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Cognitive skills infants

Namirembe J Kazibwe, Phani S Veeranki, Karen E Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate for decline in cognitive scores from 12 to 24 months of age for preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestational age for those with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. STUDY DESIGN: In an observational retrospective study, detailed medical data was collected from the electronic medical records of preterm infants born between January 2009 and December 2015 who had cognitive evaluations using Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed (BISD-3) at 12 months corrected gestational age and 24 months chronological age...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sudha M Srinivasan, Anjana N Bhat
Our study compared means-end exploration in infants at risk (AR) for autism and typically developing (TD) infants using a nested box paradigm. Sixteen AR and 16 TD infants were observed at 9, 12, and 15 months with follow-up at 18 and 24 months. We collected video data on three tasks involving retrieval of a small toy by opening (a) an opaque box, (b) a transparent box, and (c) two nested boxes. Dependent variables included hand bias, time to completion, bilateral hand use, problem-solving strategies used, and tester assistance required...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Forgive Avorgbedor, Susan Silva, Elizabeth Merwin, James A Blumenthal, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVE: To compare the health, physical growth, and developmental outcomes in preterm infants of women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of health outcomes; physical growth (head circumference, height, and weight) collected at birth and 2 months, corrected for prematurity; and cognitive, language, and motor skills of preterm infants of women with and without HDP. SETTING: Four NICUs in the United States...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Courtney E Venker
Numerous experimental studies have shown that infants and children can discover word meanings by using co-occurrences between labels and objects across individually ambiguous contexts-a phenomenon known as cross-situational learning. Like typically developing children, high-functioning school aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are capable of cross-situational learning. However, it is not yet clear whether cross-situational learning is similarly available to children with ASD who are younger and show a broader range of language and cognitive abilities...
November 20, 2018: Cognition
D J Fidler, E Schworer, E A Will, L Patel, L A Daunhauer
BACKGROUND: While delays in cognitive development are detectable during early development in Down syndrome, the neuropsychological and biomedical underpinnings of cognitive skill acquisition in this population remain poorly understood. METHOD: To explore this issue, 38 infants with Down syndrome [mean chronological age = 9.65 months; SD = 3.64] completed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III and a set of laboratory tasks that measured sustained attention (duration of visual attention during a 1-min object exploration task), attention shifting (mean latency to shift attention on an alternating object presentation task) and visual short-term memory (dishabituation to a novel object on a change preference task)...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Christophe Emmanuel de Bézenac, Rachel Ann Swindells, Rhiannon Corcoran
While distinguishing between the actions and physical boundaries of self and other (non-self) is usually straightforward there are contexts in which such differentiation is challenging. For example, self-other ambiguity may occur when actions of others are similar or complementary to those of the self. Even in the absence of such situational challenges, individuals experiencing hallucinations have difficulties with this distinction, often experiencing thoughts or actions of self as belonging to other agents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dani Levine, Daphna Buchsbaum, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta M Golinkoff
Event segmentation is a fundamental process of human cognition that organizes the continuous flux of activity into discrete, hierarchical units. The mechanism of event segmentation in infants seems to parallel the mechanism studied in adults, which centers on action predictability. Statistical learning appears to bootstrap infants' event segmentation by generating action predictions without relying on prior knowledge. Infants' first-hand experiences with goal-directed actions further enhance their prediction of others' actions...
November 6, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Lorraine E Bahrick, James Torrence Todd, Kasey C Soska
Multisensory attention skills provide a crucial foundation for early cognitive, social, and language development, yet there are no fine-grained, individual difference measures of these skills appropriate for preverbal children. The Multisensory Attention Assessment Protocol (MAAP) fills this need. In a single video-based protocol requiring no language skills, the MAAP assesses individual differences in three fundamental building blocks of attention to multisensory events-the duration of attention maintenance, the accuracy of intersensory (audiovisual) matching, and the speed of shifting-for both social and nonsocial events, in the context of high and low competing visual stimulation...
December 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jessica B Girault, Emil Cornea, Barbara D Goldman, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore
White matter (WM) integrity has been related to cognitive ability in adults and children, but it remains largely unknown how WM maturation in early life supports emergent cognition. The associations between tract-based measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial and radial diffusivity (AD, RD) shortly after birth, at age 1, and at age 2 and cognitive measures at 1 and 2 years were investigated in 447 healthy infants. We found that generally higher FA and lower AD and RD across many WM tracts in the first year of life were associated with better performance on measures of general cognitive ability, motor, language, and visual reception skills at ages 1 and 2, suggesting an important role for the overall organization, myelination, and microstructural properties of fiber pathways in emergent cognition...
October 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lorraine E Bahrick, Kasey C Soska, James Torrence Todd
Detecting intersensory redundancy guides cognitive, social, and language development. Yet, researchers lack fine-grained, individual difference measures needed for studying how early intersensory skills lead to later outcomes. The intersensory processing efficiency protocol (IPEP) addresses this need. Across a number of brief trials, participants must find a sound-synchronized visual target event (social, nonsocial) amid five visual distractor events, simulating the "noisiness" of natural environments...
