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Julien A Delbrouck, Abdellatif Tikad, Stéphane P Vincent
An efficient and regioselective approach for the construction of synthetically important γ-lactone glycosides is reported from unprotected aldoses through a new debenzylative lactonization (DBL) reaction. The scope and limitations of this DBL reaction are described starting from a series of commercially available hexoses (l-fucose, d-galactose, d-glucose) and pentoses (d-arabinose, d-ribose, d-lyxose, d-xylose) to afford the corresponding γ-lactones in good yields and without concomitant δ-lactone formation...
August 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zhi-Zhun Mo, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Zi-Ren Su, Lin Zheng, Hui-Lin Li, Jian-Hui Xie, Yan-Fang Xian, Tie-Gang Yi, Shui-Qing Huang, Jian-Ping Chen
Angelica sinensis (AS, Danggui in Chinese) is an important herbal component of various traditional formulae for the management of asthenia and its tonic effects. Although AS has been shown to ameliorate cognitive damage and nerve toxicity in D-galactose (D-gal)-elicited senescent mice brain, its effects on liver and kidney injury have not yet been explored. In this work, mice were subjected to hypodermic injection with D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally gavaged with AS (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 8 successive weeks...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Natalia Pozdnyakova, Dietmar Schlosser, Ekaterina Dubrovskaya, Svetlana Balandina, Elena Sigida, Vyacheslav Grinev, Olga Turkovskaya
The ability of the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Stropharia rugosoannulata DSM 11372 to degrade a wide range of structurally different environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluorene, pyrene, and fluoranthene), synthetic anthraquinone dyes containing condensed aromatic rings, environmentally relevant alkylphenol and oxyethylated alkylphenol representatives, and oil was demonstrated within the present study. 9,10-Anthraquinone, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone, and 9-fluorenone were identified as products of anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluorene degradation, respectively...
August 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kui Yang, Ke Yang, Shuang Chao, Jia Wen, Yuxin Pei, Zhichao Pei
A novel supramolecular hybrid material ZIF-8@DOX@WP6@G constructed from the host-guest complexation between carboxylated pillar[6]arene (WP6) and a galactose derivative (G), and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded ZIF-8 has been synthesized for targeted drug delivery. The results showed that ZIF-8@DOX@WP6@G not only maintained the pH-sensitive drug release properties of ZIF-8 but also exhibited excellent water dispersibility and selective toxicity for hepatoma cancer cells due to the assembly of WP6 and G. The strategy used in this study opens up a new avenue for constructing multifunctional supramolecular hybrid materials for therapeutic applications in cancer treatment...
August 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Venkanna Muripiti, Brijesh Lohchania, Srujan Kumar Marepally, Srilakshmi V Patri
Receptor mediated gene delivery to the liver offers advantages in treating genetic disorders such as hemophilia and hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HTI). Prior findings demonstrated that tethering the d-galactose head group to cationic lipids directs genes to the liver via asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs). In our continued efforts to develop safer and efficient lipofectins, we demonstrated that cationic lipids bearing α-tocopherol, an antioxidant, as a hydrophobic domain could deliver genes efficiently with high safety profiles in multiple cell lines...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Huan Wang, Hongling Wei, Lei Tang, Junkai Lu, Changkao Mu, Chunlin Wang
BACKGROUND: The mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is a euryhaline and commercially important species. MiRNAs participate in the regulation of many physiological activities. RESULTS: The miRNA transcriptome of the gills of S. paramamosain was used to investigate the expression profiles of miRNAs in response to a sudden drop in salinity. In total, seven known miRNAs and 43 novel miRNAs were identified, with 18 differentially expressed small RNAs. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-one differentially expressed miRNAs target genes were screened by prediction...
August 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Anastasiya A Kasimova, Johanna J Kenyon, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Alexander S Shashkov, Anastasiya V Popova, Mikhail M Shneider, Yuriy A Knirel, Ruth M Hall
Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the major global clones, GC1 and GC2, are difficult to treat with antibiotics, and phage therapy, which requires extensive knowledge of the variation in the surface polysaccharides, is an option under consideration. The gene clusters directing synthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in A. baumannii GC1 isolate A388 and GC2 isolate G21 differ by a single glycosyltransferase (gtr) gene. They include genes encoding a novel UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugd2) and a putative pyruvyltransferase (Ptr2)...
