Michele Galluccio, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Lara Console, Cesare Indiveri
OCTN is a small subfamily of membrane transport proteins that belongs to the larger SLC22 family. Two of the three members of the subfamily, namely, OCTN2 and OCTN1, are present in humans. OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the absorption of carnitine from diet and in its distribution to tissues, as demonstrated by the occurrence of severe pathologies caused by malfunctioning or altered expression of this transporter. These findings suggest avoiding a strict vegetarian diet during pregnancy and in childhood. Other roles of OCTN2 are related to the traffic of carnitine derivatives in many tissues...
December 7, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Carlos Rp Dechandt, Tatiane M Vicentini, Guilherme Pauperio Lanfredi, Rui M P da Silva, Enilza Maria Espreafico, José A C de Oliveira, Vitor Marcel Faça, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Luciane C Alberici
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an animal model of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, developed after genetic selection by sister x brother inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible to sound stimuli. Although metabolic changes have been described in this strain, nothing, however, is known about its mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we addressed mitochondrial aspects of OXPHOS, oxidative stress, biogenesis and dynamics in liver, skeletal muscle and heart of male WAR, correlating then to physiological aspects of body metabolism...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Fabio Ciccarone, Serena Castelli, Laura Ioannilli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
SCOPE: Epigenetic aberrations caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices have been associated with the development of a number of pathologies including cardiovascular disorders. However, whether obesity-related heart dysfunction can occur via epigenetic mechanisms is largely undisclosed. The manifested role of DNA hydroxymethylation in heart pathophysiology prompted us to investigate its levels/machinery in heart of mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its possible relation with genes linked to obesity-associated cardiac remodelling...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Carol A Kidron, Laurence J Kirmayer
Efforts to provide culturally appropriate global mental health interventions have included attention to local idioms of distress. This article critically examines the potential gap between lay ethnopsychological understandings of the Cambodian idiom of baksbat (broken courage) on the one hand and clinical conceptualizations of the idiom as a potential indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ethnographic semi-structured interviews with trauma survivors reveal resistance to current clinical translations and hybrid Euro-Western and Khmer treatment interventions...
December 4, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Sanaa K Bardaweel, Mustafa Gul, Muhammad Alzweiri, Aman Ishaqat, Husam A ALSalamat, Rasha M Bashatwah
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-known for playing a dual role as destructive and constructive species. Indeed, ROS are engaged in many redox-governing activities of the cells for the preservation of cellular homeostasis. However, its overproduction has been reported to result in oxidative stress, which is considered as a deleterious process, and is involved in the damage of cell structures that causes various diseased states. This review provides a concise view on some of the current research published in this topic for an improved understanding of the key roles of ROS in diverse conditions of health and disease...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Sonia L Ramírez-Garza, Emily P Laveriano-Santos, María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Carolina E Storniolo, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós
The effect of resveratrol (RV) intake has been reviewed in several studies performed in humans with different health status. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of clinical trials of the last decade, in which RV was determined in biological samples such as human plasma, urine, and feces. The topics covered include RV bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, effects on cardiovascular diseases, cognitive diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), oxidative stress, and inflammation states. The overview of the recent research reveals a clear tendency to identify RV in plasma, showing that its supplementation is safe...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Anuradha Tarafdar, Giordano Pula
For a number of years, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) was synonymous with NOX2/gp91phox and was considered to be a peculiarity of professional phagocytic cells. Over the last decade, several more homologs have been identified and based on current research, the NOX family consists of NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 enzymes. NOXs are electron transporting membrane proteins that are responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation-primarily superoxide anion (O₂●- ), although hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) can also be generated...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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