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Cognitive skills infants

Rita C Silveira, Eliane Wagner Mendes, Rubia Nascimento Fuentefria, Nadia Cristina Valentini, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are high risk for delayed neurodevelopment. The main goal is to develop a program of early intervention for very preterm infants that allows families to apply it continuously at home, and quantify the results of early parental stimulation on improvement of cognition and motor skills. METHODS: Randomized clinical Trial including inborn preterm infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g at 48 h after birth...
August 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Amy O'Neill, Kimberly Swigger, Valerie Kuhlmeier
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of Make the Connection (MTC), an attachment-focused parenting programme, in fostering maternal attitudes thought to underlie sensitive responding. BACKGROUND: Effective parenting programmes are likely to mitigate negative outcomes associated with insecure attachment in infancy. Negative maternal attitudes and cognitions are thought to underlie insensitive parenting behaviour, and thus constitute a promising target for intervention...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Suman Ranjitkar, Ingrid Kvestad, Tor A Strand, Manjeswori Ulak, Merina Shrestha, Ram K Chandyo, Laxman Shrestha, Mari Hysing
Background: The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III) is the most widely used developmental assessment tool for infants and toddlers worldwide, but less is known about its psychometric properties and feasibility in low and middle-income countries. Aim: To assess the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Bayley-III when used in a large scale randomized controlled intervention trial in Nepal. Methods: The participating infants were part of a randomized, doubled blind, placebo-controlled trial to measure the efficacy of vitamin B12 supplementation on growth and neurodevelopment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Daniele Didino, Vitor G Haase, Guilherme Wood, André Knops
Mental calculation is thought to be tightly related to visuospatial abilities. One of the strongest evidence for this link is the widely replicated operational momentum (OM) effect: the tendency to overestimate the result of additions and to underestimate the result of subtractions. Although the OM effect has been found in both infants and adults, no study has directly investigated its developmental trajectory until now. However, to fully understand the cognitive mechanisms lying at the core of the OM effect it is important to investigate its developmental dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gabrielle Simcock, Sue Kildea, Sue Kruske, David P Laplante, Guillaume Elgbeili, Suzanne King
BACKGROUND: Research shows that continuity of midwifery carer in pregnancy improves maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines whether midwifery group practice (MGP) care during pregnancy affects infant neurodevelopment at 6-months of age compared to women receiving standard hospital maternity care (SC) in the context of a natural disaster. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 115 women who were affected by a sudden-onset flood during pregnancy...
July 27, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Daniela Corbetta, Abigail DiMercurio, Rebecca F Wiener, John P Connell, Matthew Clark
In this chapter, we discuss how perception and action are intimately linked to the processes of exploration and selection. Exploration, which we define as trying several variations of the behavior, and selection, which involves attempting to reproduce the behaviors that work, are essential for learning about the environment, discovering the properties of objects, and for acquiring skills in relation to goals. Exploration and selection happen in the moment and over time as behaviors are repeated, hence leading to their fine-tuning to the goal...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Frederick B Palmer, Joyce C Graff, Tamekia L Jones, Laura E Murphy, Bruce L Keisling, Toni M Whitaker, Lei Wang, Frances A Tylavsky
Throughout infancy and early childhood, stable and secure relationships with caregivers are needed to promote optimal socioemotional (SE) and cognitive development.The objective is to examine socio-demographic, maternal, and child indicators of SE problems in 2-year-olds living in an urban-suburban community in the southern United States.Mother-infant pairs enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort study.Shelby County (Memphis), Tennessee.One thousand five hundred three women were recruited during their second trimester and followed with their children through the child's age of 2 years...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Peter Willatts
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) occur in high levels in the brain and play a key role in brain growth and the operation of neurotransmitters. Infants supplemented with DHA show improved language and communication skills, and there is accumulating evidence that the early development of executive functions such as planning, working memory, and attention control are influenced by LC-PUFAs, especially DHA. Several studies have found significantly improved means-end problem solving at 9 and 10 months in infants given DHA-/ARA-supplemented formula, and similar results were shown for infants whose mothers were supplemented with DHA during pregnancy and breastfeeding...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Sarika Paul, Josie Austin, Rebecca Elliott, Ian Ellison-Wright, Ming Wai Wan, Richard Drake, Darragh Downey, Alya Elmadih, Ipshita Mukherjee, Lisa Heaney, Steve Williams, Kathryn M Abel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has increasingly been employed to establish whether there is a specific brain neural network dedicated to maternal responsiveness. We undertook systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies in which healthy new mothers were exposed to visual stimuli of own versus other infants to determine the quality of evidence for a dedicated maternal neural network. Systematic literature review revealed a pattern of specific neural responses commonly induced by visual infant paradigms...