August 9, 2018: Glycobiology
Zheng-Gang Han, Ji-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Jiang-Ke Yang
The α-galactosidases, which can catalyze the removal of α-1,6-linked terminal galactose residues from galactooligosaccharide materials, have good potential for industrial applications. The high-level and efficient secretion of the α-galactosidases into the extracellular space has greatly simplified the downstream bioengineering process, facilitating their bioapplications. In this study, the effects of gene dosage and endoplasmic reticulum secretion-associated factors (ERSAs) on the secretory expression of an α-galactosidase gene derived from a Aspergillus oryzae strain were investigated by constructing multicopy expression cassettes and coexpressing the α-galactosidase gene with ERSAs...
August 11, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Yujiro Higuchi, Hitomi Matsufuji, Masanari Tanuma, Takatoshi Arakawa, Kazuki Mori, Chihaya Yamada, Risa Shofia, Emiko Matsunaga, Kosuke Tashiro, Shinya Fushinobu, Kaoru Takegawa
Pyruvyl modification of oligosaccharides is widely seen in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the biosynthetic mechanisms of pyruvylation have been investigated, enzymes that metabolize and degrade pyruvylated oligosaccharides are not well known. Here, we searched for a pyruvylated galactose (PvGal)-releasing enzyme by screening soil samples. We identified a Bacillus strain, as confirmed by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis, that exhibited PvGal-ase activity toward p-nitrophenyl-β-D-pyruvylated galactopyranose (pNP-β-D-PvGal)...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roman Komor, Gabriela Pastuch-Gawolek, Ewelina Krol, Wieslaw Szeja
Herein we present the methodology for obtaining glycosyltransferase inhibitors, analogues of natural enzyme substrates of donor-type: UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. The synthesis concerned glycoconjugates, nucleoside analogues containing an acyclic ribose mimetic linked to a uracil moiety in their structure. The biological activity of the synthesised compounds was determined on the basis of their ability to inhibit the model enzyme action of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase from bovine milk. The obtained results allowed to expand and supplement the existing library of synthetic compounds that are able to regulate the biological activity of enzymes from the GT class...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eva Ivanov Kavkova, Constantin Blöchl, Raimund Tenhaken
Ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis in plants predominantly occurs via a pathway with D-mannose and L-galactose as intermediates. One alternative pathway for AsA synthesis, which is similar to the biosynthesis route in mammals, is controversially discussed for plants. Here, myo-inositol is cleaved to glucuronic acid and then converted via L-gulonate to AsA. In contrast to animals, plants have an effective recycling pathway for glucuronic acid being a competitor for the metabolic rate. Recycling involves a phosphorylation at C1 by the enzyme glucuronokinase...
August 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Yuji Sumii, Hayata Hibino, Ibrayim Saidalimu, Hidehisa Kawahara, Norio Shibata
Galactose-conjugated fluorinated and non-fluorinated proline oligomers that exhibit an α-helical structure with hydrophilic and lipophilic parts were designed as potential antifreeze molecules. These galactose-proline oligomers were synthesized and their physical properties were evaluated. Interestingly, the non-fluorinated galactose-proline oligomers showed in contrast to the fluorinated analogues weak antifreeze activity. The difference in antifreeze activity should be attributed to the fluorine gauche effect, which should induce a conformation in fluorinated prolines that is different from that of natural proline...
August 13, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lei An, Yuchen Sun, Wei Zhang, Xiaolong Huang, Rui Xue, Youzhi Zhang, Yousheng Wang
Recently, dietary intervention has been considered as a prospective strategy in delaying age-related cognitive dysfunction and brain plasticity degeneration. This study explored the effect of walnut diets (6% and 9%, 8 weeks) on cognitive behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and the neurotrophic signaling pathway in d-galactose (d-gal) model rats. Behavioral tests showed that walnut diets significantly reversed spatial memory loss in the Morris water test, locomotor activity deficiency in an open field test, and a recognition behavior reduction in a novel object recognition task...
