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Cognitive skills infants

Stefanie Keupp, Tanya Behne, Hannes Rakoczy
Imitation is a powerful and ubiquitous social learning strategy, fundamental for the development of individual skills and cultural traditions. Recent research on the cognitive foundations and development of imitation, though, presents a surprising picture: Although even infants imitate in selective, efficient, and rational ways, children and adults engage in overimitation. Rather than imitating selectively and efficiently, they sometimes faithfully reproduce causally irrelevant actions as much as relevant ones...
October 9, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Mariagrazia Zuccarini, Annalisa Guarini, Jana Marie Iverson, Erika Benassi, Silvia Savini, Rosina Alessandroni, Giacomo Faldella, Alessandra Sansavini
BACKGROUND: An increasing body of research on typically and atypically developing infants has shown that motor skills play an important role in language development. To date, however, the role of specific object exploration skills for early gesture and vocabulary development has not been investigated in extremely low gestational age infants (ELGA, GA < 28 weeks), who are at greater risk for motor and language delays than full-term (FT) infants. PURPOSE: This longitudinal study examined relations between 6-month active exploratory behaviors and 12- month word comprehension, gestures and vocal production, controlling for cognitive performance and neonatal condition (ELGA vs FT)...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Roberto Palumbi, Antonia Peschechera, Mariella Margari, Francesco Craig, Arcangelo Cristella, Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli, Lucia Margari
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, several studies investigated the outcomes in children born very preterm. Only recently there has been an increasing interest in the late preterm infants (born between 34 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks). This population is at high risk of morbidity and mortality in the first years of life. Other studies reported that they are also at risk of long-term developmental problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental and emotional-behavioral outcome in a sample of late preterm patients...
October 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kumi Hirokawa, Takashi Kimura, Satoyo Ikehara, Kaori Honjo, Takuyo Sato, Kimiko Ueda, Hiroyasu Iso
BACKGROUND: Broader autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the expression of behavioral and cognitive dispositions similar to autism spectrum disorder. The present study investigated whether mothers' BAP was prospectively associated with maternal attachment, and if postpartum depression modified this association. METHODS: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is a national and government-funded birth cohort study that began in January 2011. Among the 103,099 mothers enrolled, 87,369 mothers without a history of depression were included in the analysis...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jessica Bradshaw, Cheryl Klaiman, Scott Gillespie, Natalie Brane, Moira Lewis, Celine Saulnier
Achievement of early motor milestones in infancy affords new opportunities for social interaction and communication. Research has shown that both motor and social deficits are observed in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined associations between motor and social-communication skills in 12-month-old infant siblings of children with ASD who are at heightened risk for developmental delays (N=86) and low-risk, typically developing infants (N=113). Infants were classified into one of three groups based on their walking ability: walkers (walks independently), standers (stands independently), or pre-walkers (does not yet stand or walk independently)...
September 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Amanda S Hodel
Over the last fifteen years, the emerging field of developmental cognitive neuroscience has described the relatively late development of prefrontal cortex in children and the relation between gradual structural changes and children's protracted development of prefrontal-dependent skills. Widespread recognition by the broader scientific community of the extended development of prefrontal cortex has led to the overwhelming perception of prefrontal cortex as a "late developing" region of the brain. However, despite its supposedly protracted development, multiple lines of research have converged to suggest that prefrontal cortex development may be particularly susceptible to individual differences in children's early environments...
June 2018: Developmental Review: DR
Rhonda J Boorman, Debra K Creedy, Jennifer Fenwick, Olav Muurlink
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review explores changes in perinatal empathy and influence on maternal behaviours and child development. BACKGROUND: The well-being and development of infants are commonly linked to their mothers' capacity for empathy. However, characteristic changes during pregnancy and childbirth including sleep deprivation, mood and cognitive difficulties may disrupt empathic processing. METHODS: Original research papers (n = 7413) published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals were obtained by searching four electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Maria Rosales-Rueda
This paper investigates the persistent effects of negative shocks in utero and in infancy on low-income children's health and cognitive outcomes and examines whether timing of exposure matters differentially by skill type. Specifically, I exploit the geographic intensity of extreme floods in Ecuador during the 1997-1998 El Niño phenomenon, which provides exogenous variation in exposure at different periods of early development. I show that children exposed to severe floods in utero, especially during the third trimester, are shorter in stature five and seven years later...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Pei-Jung Wang, Li-Chiou Chen, Hua-Fang Liao, Yu-Kang Tu, Lu Lu, George A Morgan
AIMS: Mastery motivation refers to a child's persistent attempts to solve problems and learn skills. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's mastery motivation-mediated relationships between early maternal teaching behavior and later developmental abilities in children with global developmental delay (GDD). METHODS: Fifty-six dyads of mothers and their children with GDD (aged 24-42 months) were assessed two times, at study entry and 6-months later...
