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hormone receptor

Arjola Bano, Earn Gan, Caroline Addison, Kilimangalam Narayanan, Jolanta U Weaver, Vasileios Tsatlidis, Salman Razvi
Context: Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD). However, factors that influence the association of TRAbs with thyroid hormones and relapse risk in GD remain unclear. Objective: We investigated: (i) the associations of TRAbs at diagnosis with thyroid hormones and relapse risk; (ii) potential factors that can influence these associations in GD. Design and Setting: A prospective study in GD patients from a single endocrine centre in the north-east of England, seen between January 2008 and March 2018...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
George A Stamatiades, Rona S Carroll, Ursula B Kaiser
The hypothalamic decapeptide, GnRH, is the gatekeeper of mammalian reproductive development and function. Activation of specific, high affinity cell surface receptors (GnRHR) on gonadotropes by GnRH triggers signal transduction cascades to stimulate the coordinated synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH. These hormones direct gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, making their tightly regulated production and secretion essential for normal sexual maturation and reproductive health...
December 4, 2018: Endocrinology
M Apkhazava, I Kvachadze, M Tsagareli, D Mzhavanadze, M Chakhnashvili
Large number of studies consider gonadal hormones as factors influencing pain perception by changing the activity of nociceptive and antinociceptive systems. Recent studies indicate that testosterone, along with some other gonadal hormones, plays a key role in the regulation of TRPV1 and MOR expression. In addition, some works focus on the relationship between pain sensation and hostility indices, as well as their interaction with gonadal hormones. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship of thermal sensation and pain threshold with free testosterone, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1(TRPV1) and µ-opioid receptor (MOR) protein levels as well as various degrees of hostility in young healthy males...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
V U Nna, A B A Bakar, A Ahmad, M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Metformin has long been used for glycemic control in diabetic state. Recently, other benefits of metformin beyond blood glucose regulation have emerged. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metformin on the expression of testicular steroidogenesis-related genes, spermatogenesis, and fertility of male diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated (300 mg/kg body weight/day) diabetic rats (D+Met)...
December 4, 2018: Andrology
Yi-Fang Tsai, Ling-Ming Tseng, Pei-Ju Lien, Chih-Yi Hsu, Yen-Shu Lin, Kuang-Liang King, Yu-Ling Wang, Ta-Chung Chao, Chun-Yu Liu, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Muh-Hwa Yang
AIMS: Invasive breast cancer patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemical (IHC) scores of 3+ or 2+ with reflex in situ hybridization (ISH) positivity are suitable for anti-HER2 therapies. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the prognoses between IHC 3+ patients and IHC 2+/ISH+ patients are different. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the clinicopathological information of 886 consecutive cases of HER2-positive early breast cancer...
December 4, 2018: Histopathology
Sara Grioni, Claudia Agnoli, Vittorio Krogh, Valeria Pala, Sabina Rinaldi, Marco Vinceti, Paolo Contiero, Luciano Vescovi, Marcella Malavolti, Sabina Sieri
Diet is the primary source of cadmium - a proven Group 1 human carcinogen - for non-smokers. Observational studies investigating the effect of cadmium from food sources on breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We examined the association between dietary cadmium and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status, in 8,924 women recruited to a prospective study between 1987 and 1992. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ahmed Ibrahim, Luisa Hugerth, Linnea Hases, Ashish Saxena, Maike Seifert, Quentin Thomas, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lars Engstrand, Cecilia Williams
Chronic inflammation of the colon (colitis) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hormone-replacement therapy reduces CRC incidences, and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) has been implicated in this protection. Gut microbiota is altered in both colitis and CRC and may influence the severity of both. Here we test the hypothesis that intestinal ERβ impacts the gut microbiota. Mice with and without intestine-specific deletion of ERβ (ERβKOVil ) were generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Colitis and CRC were induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by administration of three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Peyman Hadji, Oliver Stoetzer, Thomas Decker, Christian M Kurbacher, Frederik Marmé, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christoph Mundhenke, Andrea Distelrath, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Diana Lüftner, Wolfgang Janni, Mathias Muth, Julia Kreuzeder, Claudia Quiering, Eva-Marie Grischke, Hans Tesch
Background: Breast cancer and its treatments are associated with a detrimental effect on bone health. Here we report the results of an exploratory analysis assessing changes in levels of biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients enrolled in the phase IIIb 4EVER study. Methods: The 4EVER trial investigated everolimus in combination with exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer...