August 13, 2018: Food & Function
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Katarzyna Szatraj, Katarzyna Kosiorek
Bacteria can utilize diverse sugars as carbon and energy source, but the regulatory mechanisms directing the choice of the preferred substrate are often poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the role of the YugA protein (now designated GlaR-Galactose-lactose operon Regulatory protein) of the RpiR family as a transcriptional activator of galactose (gal genes) and lactose (lac genes) utilization genes in Lactococcus lactis IL1403. In this bacterium, gal genes forming the Leloir operon are combined with lac genes in a single so-called gal-lac operon...
August 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhi Chai, Wuyang Huang, Xue Zhao, Han Wu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Chunyang Li
In the present study, a novel polysaccharide fraction (CAP2-1) from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was obtained by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and sequential purification through anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. CAP2-1 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, with an average molecular weight of 830.93 kDa. FT-IR and NMR spectra of CAP2-1 exhibited typical characteristic signals of polysaccharide...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Simone Sasso, Indianara Rodrigues Cruz, Mariana Simonato Lorenzini, Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Maitê Beatriz Brueckheimer, Thayna Patachini Maia, Geraldo Antonio Bunick Neto Sala, Matheus Henrique Ruela Mews, Daniela Delwing-de Lima
We investigated the effects of the intracerebroventricular infusion of galactose and the influence of pretreatment with antioxidants on oxidative stress parameters and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of 60-day-old Wistar rats (6 per group). The animals were divided into naïve group (did not undergo surgery); procedure group (only underwent surgery); sham group (underwent surgery and received 5 μL saline) and galactose group (received 5 μL of galactose solution (5.0 mM) by intracerebroventricular injection), and were killed by decapitation after 1 h...
August 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Michal Halaj, Mária Matulová, Martina Šutovská, Jana Barboríková, Ivana Kazimierová, Soňa Fraňová, Pavel Přibyl, Vladislav Cepák, Jaromír Lukavský, Peter Capek
Microalgae occupy all territories and their products represent a rich source of phytochemicals for human being. Green microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides was found to be a significant producer of the extracellular biopolymer. Dominant components of the biopolymer were found to be Gal (39 wt%) with its methyl derivatives (15 wt%), Rha (19 wt%) and Man (14 wt%). 2-OMe-Gal was found to be the major derivative while other sugars, namely 3-OMe-, 6-OMe- and 2,3-di-OMe-Gal, 3-OMe-Glc and 4-OMe-Xyl were in smaller amounts...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qing-Lan Li, Yao Sun, Li Ren, Xin Wang, Chen Wang, Lin Li, Ying-Wei Yang, Xianghui Yu, Jihong Yu
A smart supramolecular nanosystem integrating targeting, chemotherapy and photothermal therapy, was constructed based on carboxylatopillar[5]arene (CP[5]A)-functionalized CuS nanoparticles (CuS@CP NPs). CuS@CP NPs with good monodispersibility and strong near-infrared absorption were synthesized in aqueous solution through a facile one-pot supramolecular capping method, followed by surface installation of a liver cancer-targeted galactose derivative through host-guest binding interaction. The resulting smart supramolecular nanosystem, namely CuS@CPG, exhibited excellent photothermal ablation capability to HepG2 cells upon irradiation with laser at 808 nm...
August 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maria-Eugenia DeCastro, Juan-Jose Escuder-Rodriguez, Maria-Esperanza Cerdan, Manuel Becerra, Esther Rodriguez-Belmonte, Maria-Isabel Gonzalez-Siso
β-galactosidases (EC., which hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose, have two main applications in the food industry: the production of low-lactose milk and dairy goods for lactose intolerant people, and the generation of galacto-oligosaccharides by transgalactosylation reactions. Due to their thermostability, β-galactosidases from thermophilic microorganisms are very interesting for industrial processes, as high temperatures can increase the initial productivity of the enzyme, provide higher solubility of substrates, and prevent microbial contamination...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Colin Reily, Dana V Rizk, Bruce A Julian, Jan Novak
AIMS: IgA nephropathy, the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, is characterized by glomerular deposition of galactose-deficient IgA1 and elevated serum levels of this IgA1 glycoform. Current ELISA methods lack sensitivity to assess galactose deficiency using small amounts of IgA1, which limits studies in primary cells due to modest IgA1 production in isolated peripheral-blood lymphocytes. METHODS: Lectin from Helix pomatia was conjugated to biotin or acridinium ester and used in ELISA to detect galactose deficiency of IgA1 using small amounts of IgA1...
August 2018: BioTechniques
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