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João Paulo Bizarro Lopes, Luana Silva, Gabriela da Costa Franarin, Marco Antonio Ceschi, Diogo Seibert Lüdtke, Rafael Ferreira Dantas, Cristiane Martins Cardoso de Salles, Floriano Paes Silva-Jr, Mario Roberto Senger, Isabella Alvim Guedes, Laurent Emmanuel Dardenne
A series of hybrids containing tacrine linked to carbohydrate-based moieties, such as d-xylose, d-ribose, and d-galactose derivatives, were synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution between 9-aminoalkylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridines and the corresponding sugar-based tosylates. All compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the nanomolar IC50 scale. Most of the d-xylose derivatives (6a-e) were selective for AChE and the compound 6e (IC50  = 2...
October 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Chen Zhang, Tinggang Li, Jianzhong He
Background: One of the main challenges of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is to reduce acetone production with high butanol yield. Converting acetone into isopropanol is an alternative pathway to reduce fermentation by-products in the fermentation broth. Here, we aimed to cultivate a wild-type Clostridium strain with high isopropanol and butanol production and reveal its genome information. Results: Clostridium beijerinckii strain BGS1 was found to be capable of producing 10...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jili Li, Jinlong Zhang, Qiuping Zhang, Zhongjie Bai, Quanyi Zhao, Dian He, Zhen Wang, Yonglin Chen, Bin Liu
CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) containing cobalt have many bioactivities, but most of them do not dissolve in water and have no selectivity to tissue and organs. On the basis of the specific recognition of galactose or sialic acid by a receptor, a series of CORMs based on carbohydrates were synthesized and evaluated. The test results show that all the complexes displayed anticancer activity. Among them, the effects of the complexes of galactose (1), GalNAc (8) and sialic acid (10) were very distinct. Complex 1 displayed higher activity against HeLa, HePG2, MCF-7 and HT-29 cell proliferation than cis-platin (DDP), and its selectivity was far much better than DDP compared with normal cell W138...
October 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Zhiwei Zhang, Fenghua Zhang, Liya Song, Ning Sun, Weishi Guan, Bo Liu, Jian Tian, Yuhong Zhang, Wei Zhang
β-Galactosidase is widely used for hydrolysis of whey lactose. However, galactose inhibition has acted as a major constraint on the catalytic process. Thus, it is sensible to improve upon this defect in β-galactosidase through protein modification. To reduce the galactose inhibition of Aspergillus candidus β-galactosidase (LACB), four amino acid positions were selected for mutation based on their molecular bindings with galactose. Four mutant libraries (Tyr96, Asn140, Glu142, and Tyr364) of the LACB were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis...
November 2018: 3 Biotech
John R Lawrence, Marcus Winkler, Thomas R Neu
Although methanol has frequently been used as an inexpensive supplementary carbon source to support treatment processes, knowledge of the resultant microbial biofilms, their 3D architecture, microenvironments, exopolymer chemistry and populations remains limited. We supplied methanol as a supplementary carbon source to biofilms developing in rotating annular reactors. Analysis of circulation waters (1.0 l d-1 ) indicated that dissolved organic carbon was reduced by 25%, NO3 -nitrogen by 95%, and total phosphorus by 70%...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zeynab Rostami, Mehdi Tabarsa, SangGuan You, Masoud Rezaei
Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Colpomenia peregrina to determine their chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory properties. High extraction yields were obtained for CP1 (17.6%) and CP2 (5.2%) polysaccharides. Polysaccharides were mainly consisted of neutral sugars (67.01-73.79%), uronic acids (9.43-14.89%), proteins (3.44-14.89%) and small amounts of sulfates (4.87-4.91%). Polysaccharides were composed of fucose (20.62-24.56%), galactose (25.5-26.94%) and glucose (50.00-52.91%) residues...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yanqing Zang, Shoko Hashimoto, Changqing Yu, Kiharu Igarashi
The study investigated the protective effects of kaempferol galactoside (KG) components in mice, which were separated from Jindai soybean leaves (JDL) and mainly composed by two kaempferol galactosides. Further, KG-related metabolites in serum of mice were identified by Tof-MS. Results showed that both JDL and KG prevented the CCl4 -induced increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and serum alanine aminotransferase. Additionally, mice treated with KG had significantly decreased TBARS and TNF-alpha levels, compared to CCl4 -treated mice...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Naresh V R Mutha, Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Geok Y A Tan, Siew Woh Choo, Nicholas S Jakubovics
Cell-cell interactions between genetically distinct bacteria, known as coaggregation, are important for the formation of mixed-species biofilms such as dental plaque. Interactions lead to gene regulation in the partner organisms that may be critical for adaptation and survival in mixed-species biofilms. Here, gene regulation responses to coaggregation between Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum were studied using dual RNA-Seq. Initially, S. gordonii DL1 was shown to coaggregate strongly with F...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Hitomi Nakamura, Takayoshi Hosono, Keiichi Kumasawa, Carolyn J P Jones, John D Aplin, Tadashi Kimura
STUDY QUESTION: Can vaginal bioelectrical impedance (VZ) electrophysiologically determine alterations of the endometrium in preparation for implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER: VZ can electrophysiologically detect the sulfation and sialylation changes in the uterine glycocalyx in preparation for implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterine receptivity is associated with various glycosylation changes that affect negative charge density at the luminal epithelial cell surface...
October 17, 2018: Human Reproduction
Anuja Prabhu, Mugdha Gadgil
Glycosylation is an important product quality attribute of antibody biopharmaceuticals. It involves enzymatic addition of oligosaccharides on proteins by sequential action of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases in the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi. Some of these enzymes like galactosyltransferase and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I require trace metal cofactors. Variations in trace metal availability during production can thus affect glycosylation of recombinant glycoproteins such as monoclonal antibodies...