February 2019: Journal of Bone Oncology
Christina E Hayward, Kirsty R McIntyre, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood, Mark R Dilworth
Fetal delivery of calcium, via the placenta, is crucial for appropriate skeletal mineralization. We have previously demonstrated that maternofetal calcium transport, per gram placenta, is increased in the placental specific insulin-like growth factor 2 knockout mouse (P0) model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared to wild type littermates (WTL). This effect was mirrored in wild-type (WT) mice comparing lightest vs. heaviest (LvH) placentas in a litter. In both models increased placental calcium transport was associated with normalization of fetal calcium content...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kellie S Gross, Kelsey M Moore, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
Gonadal hormones play a vital role in driving motivated behavior. They not only modulate responses to naturally rewarding stimuli, but also influence responses to drugs of abuse. A commonality between gonadal hormones and drugs of abuse is that they both impact the neurocircuitry of reward, including the regulation of structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous hormonal studies have focused on the mechanisms and behavioral correlates of estradiol-induced dendritic spine changes in the female NAc...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sara M Freeman, Michelle C Palumbo, Rebecca H Lawrence, Aaron L Smith, Mark M Goodman, Karen L Bales
The prosocial hormone oxytocin (OXT) has become a new target for research on the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition characterized by deficits in social function. However, it remains unknown whether there are alterations in OXT receptor (OXTR) levels in the ASD brain. This study quantified the density of OXTR and of the structurally related vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals. We analyzed two regions known to contain OXTR across all primates studied to date: the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), which mediates visual attention, and the superior colliculus, which controls gaze direction...
December 4, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Nicholas O Burton, Vivek K Dwivedi, Kirk B Burkhart, Rebecca E W Kaplan, L Ryan Baugh, H Robert Horvitz
Insulin and insulin-like signaling regulates a broad spectrum of growth and metabolic responses to a variety of internal and environmental stimuli. For example, the inhibition of insulin-like signaling in C. elegans mediates its response to both osmotic stress and starvation. We report that in response to osmotic stress the cytosolic sulfotransferase SSU-1 antagonizes insulin-like signaling and promotes developmental arrest. Both SSU-1 and the DAF-16 FOXO transcription factor, which is activated when insulin signaling is low, are needed to drive specific responses to reduced insulin-like signaling...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Elin Karlsson, Eva Andersson, Jakob Dogan, Stefano Gianni, Per Jemth, Carlo Camilloni
Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) attain a well-defined structure in a coupled folding and binding reaction with another protein. Such reactions may involve early to late formation of different native structural regions along the reaction pathway. To obtain insights into the transition state for a coupled binding and folding reaction, we performed restrained molecular dynamics simulations using previously determined experimental binding Φb values of the interaction between two IDP domains, the activation domain from the p160 transcriptional co-activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) and the nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB-binding protein, each forming three well-defined α-helices upon binding...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rosamaria Lappano, Yves Jacquot, Marcello Maggiolini
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer found in women living in developed countries. Endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment for hormone-responsive breast tumors (about 70% of all breast cancers) and implies the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors. In contrast, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a highly heterogeneous disease that may account for up to 24% of all newly diagnosed cases, is hormone-independent and characterized by a poor prognosis. As drug resistance is common in all breast cancer subtypes despite the different treatment modalities, novel therapies targeting signaling transduction pathways involved in the processes of breast carcinogenesis, tumor promotion and metastasis have been subject to accurate consideration...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wen-Tsan Weng, Chieh-Shan Wu, Feng-Sheng Wang, Chang-Yi Wu, Yi-Ling Ma, Hoi-Hung Chan, Den-Chiung Wu, Jian-Ching Wu, Tian-Huei Chu, Shih-Chung Huang, Ming-Hong Tai
