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Rapid malaria test

Rodney Ogwang, Ronald Anguzu, Pamela Akun, Albert Ningwa, Edward Kayongo, Kevin Marsh, Charles R J C Newton, Richard Idro
OBJECTIVE: Plasmodium falciparum is epileptogenic and in malaria endemic areas, is a leading cause of acute seizures. In these areas, asymptomatic infections are common but considered benign and so, are not treated. The effects of such infections on seizures in patients with epilepsy is unknown. This study examined the relationship between P. falciparum infection and seizure control in children with a unique epilepsy type, the nodding syndrome. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was nested in an ongoing trial 'Doxycycline for the treatment of nodding syndrome (NCT02850913)'...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Jessica Manning, Chanthap Lon, Michele Spring, Mariusz Wojnarski, Sok Somethy, Soklyda Chann, Panita Gosi, Kin Soveasna, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Worachet Kuntawunginn, Mark M Fukuda, Philip L Smith, Huy Rekol, Muth Sinoun, Mary So, Jessica Lin, Prom Satharath, David Saunders
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a critical public health problem in Southeast Asia despite intensive containment efforts. The continued spread of multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has led to calls for malaria elimination on the Thai-Cambodian border. However, the optimal approach to elimination in difficult-to-reach border populations, such as the Military, remains unclear. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled, open-label pilot study is being conducted in military personnel and their families at focal endemic areas on the Thai-Cambodian border...
October 16, 2018: Trials
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Henry Wamani, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Fred Ashaba Katabazi, Ronald Bisaso Kuteesa, Stefan Peterson, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Andreas Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available as dipsticks or strips, are simple to perform, easily interpretable and do not require electricity nor infrastructural investment. Correct interpretation of and compliance with the RDT results is a challenge to drug sellers. Thus, drug seller interpretation of RDT strips was compared with laboratory scientist re-reading, and PCR analysis of Plasmodium DNA extracted from RDT nitrocellulose strips and fast transient analysis (FTA) cards...
October 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alinane U Munyenyembe, Kamunkhwala Gausi, Tonney S Nyirenda, Jasmin Hiestand, Jane Mallewa, Wilson L Mandala
Aim: Although malaria and HIV infections independently affect the electrolyte and hematologic profiles, little is known of how these profiles are affected in individuals coinfected with malaria and HIV. We therefore conducted this study to investigate the electrolyte and hematologic profiles of Malawian adults presenting with either uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM), and those presenting with HIV and UM or HIV and SM. Methods: Study participants were recruited at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, and malaria infection was confirmed by rapid diagnostic test and malaria slides, and full blood count, HIV, and wet chemistries were analyzed...
2018: Journal of Blood Medicine
Chloe R McDonald, Andrea Weckman, Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Kevin C Kain
Febrile symptoms in children are a leading cause of health-care seeking behaviour worldwide. The majority of febrile illnesses are uncomplicated and self-limited, without the need for referral or hospital admission. However, current diagnostic tools are unable to identify which febrile children have self-limited infection and which children are at risk of progressing to life-threatening infections, such as severe malaria. This paper describes the need for a simple community-based tool that can improve the early recognition and triage of febrile children, with either malarial or non-malarial illness, at risk of critical illness...
October 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Loren Cassin-Sackett, Taylor E Callicrate, Robert C Fleischer
Adaptation in nature is ubiquitous, yet characterizing its genomic basis is difficult because population demographics cause correlations with non-adaptive loci. Introduction events provide opportunities to observe adaptation over known spatial and temporal scales, facilitating the identification of genes involved in adaptation. The pathogen causing avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, was introduced to Hawai'i in the 1930s and elicited extinctions and precipitous population declines in native honeycreepers. After a sharp initial population decline, the Hawai'i 'amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) has evolved tolerance to the parasite at low elevations where P...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Claire Armstrong, David S Richardson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J Horsburgh, Clemens Küpper, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Matt Clark, Terry Burke, Lewis G Spurgin
Island species provide excellent models for investigating how selection and drift operate in wild populations, and for determining how these processes act to influence local adaptation and speciation. Here, we examine the role of selection and drift in shaping genomic and phenotypic variation across recently separated populations of Berthelot's pipit ( Anthus berthelotii ), a passerine bird endemic to three archipelagos in the Atlantic. We first characterized genetic diversity and population structuring that supported previous inferences of a history of recent colonizations and bottlenecks...
