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hormone receptor

Aravind T Reddy, Sowmya P Lakshmi, Asoka Banno, Raju C Reddy
Cigarette smoke, a source of numerous oxidants, produces oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory responses that lead to irreversible lung tissue damage. It is the single, most significant risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although an intrinsic defense system that includes both enzymatic and non-enzymatic players exists to protect lung tissues against oxidative stress, impairment of these protective mechanisms has been demonstrated in smokers and COPD patients. The antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase (GPx) is an important part of this intrinsic defense system...
August 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Cornelia Voigt, Nigel Bennett
The eusocial Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) represents an extreme example of reproductive skew, in that reproduction is completely blocked in female subordinate group members. It is thought that in these animals normal GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus is disrupted. Prolactin, a peptide hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, has been implicated in a wide variety of functions. Well documented in rodents is its role in mediating lactational infertility. Elevated circulating prolactin levels, such as during lactation, are associated with reduced GnRH release into the portal blood and with a reduction in the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yanqiang Geng, Qiugang Ma, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
Background: The effects of vitamin D on the immune function of laying hens are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VD3 ) on laying performance and immunological functions in laying hens under Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Methods: In experiment one, 360 Jinghong-1 strain layers (32 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates per group and 15 hens per replicate. Hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with different levels of VD3 (0; 500; 1500; or 3000 IU VD3 /kg of diet) for 10 weeks to determine laying performance, egg quality, and other parameters...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Kelly E McCann, Sara A Hurvitz
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 are DNA damage sensors that are most active during S-phase of the cell cycle and that have wider-reaching roles in DNA repair than originally described. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Breast Cancer) proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR), which requires a homologous chromosome or sister chromatid as a template to faithfully repair DNA double-strand breaks. The small-molecule NAD+ mimetics, olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, veliparib, and talazoparib, inhibit the catalytic activity of PARP-1 and PARP-2 and are currently being studied in later-stage clinical trials...
2018: Drugs in Context
Sandra L Romero-Cordoba, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas, Veronica Bautista-Pina, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Elvira D'Ippolito, Giulia Cosentino, Sara Baroni, Marilena V Iorio, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive neoplasia lacking the expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of miRNAs dysregulation in the establishment of cancer programs, but the functional role of many miRNAs remains unclear. The description of miRNAs roles might provide novel strategies for treatment. In the present work, an integrated analysis of miRNA transcriptional landscape was performed (N = 132), identifying the significant down-modulation of miR-342-3p in TNBC, probably because of the aberrant activity of estrogen receptor, which serves as a transcription factor of the miRNA, as demonstrated by a siRNA-knockdown approach...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anjil Kumar Srivastava, Beatriz Orosa, Prashant Singh, Ian Cummins, Charlotte Walsh, Cunjin Zhang, Murray Grant, Michael R Roberts, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand, Elaine Fitches, Ari Sadanandom
Plants respond rapidly to sudden environmental cues, often responding prior to changes in the hormone levels that coordinate these responses. How this is achieved is not fully understood. The integrative role of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) relies upon the plant's ability to control the levels of JASMONATE ZIM (JAZ) domain-containing repressor proteins. Here, we demonstrate that regardless of intrinsic JA levels, Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-conjugated JAZ proteins inhibit the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) from mediating non-SUMOylated JAZ degradation...
August 16, 2018: Plant Cell
Shivani Srivastava, Priya Shree, Harsh Pandey, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Omar Abdel-Rahman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) among N1 operable breast cancer patients who underwent adequate axillary dissection and received adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a pooled analysis of 812 breast cancer patients referred for adjuvant systemic therapy in 2 prospective randomized studies: NCT00174655 (BIG 02/98) and NCT00312208 (BCIRG005). Overall survival was assessed according to whether patients received supraclavicular and/or internal mammary radiotherapy through Kaplan-Meier estimates...
July 24, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Li-Li Meng, Jing-Long Wang, Shu-Ping Xu, Li-Dong Zu, Zhao-Wen Yan, Jian-Bing Zhang, Ya-Qin Han, Guo-Hui Fu
BACKGROUND: Gastrin is an important gastrointestinal hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the antrum of the stomach. It normally regulates gastric acid secretion and is implicated in a number of human disease states, but how its function affects breast cancer (BC) development is not documented. The current study investigated the suppressive effects of gastrin on BC and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Serum levels of gastrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlation between gastrin level and development of BC was analyzed by chi-square test...
August 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Lucas Buruaem Moreira, Graciel Diamante, Marissa Giroux, Elvis Genbo Xu, Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa, Daniel Schlenk
The triazine-based herbicide irgarol is widely used in antifouling systems as an algicide and has been detected recently in multiple coastal environments. Studies evaluating sub-lethal responses of fish following exposure to irgarol are limited. Moreover, impacts of climate change on fish endocrinology may also contribute to the sublethal toxicity of irgarol. We assessed the effects of irgarol on thyroid endpoints in juveniles of Menidia beryllina under two different treatments of salinity (10 and 20 ‰) and two temperatures (10 and 20°C)...
October 2018: Chemosphere
Mei Wang, Si-Ping Deng, Hua-Pu Chen, Dong-Neng Jiang, Chang-Xu Tian, Wei Yang, Tian-Li Wu, Chun-Hua Zhu, Yong Zhang, Guang-Li Li
Phoenixin (Pnx) is an endogenous peptide known to be involved in reproduction and food intake in rats, with two active isoforms, phoenixin-14 (Pnx-14) and phoenixin-20 (Pnx-20). However, little is known about the functions of Pnx in teleost. Here, pnx was cloned and was detected in all tissues of both male and female in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus), including growth axis, hypothalamus, pituitary, and liver. Real-time PCR analysis showed that pnx in the hypothalamus increased significantly after 2 d and 7 d fasting, while reduced significantly after re-feeding (P < 0...