December 2018: Developmental Psychology
Margie H Davenport, Victoria L Meah, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Gregory A Davies, Rachel J Skow, Nick Barrowman, Kristi B Adamo, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Marina James, Amariah J Kathol, Megan Nuspl, Andree-Anne Marchand, Taniya S Nagpal, Linda G Slater, Ashley Weeks, Ruben Barakat, Michelle F Mottola
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the relationship between maternal prenatal exercise and birth complications, and neonatal and childhood morphometric, metabolic and developmental outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were eligible (except case studies and reviews) if published in English, Spanish or French, and contained information on the relevant population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), intervention (subjective/objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise, alone ('exercise-only') or in combination with other intervention components (eg, dietary; 'exercise+cointervention')), comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume, type or trimester of exercise) and outcomes (preterm birth, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), high birth weight (>4000 g), small for gestational age, large for gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis (cord blood pH, base excess), hyperbilirubinaemia, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admittance, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, neonatal body composition (per cent body fat, body weight, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index), childhood obesity (per cent body fat, body weight, BMI) and developmental milestones (including cognitive, psychosocial, motor skills))...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Stefanie Keupp, Tanya Behne, Hannes Rakoczy
Imitation is a powerful and ubiquitous social learning strategy, fundamental for the development of individual skills and cultural traditions. Recent research on the cognitive foundations and development of imitation, though, presents a surprising picture: Although even infants imitate in selective, efficient, and rational ways, children and adults engage in overimitation. Rather than imitating selectively and efficiently, they sometimes faithfully reproduce causally irrelevant actions as much as relevant ones...
October 9, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Mariagrazia Zuccarini, Annalisa Guarini, Jana Marie Iverson, Erika Benassi, Silvia Savini, Rosina Alessandroni, Giacomo Faldella, Alessandra Sansavini
BACKGROUND: An increasing body of research on typically and atypically developing infants has shown that motor skills play an important role in language development. To date, however, the role of specific object exploration skills for early gesture and vocabulary development has not been investigated in extremely low gestational age infants (ELGA, GA < 28 weeks), who are at greater risk for motor and language delays than full-term (FT) infants. PURPOSE: This longitudinal study examined relations between 6-month active exploratory behaviors and 12- month word comprehension, gestures and vocal production, controlling for cognitive performance and neonatal condition (ELGA vs FT)...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Roberto Palumbi, Antonia Peschechera, Mariella Margari, Francesco Craig, Arcangelo Cristella, Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli, Lucia Margari
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, several studies investigated the outcomes in children born very preterm. Only recently there has been an increasing interest in the late preterm infants (born between 34 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks). This population is at high risk of morbidity and mortality in the first years of life. Other studies reported that they are also at risk of long-term developmental problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental and emotional-behavioral outcome in a sample of late preterm patients...
October 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kumi Hirokawa, Takashi Kimura, Satoyo Ikehara, Kaori Honjo, Takuyo Sato, Kimiko Ueda, Hiroyasu Iso
BACKGROUND: Broader autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the expression of behavioral and cognitive dispositions similar to autism spectrum disorder. The present study investigated whether mothers' BAP was prospectively associated with maternal attachment, and if postpartum depression modified this association. METHODS: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is a national and government-funded birth cohort study that began in January 2011. Among the 103,099 mothers enrolled, 87,369 mothers without a history of depression were included in the analysis...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jessica Bradshaw, Cheryl Klaiman, Scott Gillespie, Natalie Brane, Moira Lewis, Celine Saulnier
Achievement of early motor milestones in infancy affords new opportunities for social interaction and communication. Research has shown that both motor and social deficits are observed in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined associations between motor and social-communication skills in 12-month-old infant siblings of children with ASD who are at heightened risk for developmental delays (N=86) and low-risk, typically developing infants (N=113). Infants were classified into one of three groups based on their walking ability: walkers (walks independently), standers (stands independently), or pre-walkers (does not yet stand or walk independently)...
September 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Amanda S Hodel
Over the last fifteen years, the emerging field of developmental cognitive neuroscience has described the relatively late development of prefrontal cortex in children and the relation between gradual structural changes and children's protracted development of prefrontal-dependent skills. Widespread recognition by the broader scientific community of the extended development of prefrontal cortex has led to the overwhelming perception of prefrontal cortex as a "late developing" region of the brain. However, despite its supposedly protracted development, multiple lines of research have converged to suggest that prefrontal cortex development may be particularly susceptible to individual differences in children's early environments...
June 2018: Developmental Review: DR
Rhonda J Boorman, Debra K Creedy, Jennifer Fenwick, Olav Muurlink
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review explores changes in perinatal empathy and influence on maternal behaviours and child development. BACKGROUND: The well-being and development of infants are commonly linked to their mothers' capacity for empathy. However, characteristic changes during pregnancy and childbirth including sleep deprivation, mood and cognitive difficulties may disrupt empathic processing. METHODS: Original research papers (n = 7413) published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals were obtained by searching four electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Maria Rosales-Rueda
This paper investigates the persistent effects of negative shocks in utero and in infancy on low-income children's health and cognitive outcomes and examines whether timing of exposure matters differentially by skill type. Specifically, I exploit the geographic intensity of extreme floods in Ecuador during the 1997-1998 El Niño phenomenon, which provides exogenous variation in exposure at different periods of early development. I show that children exposed to severe floods in utero, especially during the third trimester, are shorter in stature five and seven years later...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Pei-Jung Wang, Li-Chiou Chen, Hua-Fang Liao, Yu-Kang Tu, Lu Lu, George A Morgan
AIMS: Mastery motivation refers to a child's persistent attempts to solve problems and learn skills. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's mastery motivation-mediated relationships between early maternal teaching behavior and later developmental abilities in children with global developmental delay (GDD). METHODS: Fifty-six dyads of mothers and their children with GDD (aged 24-42 months) were assessed two times, at study entry and 6-months later...
September 28, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
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