February 2018: Evolution Letters
Francine Berlange Sado Yousseu, Fredy Brice Simo Nemg, Sandra Ateutchia Ngouanet, Franck Martin Obam Mekanda, Maurice Demanou
Arboviruses are a major public health problem worldwide and are predominantly present in intertropical areas. Chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses have been implicated in recent epidemics in Asia, America and Africa. In Cameroon, data on these viruses are fragmentary. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of detection of these three viruses in febrile patients in Douala, Cameroon. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted from March to April 2017 at the New-Bell District Hospital in Douala...
2018: PloS One
P Mulongo Mbarambara, A Bangwa Bulase, P Muhumu Mututa, C Kyambikwa Bisangamo
Malaria during pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women and their children. However, its clinical diagnosis still presents problems. The aim of this study was to study the accuracy of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria during pregnancy, compared with thick blood smears. 349 pregnant women seeking prenatal care in the Kitutu Health Zone were examined by the RDT and by microscopy in May and June 2015, with microscopy the reference test. Its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and Youden J statistic were calculated...
August 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
M Gendrot, R Fawaz, J Dormoi, M Madamet, B Pradines
BACKGROUND: PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), based on the recognition of the P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2, are currently the most used tests in malaria detection. Most of the antibodies used in RDTs also detect PfHRP3. However, false-negative results were reported. Significant variation in the pfhrp2 gene could lead to the expression of a modified protein that would no longer be recognized by the antibodies used in PfHRP2-based RDTs. Additionally, parasites lacking the PfHRP2 do not express the protein and are, therefore, not identifiable...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jenna Hoyt, Chandra U R Landuwulang, Ansariadi, Rukhsana Ahmed, Faustina H Burdam, Irene Bonsapia, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Din Syafruddin, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Jayne Webster, Jenny Hill
BACKGROUND: The control of malaria in pregnancy in much of Asia relies on screening asymptomatic women for malaria infection, followed by passive case detection and prevention with insecticide-treated nets. In 2012, Indonesia introduced screening for malaria by microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at pregnant women's first antenatal care (ANC) visit to detect and treat malaria infections regardless of the presence of symptoms. Acceptability among health providers and pregnant women of the current 'single screen and treat' (SSTp) strategy compared to two alternative strategies that were intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) was assessed in the context of a clinical trial in two malaria endemic provinces of Eastern Indonesia...
September 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
R H T Nijhuis, L van Lieshout, J J Verweij, E C J Claas, E Wessels
Almost a decade ago our diagnostic laboratory implemented an in-house real-time PCR for the detection of Plasmodium DNA to diagnose malaria in parallel with conventional diagnostics, i.e., microscopy (thick and thin smears), quantitative buffy coat microscopy (QBC), and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Here we report our experiences and make a comparison between the different diagnostic procedures used in this non-endemic setting. All patients during the period February 2009-December 2017 suspected of malaria were prospectively tested at the moment of sample collection...
September 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Emmanuel Chanda, Mohd Arshad, Asmaa Khaloua, Wenyi Zhang, Josephine Namboze, Pentrina Uusiku, Andreas H Angula, Khoti Gausi, Desta Tiruneh, Quazi M Islam, Korine Kolivras, Ubydul Haque
Background: Namibia is one of the countries among the eight that are targeting malaria elimination in southern Africa. However, the country has encountered malaria epidemics in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate malaria epidemics and to contribute to strengthening malaria surveillance and control in an effort to move Namibia toward eliminating malaria. Method: Malaria epidemiology data for 2014-2015 were collected from the weekly surveillance system...