August 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Nicolae Ghinea
Improved molecular understanding of tumor microenvironment has resulted in the identification of various cancer cell targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, including the receptor for the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone responsible for growth, maturation and function of human reproductive system. The expression and localization of the FSHR-protein were associated with the tumor epithelial cells and/or with the peripheral tumor blood vessels. The available evidence indicates that in ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, the tumor epithelial FSHR promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells...
August 2, 2018: Endocrinology
Grace Huang, Sara Cherkerzian, Eric B Loucks, Stephen L Buka, Robert J Handa, Bill L Lasley, Shalender Bhasin, Jill M Goldstein
Background: Growing preclinical evidence suggests that hormonal programming by androgens in utero may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in adult offspring. However, data linking prenatal androgens to cardiometabolic outcomes in the human population, especially their potential differential impact on male versus female offspring, has not been well-studied. Methods: Adult offspring (n=274) of mothers enrolled in the New England birth cohorts of the Collaborative Perinatal Project were assessed at ages 39-50...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Narumi Uno, Tomohito Fujimoto, Shinya Komoto, Gene Kurosawa, Masaaki Sawa, Teruhiko Suzuki, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Mitsuo Oshimura
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that interact with the β-arrestin family, particularly β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). GPCRs interact with 33% of small molecule drugs. Ligand screening is promising for drug discovery concerning GPCR-related diseases. Luciferase complementation assay (LCA) enables detection of protein-protein complementation via bioluminescence following complementation of N- and C-terminal luciferase fragments (NEluc and CEluc) fused to target proteins, but it is necessary to co-express the two genes...
July 31, 2018: Cytotechnology
Dagang Tian, Liu Yang, Zaijie Chen, Ziqiang Chen, Feng Wang, Yuanchang Zhou, Yuming Luo, Liming Yang, Songbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. While many blast resistance (R) genes have been identified and deployed in rice cultivars, little is known about the R gene-mediated defense mechanism. We used a rice transgenic line harboring the resistance gene Piz-t to investigate the R gene-mediated resistance response to infection. RESULTS: We conducted comparative proteome profiling of the Piz-t transgenic Nipponbare line (NPB-Piz-t) and wild-type Nipponbare (NPB) inoculated with M...
August 15, 2018: Rice
Fang Yuan, Jian Ma, Xinxin Xiang, He Lan, Yanhui Xu, Jing Zhao, Yin Li, Weizhen Zhang
Purpose: Adipose tissue inflammation is the key linking obesity to insulin resistance. Over 50% of the interstitial cells in adipose tissue are macrophages, which produce inflammatory cytokines and therefore play an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. Within this classification view, macrophage biology is driven by two polarization phenotypes, M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). The unique functional receptor of ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a classic seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that is linked to multiple intracellular signaling pathways...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hans-Ullrich Voelker, Lea Frey, Annette Strehl, Michael Weigel
During the multidisciplinary planning of postoperative therapy after breast cancer, borderline cases can arise with no clear rationale for or against adjuvant chemotherapy. In 50 hormone- receptor-positive, Her2neu-negative carcinomas of the breast with no or only minimal lymph node involvement (max. pT1a) we initiated an Oncotype DX® multigene assay in addition to the evaluation of usual parameters. In the oncology conference a vote for or against chemotherapy was taken on the basis of the conventional criteria for decision-making before the test results were available...
2018: International Journal of Breast Cancer
S Martel, M Lambertini, R Simon, C Matte, C Prady
Background: Oncotype dx [odx (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA, U.S.A.)] is an approved prognostic tool for women with node-negative, hormone receptor-positive, her2-negative breast cancer. Because of cost, optimal use of this test is crucial, especially in a publicly funded health care system. We evaluated adherence with our provincial guidelines for odx requests, the management of patients with an intermediate recurrence score (rs), and the cost impact of odx. Methods: This retrospective study included 201 consecutive patients with an odx request from two university institutions in Quebec between May 2012 and December 2014...
August 2018: Current Oncology
A Awan, K Esfahani
The treatment of hormone-positive breast cancer (bca) is a rapidly evolving field. Improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms of action and resistance to anti-hormonal therapy has translated, in the past decade, into multiple practice-changing clinical trials, with the end result of increased survivorship for patients with all stages of hormone-positive cancer. The primary care physician will thus play an increasing role in the routine care, surveillance, and treatment of issues associated with anti-hormonal therapy...
August 2018: Current Oncology
Minglei Lu, Pei Wang, Yan Ge, Lance Dworkin, Andrew Brem, Zhangsuo Liu, Rujun Gong
Ecdysone is an arthropod molting hormone and has been marketed as a non-androgenic natural anabolic and adaptogen. However, the safety profile of ecdysone is largely undetermined. After ecdysone treatment for 2 weeks, mice developed albuminuria with histologic signs of glomerular injury, including hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, mild glomerulosclerosis and podocyte injury. A direct glomerulopathic activity of ecdysone seems to contribute, since addition of ecdysone to cultured glomerular cells induced cytopathic changes, including apoptosis, activation of mesangial cells, podocyte shape changes and a decreased expression of podocyte markers...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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