July 9, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Shirley Leanos, Jennifer Coons, George W Rebok, Daniel J Ozer, Rachel Wu
Infants and children experience an intense form of intellectual engagement associated with learning a variety of new skills. A recent theory proposes that such broad learning experiences may be the key to maximal cognitive development not just during infancy and childhood but also during adulthood. To begin investigating this possibility, the present questionnaire on broad learning in adulthood builds on prior research on need for cognition, intellectual engagement, personal growth, and leisure activities. After several rounds with preliminary versions of the questionnaire, the final version consists of 28 items...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Kirsten A Donald, Catherine J Wedderburn, Whitney Barnett, Nadia Hoffman, Heather J Zar, Eva E Redei, Dan J Stein
Introduction: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have an estimated global prevalence of 2-5% of births, but prevalence is reported to be as high as 15.5% for FASD in certain high-risk communities in South Africa. Preclinical studies demonstrate that alcohol consumption during pregnancy interferes with thyroid hormone availability and function and negatively impacts exposed offspring. Very little is currently reported on this phenomenon in humans. Methods: This pilot study was embedded in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a multi-disciplinary longitudinal birth cohort study investigating the early biological and psychosocial determinants of child health in South Africa...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hind H Neamah, Christopher Sudfeld, Dana Charles McCoy, Günther Fink, Wafaie W Fawzi, Honorati Masanja, Goodarz Danaei, Alfa Muhihi, Sylvia Kaaya, Mary C Smith Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between maternal depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) with child physical growth and development is equivocal. Our aim in the current study is to examine these relationships among women and their children in Tanzania. METHODS: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development and anthropometric measures were used to assess children 18 to 36 months of age ( n = 1031). Maternal exposure to IPV and depression were assessed using the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey questionnaire and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively...
July 2018: Pediatrics
Camilla Buch Kjølbye, Thomas Bo Drivsholm, Ruth Kirk Ertmann, Kirsten Lykke, Rasmus Køster Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: There is no evidence on how motor function is best evaluated in children in a low-risk setting. The method used in the Danish Preventive Child Health Examination Programme (DPCHEP) in general practise has not been validated. The objective of this review was to identify existing motor function tests for 0-2-year-old children that were validated for use in the background population and which are suitable for use in the DPCHEP. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
June 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Maya Yaari, Natalie Lisette Rotzak, David Mankuta, Ayelet Harel-Gadassi, Edwa Friedlander, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Benjamin Bar-Oz, David Zucker, Oren Shinar, Nurit Yirmiya
Very-preterm (VPT), moderately-preterm (MPT), and full-term (FT) infants' emotion-regulation behaviors were assessed via the Still-Face procedure at a corrected age of four months. As a developmental task during the first year of life, emotion regulation is important for social and cognitive development. Although substantial evidence indicates that VPT infants exhibit emotion-regulation difficulties, little is known about MPT infants' emotion regulation capabilities, this group also possibly being at risk. The participants included 135 parent-infant dyads: 46 VPT (gestational age 24-32 weeks), 51 MPT (gestational age 32-34 weeks), and 38 FT (gestational age 37-41 weeks)...
June 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Helen Mebrahtu, Victoria Simms, Rudo Chingono, Zivai Mupambireyi, Helen A Weiss, Patience Ndlovu, Ricky Malaba, Frances M Cowan, Lorraine Sherr
This study examines the cognitive profiles of infants born to HIV positive mothers in Zimbabwe. Caregivers with HIV exposed infants delivered in 30 clinics in two areas of Zimbabwe were recruited to the study. Of the 574 study participants, 562 caregiver-infant dyads with a biological HIV +ve mother and infant aged 0-24 months were interviewed. All infants were tested by a trained administrator for cognitive development on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Parental Stress Index-Short Form were completed by the mothers together with infant and caregiver socioeconomic characteristics...
June 2018: AIDS Care
Emis Akbari, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Michelle Rodrigues, Alessandro Ricci, Juliane Schneider, Sheri Madigan, Jennifer Jenkins
AIM: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between KMC and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE in Process (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and AMED (OvidSP) were searched. Observational studies and randomized control trials through October 2015 that investigated the association between KMC intervention and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes were included. Studies with <10 participants, those using skin-to-skin only during painful procedures or only on the day of birth, and those that did not report quantitative outcomes were excluded...
July 2018: Early Human Development
Jacqueline F Gould, John Colombo, Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Erandi Hewawasam, Lisa G Smithers
INTRODUCTION: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the frontal lobes (responsible for higher-order cognitive skills) of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm miss some of this in utero provision of DHA, and have an increased risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment. It is thought that supplementing infants born preterm with DHA may improve developmental outcomes. The aim of this follow-up is to determine whether DHA supplementation in infants born preterm can improve areas of the brain associated with frontal lobe function, namely attention and distractibility...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Katherine A Trier, Demetra Pappas, Bryan Bovitz, Marilyn Augustyn
Ryan is a 6-year-old child new to your primary care practice after relocating from out of state with his father and younger sister. Ryan's grandmother recently expressed concerns about Ryan's social skills and behavior. He was subsequently diagnosed by a developmental and behavioral pediatrician with autism spectrum disorder, global developmental delay, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. At your first visit with Ryan, his father provides the following history: When Ryan was 3 years old, he was living with his mother and infant sister while his father was serving his fourth tour of duty with the marines in Afghanistan...
June 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Marvesh M Mendhi, Kathleen B Cartmell, Susan D Newman, Shahirose Premji, Charlene Pope
BACKGROUND: Annually, up to 2.7 million neonatal deaths occur worldwide, and 25% of these deaths are caused by birth asphyxia. Infants born in rural areas of low-and-middle-income countries are often delivered by traditional birth attendants and have a greater risk of birth asphyxia-related mortality. AIM: This review will evaluate the effectiveness of neonatal resuscitation educational interventions in improving traditional birth attendants' knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and infant mortality outcomes in low-and-middle-income countries...
May 21, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
L Rague, K Caravella, B Tonnsen, J Klusek, J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit abnormal gesture use early in development, although few studies have investigated the emergence of gesture use in this population or the impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features on these behaviours. The present study examined the longitudinal development of gesture use in infants with FXS relative to low-risk controls and infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings), with the goal of establishing potentially unique patterns of gesture development in infants with FXS and understanding the relative impact of ASD symptom severity on these patterns...
July 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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