October 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Kazuharu Sugawara, Hideki Kuramitz, Toshihiko Kadoya
We used an electron-transfer carbohydrate-mimetic peptide (YYYYC) to construct an electrochemical cytosensing system. Magnetic beads were modified with either asialofetuin (ASF) or soybean agglutinin (SBA) to evaluate the effect on cell sensing. Because SBA binds to the galactose residue that exists at the terminals of the carbohydrate chains in ASF, the target protein was accumulated on the protein magnetic beads. SBA is an example of N-acetylgalactosamine- and galactose-binding proteins that readily combine with YYYYC...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yawen Hong, Tiejin Ying
A water-soluble polysaccharide WSP1 was extracted from the fruiting body of Termitornyces albuminosus. Its molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and molecular structure were determined by GPC, GC-MS, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, NMR (1D and 2D) and AFM. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of WSP1 was evaluated in vitro by the tests of reducing power, scavenging ability on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, and chelating ability on ferrous ion. The results indicated that the molecular weight of WSP1 was 9 kDa, and it was mainly composed of fucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:3...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Huigang Hu, Qiaoli Zhao, Jianghui Xie, Dequan Sun
This study determined the optimal extraction conditions for ultrasonic-cellulase synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from pineapple pomace (PPP) using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. The optimal hydrolysis temperature, ratio of material to water, pH value, hydrolysis time, ultrasonic power and the additive quantity of cellulase were 50 °C, 1:45 g/mL, 6.0, 100 min, 160 W and 2.0%, respectively, giving a extraction yield of 1.10 ± 0.03%. PPP was further isolated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography columns, revealing four main elution peaks, named PPF0, PPF1, PPP2 and PPF3, were obtained...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Felipe Domingos de Sousa, Pedrinha Diógenes Vasconselos, Ayrles Fernanda Brandão da Silva, Erika Freitas Mota, Adriana da Rocha Tomé, Francisco Rogênio da Silva Mendes, Anida Maria Moraes Gomes, David J Abraham, Xu Shiwen, James S Owen, Marcos Roberto Lourenzoni, Adriana Rolim Campos, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira
Plant lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, which can interact with cell surfaces to initiate anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as immunomodulatory functions. Here, we have extracted, purified and part-characterized the bioactivity of Jacalin, Frutalin, DAL and PNA, before evaluating their potential for wound healing in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Only Frutalin stimulated fibroblast migration in vitro, prompting further studies which established its low cytotoxicity and interaction with TLR4 receptors...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zahra Alaji, Elham Safaei, Hong Yi, Hengjiang Cong, Andrzej Wojtczak, Aiwen Lei
Redox interplay between a ligand and a metal can provide a profound driving force for the promotion of unprecedented reactions. This work presents an intriguing water-assisted oxidative transformation of imine to amide with no formal change in the metal oxidation state in the copper and nickel complexes of an aminophenol ligand versus a zinc analogue.
October 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jing Fu, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent, is ubiquitously detected in the natural environment. There is increasing evidence TCS can produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects in aquatic biota, including algae, crustaceans, and fish. Metabolomics can provide important information regarding molecular-level effects and toxicity of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of TCS in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jiaqi Gao, Zepeng Yu, Shu Jing, Weihai Jiang, Cong Liu, Chunyan Yu, Jinghui Sun, Chunmei Wang, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Background: Liver aging is a significant risk factor for chronic liver diseases. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism for the initiation and progression of liver aging. It has been reported that d-galactose (d-gal)-induced hepatic injury is an experimental model well established closely similar to morphological and functional features of liver aging. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils (S. sphenanthera, Schisandraceae), as a famous tradi-tional Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years in China to treat various disorders, including liver dysfunctions...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Tianxin Xiang, Shanfei Ge, Jiangxiong Wen, Junfeng Xie, Lixia Yang, Xiaoping Wu, Na Cheng
The present study aimed to investigate the expression and function of aquaporin (AQP)9 in the intestinal tract of acute liver injury rat models. A total of 20 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control (NC) group and acute liver injury groups (24, 48 and 72 h). Acute liver injury rat models were established using D‑amino galactose, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbil) and albumin were determined using an automatic biochemical analyzer...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiao-Xia Liang, Ying-Ying Gao, Yan Pan, Yuan-Feng Zou, Min He, Chang-Liang He, Li-Xia Li, Zhong-Qiong Yin, Cheng Lv
Two polysaccharides, MDP-1 and MDP-2, were obtained from the fermentation liquid of M. dendrobii by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Their chemical structures were measured by FT-IR, GC, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra, indicating the mainly compositions of mannose, xylose, and galactose for MDP-1; galacturonic acid, galactose and rhamnose for MDP-2. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of MDPs were investigated, showing different antioxidant activities, in which MDP-2 performed noticeable, with excellent superoxide radical activity better than BHT, high DPPH radical activity (IC50 at 227 μg/mL) comparable with BHT, moderate reducing power activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chaoyang Wei, Yu Zhang, Liang He, Junwen Cheng, Junhui Li, Wenyang Tao, Guizhu Mao, Hua Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen
LP100R, LP10R and LP5R were isolated from peach gum by ultrafiltration. They were identified as AG II arabinogalactans composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galactose, xylose and arabinose, which had a β-d-(1→6)-galactan backbone and were branched at O-3 and O-4. LP100R, LP10R and LP5R exist in a spherical conformation with the molecular weight of 8.50 × 104 g/mol, 4.77 × 104 g/mol and 2.40 × 104 g/mol, respectively. The binding affinities of LP fractions to galectin-3 (Gal-3) were 0.77 μM for LP100R, 2...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
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