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Rapid malaria test

Rosette Megnekou, Jean Claude Djontu, Benderli C Nana, Jude D Bigoga, Maurice Fotso, Balotin Fogang, Rose F G Leke
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequestering in placental tissue release Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein-II (HRP-II). These proteins can be detected in peripheral blood using monoclonal antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the reliability of RDTs in detecting placental malaria compared with microscopy of placental tissue impression smear (PTIS) as the gold standard are scarce. METHODS: Between August 2013 and January 2015, Giemsa-stained blood smears for peripheral blood smear (Pbs), placental intervillous space (IVS) blood smear and placental tissue impression smear (PTIS)] were prepared from HIV-negative women during delivery at the Marie Reine Medical Health Centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Pooja Bansil, Asnakew K Yeshiwondim, Caterina Guinovart, Belendia Serda, Callie Scott, Berhane H Tesfay, Adem Agmas, Belay Bezabih, Melkamu T Zeleke, Girma S Guesses, Asmamaw L Ayenew, Worku M Workie, Duncan Earle, Rick W Steketee, Asefaw Getachew
BACKGROUND: When malaria transmission is very low, investigation of passively detected malaria cases and reactive focal testing and treatment (FTAT) in the case and neighbouring households can identify and contain the source and spread of infections. METHODS: Case investigation with reactive FTAT for malaria was implemented in 10 villages in Amhara Region, Ethiopia during the 2014/2015 malaria transmission season. Intervention villages were purposively selected based on the incidence of passively detected Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections (P...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Verner N Orish, Virtue F De-Gaulle, Adekunle O Sanyaolu
OBJECTIVE: Rapid diagnostic tests have been of tremendous help in malaria control in endemic areas, helping in diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. It is heavily relied upon in many endemic areas where microscopy cannot be obtained. However, caution should be taken in the interpretation of its result in clinical setting due to its limitations and inherent weakness. This paper seeks to present the varying malaria RDT test results, the possible interpretations and explanation of these results common in endemic regions...
December 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Shabnam Shamriz, Hamideh Ofoghi
Malaria is a serious but preventable and treatable infectious disease that is found in over 100 countries around the world. Correct and rapid diagnosis of malaria infection can rescue the patient of getting sicker and reduces the risk of disease spreading among humans. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast is an attractive platform for expressing malaria antigens because it is capable of folding complex proteins, including those requiring disulfide bond formation, while lack the ability to glycosylate proteins; a valuable quality of any malaria protein expression system, since the Plasmodium parasite lacks N-linked glycosylation machinery...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Jackie Cook, Chrispin Owaga, Elizabeth Marube, Amrish Baidjoe, Gillian Stresman, Robin Migiro, Jon Cox, Chris Drakeley, Jennifer C Stevenson
Background: Malaria transmission in African highland areas can be prone to epidemics, with minor fluctuations in temperature or altitude resulting in highly heterogeneous transmission. In the Kenyan Highlands, where malaria prevalence has been increasing, characterising malaria incidence and identifying risk factors for infection is complicated by asymptomatic infection. Methods: This all-age cohort study, one element of the Malaria Transmission Consortium, involved monthly follow-up of 3155 residents of the Kisii and Rachuonyo South districts during June 2009-June 2010...
November 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mohammed Lamorde, Arthur Mpimbaza, Richard Walwema, Moses Kamya, James Kapisi, Henry Kajumbula, Asadu Sserwanga, Jane Frances Namuganga, Abel Kusemererwa, Hannington Tasimwa, Issa Makumbi, John Kayiwa, Julius Lutwama, Prosper Behumbiize, Abner Tagoola, Jane Frances Nanteza, Gilbert Aniku, Meklit Workneh, Yukari Manabe, Jeff N Borchert, Vance Brown, Grace D Appiah, Eric D Mintz, Jaco Homsy, George S Odongo, Raymond L Ransom, Molly M Freeman, Robyn A Stoddard, Renee Galloway, Matthew Mikoleit, Cecilia Kato, Ronald Rosenberg, Eric C Mossel, Paul S Mead, Kiersten J Kugeler
Global health security depends on effective surveillance for infectious diseases. In Uganda, resources are inadequate to support collection and reporting of data necessary for an effective and responsive surveillance system. We used a cross-cutting approach to improve surveillance and laboratory capacity in Uganda by leveraging an existing pediatric inpatient malaria sentinel surveillance system to collect data on expanded causes of illness, facilitate development of real-time surveillance, and provide data on antimicrobial resistance...