α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) has been characterized as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. The homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in neovascularization. However, it remains unclear whether α-MSH mitigates angiogenesis through modulation of NO and its signaling pathway. The present study elucidated the function and mechanism of NO signaling in α-MSH-induced angiogenesis inhibition using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), rat aorta rings, and transgenic zebrafish...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuji Kaneko, Julian P Tuazon, Xunming Ji, Cesario V Borlongan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endogenous neurotrophic peptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP-27/38) protect against stroke, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: Primary rat neural cells were exposed to PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 before induction of experimental acute ischemic stroke via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. To reveal PACAP's role in neuroprotection, we employed fluorescent live/dead cell viability and caspase 3 assays, optical densitometry of mitochondrial dehydrogenase and cell growth, glutathione disulfide luciferase activity, ELISA for high mobility group box1 extracellular concentration, ATP bioluminescence, Western blot analysis of PACAP, NMDA subunits, apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, social interaction hormone oxytocin, and trophic factor BDNF, and immunocytochemical analysis of PACAP...
December 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Saroj Niraula
Three Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4/6 (CDK) inhibitors have been approved by the United Stated Food and Drug Administration for front line treatment of advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer based on improvements in progression free survival against endocrine monotherapy. Two clinical trials have so far reported results on overall survival but both are negative. CDK inhibitors are usually tolerated well but they do add to inconvenience and cost - for example, grade III-IV neutropenia occur at a frequency of over 60% requiring frequent blood work at least during the initial months of treatment...
November 26, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Pao-Lin Kuo, Jie-Yun Tseng, Hau-Ing Chen, Chia-Yun Wu, Hany A Omar, Chia-Yih Wang, Han-Yi Cheng, Chao-Chin Hsu, Tzu-Fun Fu, Yen-Ni Teng
SEPTIN12 (SEPT12) is a testis-enriched gene that is downregulated in the testis of infertile men with severe spermatogenic defects. While SEPT12 is involved in spermatogenic failure and sperm motility disorder, SEPT12 transcriptional regulation is still unknown. Here we report the promoter region of SEPT12 as a 245 bp segment upstream from the transcription start site. One androgen receptor (AR) and two of estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding sites were on this region were identified initially by Bioinformatics prediction and confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
December 1, 2018: Biochimie
Juliane R Johnston, Kimberly G Freeman, Gaylen L Edwards
Previous work has shown that cannabinoids increase feeding, while cholecystokinin (CCK) has an anorexigenic effect on food intake. Receptors for these hormones are located on cell bodies of vagal afferent nerves in the nodose ganglia. An interaction between CCK and endocannabinoid receptors has been suggested. The purpose of these studies is to explore the effect of pretreatment with a cannabinoid agonist, CP 55,940, on nodose neuron activation by CCK. To determine the effect of CP 55,940 and CCK on neuron activation, rats were anesthetized and nodose ganglia were excised...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
David J Finitsis, Brittany A Vose, Justin G Mahalak, Andrew L Salner
OBJECTIVE: Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy (AET) significantly reduces risk of breast cancer recurrence in those patients whose tumor tests hormone (estrogen and/or progesterone) receptor positive. Many who are prescribed AET do not adhere adequately. Studies have sought to examine the effects of interventions to enhance patients' AET adherence, with strikingly mixed results. In order to reconcile a disparate literature, this paper aims to (1) quantitatively review the aggregate effect of interventions designed to optimize AET adherence within the current literature; and (2)meta-analyze these effects across studies' by intervention design...
December 4, 2018: Psycho-oncology
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