September 28, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Shekeila D Palmer, James Hutson, Sven L Mattys
Statistical learning (SL) is a powerful learning mechanism that supports word segmentation and language acquisition in infants and young adults. However, little is known about how this ability changes over the life span and interacts with age-related cognitive decline. The aims of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of aging on speech segmentation by SL, and (b) explore core mechanisms underlying SL. Across four testing sessions, young, middle-aged, and older adults were exposed to continuous speech streams at two different speech rates, both with and without cognitive load...
September 24, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Yuiko Sakuta, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi
Recently, various studies have clarified that humans can immediately make social evaluations from facial appearance and that such judgment have an important role in several social contexts. However, the origins and early development of this skill have not been well investigated. To clarify the mechanisms for the acquisition of this skill, we examined whether 6- to 8-month-old infants show a preference for a more trustworthy-looking person. Results showed that infants preferred a trustworthy face to an untrustworthy one when both faces were high in dominance...
2018: PloS One
Jasmine Hoskens, Katrijn Klingels, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman
BACKGROUND: The Dutch translation of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III-NL) is a comprehensive tool assessing cognitive, language and motor development in children up to 42 months. AIMS: The first aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent validity of the Bayley-III-NL Gross Motor Scale (GMS) in relation to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Secondly, divergent validity between the other subscales mutually and the AIMS was investigated...
August 30, 2018: Early Human Development
Ewa Jacewicz, Robert A Fox
Cultural learning begins early, with infants' and young children's initial imitations of group-specific local behaviors. Comparatively little is known about cultural development in older children, whose more advanced socio-cognitive skills can moderate their decisions about adherence to the established cultural conventions and acceptance of new norms. Focusing on the acquisition of a regional dialect, the current study was conducted in a small community in western North Carolina, whose rich Appalachian heritage grew from distinctive cultural and living traditions...
August 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Michael Tomasello
To predict and explain the behavior of others, one must understand that their actions are determined not by reality but by their beliefs about reality. Classically, children come to understand beliefs, including false beliefs, at about 4-5 y of age, but recent studies using different response measures suggest that even infants (and apes!) have some skills as well. Resolving this discrepancy is not possible with current theories based on individual cognition. Instead, what is needed is an account recognizing that the key processes in constructing an understanding of belief are social and mental coordination with other persons and their (sometimes conflicting) perspectives...
August 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rita C Silveira, Eliane Wagner Mendes, Rubia Nascimento Fuentefria, Nadia Cristina Valentini, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are high risk for delayed neurodevelopment. The main goal is to develop a program of early intervention for very preterm infants that allows families to apply it continuously at home, and quantify the results of early parental stimulation on improvement of cognition and motor skills. METHODS: Randomized clinical Trial including inborn preterm infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g at 48 h after birth...
August 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Amy O'Neill, Kimberly Swigger, Valerie Kuhlmeier
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of Make the Connection (MTC), an attachment-focused parenting programme, in fostering maternal attitudes thought to underlie sensitive responding. BACKGROUND: Effective parenting programmes are likely to mitigate negative outcomes associated with insecure attachment in infancy. Negative maternal attitudes and cognitions are thought to underlie insensitive parenting behaviour, and thus constitute a promising target for intervention...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Suman Ranjitkar, Ingrid Kvestad, Tor A Strand, Manjeswori Ulak, Merina Shrestha, Ram K Chandyo, Laxman Shrestha, Mari Hysing
Background: The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III) is the most widely used developmental assessment tool for infants and toddlers worldwide, but less is known about its psychometric properties and feasibility in low and middle-income countries. Aim: To assess the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Bayley-III when used in a large scale randomized controlled intervention trial in Nepal. Methods: The participating infants were part of a randomized, doubled blind, placebo-controlled trial to measure the efficacy of vitamin B12 supplementation on growth and neurodevelopment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Daniele Didino, Vitor G Haase, Guilherme Wood, André Knops
Mental calculation is thought to be tightly related to visuospatial abilities. One of the strongest evidence for this link is the widely replicated operational momentum (OM) effect: the tendency to overestimate the result of additions and to underestimate the result of subtractions. Although the OM effect has been found in both infants and adults, no study has directly investigated its developmental trajectory until now. However, to fully understand the cognitive mechanisms lying at the core of the OM effect it is important to investigate its developmental dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gabrielle Simcock, Sue Kildea, Sue Kruske, David P Laplante, Guillaume Elgbeili, Suzanne King
BACKGROUND: Research shows that continuity of midwifery carer in pregnancy improves maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines whether midwifery group practice (MGP) care during pregnancy affects infant neurodevelopment at 6-months of age compared to women receiving standard hospital maternity care (SC) in the context of a natural disaster. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 115 women who were affected by a sudden-onset flood during pregnancy...
July 27, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Daniela Corbetta, Abigail DiMercurio, Rebecca F Wiener, John P Connell, Matthew Clark
In this chapter, we discuss how perception and action are intimately linked to the processes of exploration and selection. Exploration, which we define as trying several variations of the behavior, and selection, which involves attempting to reproduce the behaviors that work, are essential for learning about the environment, discovering the properties of objects, and for acquiring skills in relation to goals. Exploration and selection happen in the moment and over time as behaviors are repeated, hence leading to their fine-tuning to the goal...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
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