2018: Health Security
Seble Girma, James Cheaveau, Abu Naser Mohon, Dewdunee Marasinghe, Ruth Legese, Nirujah Balasingam, Adugna Abera, Sindew M Feleke, Lemu Golassa, Dylan R Pillai
Background: As the global public health objectives for malaria evolve from malaria control towards malaria elimination, there is increasing interest in the significance of asymptomatic infections and the optimal diagnostic test to identify them. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic individuals (n=562) to determine epidemiological characteristics associated with asymptomatic malaria. Participants were tested by RDTs (CareStart TM, SD Bioline, and Alere uRDT), LAMP, and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to determine malaria positivity...
November 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jianhai Yin, Mei Li, He Yan, Shuisen Zhou
Precise diagnosis is a key measurement for malaria control and elimination, traditional microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests cannot satisfy the requirements especially in the low transmission endemic areas or in the malaria elimination phase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high sensitivity and specificity can be considered as a diagnostic standard while no uniform PCR assay was established due to variations in their performance and lack of formal external quality assurance programs for validation for PCR assays in use...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Céline Aerts, Martijn Vink, Sayed Jalal Pashtoon, Sami Nahzat, Albert Picado, Israel Cruz, Elisa Sicuri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is responsible for chronic and disfiguring skin lesions resulting in morbidity and social stigma. The gold standard to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis is microscopy but has a variable sensitivity and requires trained personnel. Using four scenarios, the objective of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of microscopy with two new tools: Loopamp™ Leishmania Detection Kit (LAMP) and CL Detect™ Rapid Test (RDT). METHODS: Data related to the cost and accuracy of these tools were collected at the clinic of the National Malaria and Leishmaniasis Control Program in Kabul, Afghanistan...
November 21, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
James Cheaveau, Hong Nguyen, Barbara Chow, Dewdunee Marasinghe, Abu Naser Mohon, Hong Yuan, Gisele Viana, Donelly van Schalkwyk, Deirdre Church, Wilson Chan, Dylan R Pillai
The mainstay of malaria diagnosis relies on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy, both of which lack analytical sensitivity. This leads to repeat testing to rule out malaria. A prospective diagnostic trial of the Meridian illumigene Malaria assay (loop-mediated isothermal amplification [LAMP]) was conducted comparing it with reference microscopy and RDTs (BinaxNOW Malaria) in returning travelers between June 2017 and January 2018. Returning travelers with signs and symptoms of malaria were enrolled in the study...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sally Peprah, Constance Tenge, Isaiah O Genga, Mediatrix Mumia, Pamela A Were, Robert T Kuremu, Walter N Wekesa, Peter O Sumba, Tobias Kinyera, Isaac Otim, Ismail D Legason, Joshua Biddle, Steven J Reynolds, Ambrose O Talisuna, Robert J Biggar, Kishor Bhatia, James J Goedert, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Sam M Mbulaiteye
The burden of Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf ) malaria in Kenya is decreasing; however, it is still one of the top 10 causes of morbidity, particularly in regions of western Kenya. Between April 2015 and June 2016, we enrolled 965 apparently healthy children aged 0-15 years in former Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya to characterize the demographic, geographic, and household risk factors of asymptomatic malaria as part of an epidemiologic study to investigate the risk factors for endemic Burkitt lymphoma. The children were sampled using a stratified, multistage cluster sampling survey design...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dewanee Ranaweera, R M J Kanchana Rajapaksha, Priyanganie Silva, Raja Hettiarachchi, W M Kumudu T de A W Gunasekera, Hemantha Herath, Deepika Fernando
BACKGROUND: The country received malaria-free certification from WHO in September 2016, becoming only the second country in the WHO South East Asia region to be declared malaria-free. Imported malaria cases continue to be reported, with 278 cases reported between 2013 and 2017. The diagnosis of a severe Plasmodium vivax patient co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis is discussed with an overview of the rapid response mounted by the Anti Malaria Campaign (AMC), Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: A Sri Lankan gem miner who returned from Madagascar on the 6th of April 2018 presented to a private hospital for a malaria diagnostic test on the 21st April, 2 days after the onset of fever...
November 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kanokpich Puaprasert, Cindy Chu, Naowarat Saralamba, Nicholas P J Day, Francois Nosten, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by relapses arising from the hypnozoite stages in the liver. The only currently registered drug for radical treatment to prevent relapse is primaquine. Primaquine, a prodrug, requires metabolism through the liver cytochrome CYP2D6 isoenzyme to its active metabolite. Mutations in the CYP2D6 gene may thus affect primaquine efficacy. A SNPs genotyping technique was developed to characterize the CYP2D6 genetic variants and tested this in the patients with Plasmodium vivax infection collected in a Karen population on the Thailand-Myanmar border, where P...