September 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nitika Pradhan, Rupenangshu K Hazra
This mini review summarises the non-invasive urine-based diagnostic approaches that have been used to diagnose malaria. Amongst all urine-based diagnosis methods, commercially available Rapid Diagnostic kit/strip is most likely to be suitable for malaria detection in a cost-effective, time-consuming and user-friendly manner. With further improvement in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, this technique may become a useful next-generation gold standard malaria diagnostic tool in resource-limited regions and in areas where invasive blood tests are restricted...
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Hugh J W Sturrock, Katelyn Woolheater, Adam F Bennett, Ricardo Andrade-Pacheco, Alemayehu Midekisa
Having accurate maps depicting the locations of residential buildings across a region benefits a range of sectors. This is particularly true for public health programs focused on delivering services at the household level, such as indoor residual spraying with insecticide to help prevent malaria. While open source data from OpenStreetMap (OSM) depicting the locations and shapes of buildings is rapidly improving in terms of quality and completeness globally, even in settings where all buildings have been mapped, information on whether these buildings are residential, commercial or another type is often only available for a small subset...
2018: PloS One
Shweta Srivastava, Prabhat K Singh, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Robert C Karch
Objectives: Diagnostics is the first step for the treatment and eradication of infectious microbial diseases. Due to ever evolving pathogens and emerging new diseases, there is an urgent need to identify suitable diagnostic techniques for better management of each disease. The success rate of specific diagnostic technique in any population depends on various factors including type of the microbial pathogen, availability of resources, technical expertise, disease severity and degree of epidemic of disease in the area...
September 2018: Advances in Infectious Diseases
Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Kwaku Poku Asante, Sabastina Amoako, Nicholas Amoako, Love Ankrah, David Dosoo, Samuel Kofi Tchum, George Adjei, Oscar Agyei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits have been useful tools to screen for the presence of infection with malaria parasites. Despite the improvement, false results from RDTs present a greater challenge. The need for quality test kits is desirable. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of three malaria RDTs. METHOD: The team consented and enrolled 754 participants from the two major public hospitals in Kintampo districts of Ghana from June 2014 to August 2014...
2018: PloS One
Joanna Gallay, Emilie Pothin, Dominic Mosha, Erick Lutahakana, Festo Mazuguni, Martin Zuakulu, Laurent Arthur Decosterd, Blaise Genton
BACKGROUND: Understanding pattern of antimalarials use at large scale helps ensuring appropriate use of treatments and preventing the spread of resistant parasites. We estimated the proportion of individuals in community surveys with residual antimalarials in their blood and identified the factors associated with the presence of the most commonly detected drugs, lumefantrine and/or desbutyl-lumefantrine (LF/DLF) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 in three regions of Tanzania with different levels of malaria endemicity...
2018: PloS One
A Akhlaq, N K Ghanchi, B Usmani, R Shahzad, A Rahim, M Wasay, M A Beg
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains an endemic disease in Pakistan with an estimated healthcare burden of 1.6 million cases annually, with Plasmodium vivax accounting for 67% of reported cases. P. vivax is the most common species causing malaria outside of Africa, with approximately 13.8 million reported cases worldwide. METHOD: We report a series of P. vivax cases with cerebral involvement that presented at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: The majority of the patients presented with high-grade fever accompanied by projectile vomiting and abnormal behaviour, seizures, shock and unconsciousness...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Rosalind E Howes, Thierry Franchard, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Brune Ramiranirina, Melinda Zikursh, Estee Y Cramer, Daniel J Tisch, Su Y Kang, Stéphanie Ramboarina, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman
Community prevalence of infection is a widely used, standardized metric for evaluating malaria endemicity. Conventional methods for measuring prevalence include light microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), but their detection thresholds are inadequate for diagnosing low-density infections. The significance of submicroscopic malaria infections is poorly understood in Madagascar, a country of heterogeneous malaria epidemiology. A cross-sectional community survey in the western foothills of Madagascar during the March 2014 transmission season found malaria infection to be predominantly submicroscopic and asymptomatic...
October 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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