November 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Liliana Vilas Boas, Vera Faustino, Rui Lima, João Mário Miranda, Graça Minas, Carla Sofia Veiga Fernandes, Susana Oliveira Catarino
Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in underdeveloped regions. Thus, the development of rapid, efficient, and competitive diagnostic techniques is essential. This work reports a study of the deformability and velocity assessment of healthy and artificially impaired red blood cells (RBCs), with the purpose of potentially mimicking malaria effects, in narrow polydimethylsiloxane microchannels. To obtain impaired RBCs, their properties were modified by adding, to the RBCs, different concentrations of glucose, glutaraldehyde, or diamide, in order to increase the cells' rigidity...
August 2, 2018: Micromachines
Young Yil Bahk, Seo Hye Park, Woojoo Lee, Kyoung Jin, Seong Kyu Ahn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Tong-Soo Kim
Prompt diagnosis of malaria cases with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been widely adopted as an effective malaria diagnostic tool in many malaria endemic countries, primarily due to their easy operation, fast result output, and straightforward interpretation. However, there has been controversy about the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs. This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performances of the 2 commercially available malaria RDT kits, RapiGEN Malaria Ag Pf/Pv (pLDH/pLDH) and Asan EasyTestTM Malaria Ag Pf/Pv (HRP-2/pLDH) for their abilities to detect Plasmodium species in blood samples collected from Ugandan patients with malaria...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Sara Avalos, Rosa E Mejia, Engels Banegas, Cesar Salinas, Lester Gutierrez, Marcela Fajardo, Suzeth Galo, Alejandra Pinto, Angel Mejia, Gustavo Fontecha
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria in the Americas has decreased markedly in recent years. Honduras and the other countries of Mesoamerica and the island of Hispaniola have set the goal of eliminating native malaria by the year 2020. To achieve this goal, Honduras has recently approved national regulations to expand the possibilities of a shortened double dose primaquine (PQ) treatment for vivax malaria. Considering this new shortened anti-malarial treatment, the high frequency of G6PDd genotypes in Honduras, and the lack of routinely assessment of the G6PD deficiency status, this study aimed at investigating the potential association between the intake of PQ and haemolysis in malaria-infected G6PDd subjects...
November 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ihn Kyung Jang, Abby Tyler, Chris Lyman, Maria Kahn, Michael Kalnoky, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Smita Das, Rebecca Barney, Andrew Rashid, Jordi Landier, David S Boyle, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, François Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Gonzalo J Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect primarily Plasmodium (P.) falciparum antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and the malaria-conserved antigen lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for P. vivax and other malaria species. The performance of RDTs and their utility is dependent on circulating antigen concentration distributions in infected individuals in a malaria endemic population and the limit-of-detection of the RDT for the antigens. A multiplexed immunoassay for the quantification of HRP2, P...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Miriam Lowa, Lungowe Sitali, Mwiche Siame, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Zambia with an estimated 4 million confirmed cases and 2389 deaths reported in 2015. Efforts to reduce the incidence of malaria are often undermined by a number of factors such as human mobility which may lead to introduction of imported infections. The aim of this study was to establish the burden of malaria attributed to human mobility in Lusaka district and identify factors associated with malaria importation among residents of Lusaka district...
November 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ihn Kyung Jang, Smita Das, Rebecca S Barney, Roger B Peck, Andrew Rashid, Stephane Proux, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Maxwell Murphy, Katherine Bowers, Samuel Boadi, Julie Watson, Francois Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Peter L Chiodini, Gonzalo J Domingo
BACKGROUND: The detection of submicroscopic infections in low prevalence settings has become an increasingly important challenge for malaria elimination strategies. The current field rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are inadequate to detect low-density infections. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive field diagnostic tools. In parallel, a highly sensitive laboratory reference assay will be essential to evaluate new diagnostic tools. Recently, the highly sensitive Alere™ Malaria Ag P...
November 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
Pallabi Pati, Gunanidhi Dhangadamajhi, Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit
BACKGROUND: With the documentation of cases of falciparum malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), though at low frequency from natural isolates in a small pocket of Odisha, it became absolutely necessary to investigate the status of HRP-2 based RDT throughout the state and in different seasons of the year. METHODS: Suspected individuals were screened for malaria infection by microscopy and RDT in 25/30 districts of Odisha, India. Discrepancies in results were confirmed by PCR...
October 29, 2018: Malaria Journal
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