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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101861/structural-transition-of-trichocyte-keratin-intermediate-filaments-during-development-in-the-hair-follicle
#1
R D Bruce Fraser, David A D Parry
The intermediate filaments (IF) in trichocyte (hard α-) keratin are unique amongst the various classes of IF in having not one but two topologically-distinct structures. The first is formed at an early stage of hair development in a reducing environment within the cells in the lower part of the follicle. The second structure occurs at a later stage of hair development in the upper part of the follicle, where there is a transition to an oxidizing environment. Crosslinking studies reveal that molecular slippage occurs within the IF upon oxidation and that this results in many cysteine residues lying in near axial alignment, thereby facilitating disulphide bond formation...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101184/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-luteolin-on-experimental-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-mice
#2
Nan Xia, Gang Chen, Min Liu, Xiaozhen Ye, Yahui Pan, Jiuyu Ge, Yanting Mao, Hongwei Wang, Jian Wang, Sijing Xie
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease and is believed to be a predominately T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 is a crucial transcription factor of T cell-mediated immunity, with key roles in the proliferation and migration of T helper (Th) cells, differentiation of Th cells into Th17 cells, and the balance between Treg cells and Th17 cells. Flavonoid luteolin has been shown to markedly inhibit Tyr705 activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and exert anti-inflammatory effects in multiple sclerosis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100833/follicular-cd8-t-cells-accumulate-in-hiv-infection-and-can-kill-infected-cells-in-vitro-via-bispecific-antibodies
#3
Constantinos Petrovas, Sara Ferrando-Martinez, Michael Y Gerner, Joseph P Casazza, Amarendra Pegu, Claire Deleage, Arik Cooper, Jason Hataye, Sarah Andrews, David Ambrozak, Perla M Del Río Estrada, Eli Boritz, Robert Paris, Eirini Moysi, Kristin L Boswell, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Ilias Vagios, Manuel Leal, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Amaranta Rivero, Luz Alicia Gonzalez-Hernandez, Adrian B McDermott, Susan Moir, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Fernando Docobo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Daniel C Douek, Michael R Betts, Jacob D Estes, Ronald N Germain, John R Mascola, Richard A Koup
Cytolytic CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the control and elimination of virus-infected cells and are a major focus of HIV cure efforts. However, it has been shown that HIV-specific CD8 T cells are infrequently found within germinal centers (GCs), a predominant site of active and latent HIV infection. We demonstrate that HIV infection induces marked changes in the phenotype, frequency, and localization of CD8 T cells within the lymph node (LN). Significantly increased frequencies of CD8 T cells in the B cell follicles and GCs were found in LNs from treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals...
January 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100779/intramembrane-proteolysis-of-astrotactins
#4
Hao Chang, Philip M Smallwood, John Williams, Jeremy Nathans
Astrotactins are vertebrate-specific membrane proteins implicated in neuron-glia interactions during central nervous system development and in hair follicle polarity during skin development. By studying epitope-tagged derivatives of mouse Astrotactin2 (Astn2) produced in transfected cells, we determined that the amino- and carboxy-termini reside in the extracellular space and are initially linked by two transmembrane segments and a single cytoplasmic domain. We further show that Astn2 undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and that a disulfide bond holds the resulting two fragments together...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100484/atf6-knock-down-decreases-apoptosis-arrests-the-s-phase-of-the-cell-cycle-and-increases-steroid-hormone-production-in-mouse-granulosa-cells
#5
Yongjie Xiong, Huatao Chen, Pengfei Lin, Aihua Wang, Lei Wang, Yaping Jin
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is an important factor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ATF6 in mouse granulosa cells with respect to apoptosis, the cell cycle, and steroid hormone production, as well as several key genes related to follicular development, via RNA interference, immunohistochemical staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, flow cytometry, TUNEL assay, and ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ATF6 was extensively distributed in the granulosa cells of various ovarian follicles and oocytes in adult female mice...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099467/senescent-atrophic-epidermis-retains-lrig1-stem-cells-and-loses-wnt-signaling-a-phenotype-shared-with-cd44ko-mice
#6
Laurent Barnes, Jean-Hilaire Saurat, Gürkan Kaya
Lrig1 is known to repress the epidermal growth through its inhibitory activity on EGFR, while CD44 promotes it. We analyzed the expression of these molecules in senescent atrophic human epidermis and in the epidermis of CD44KO mice. In normal human epidermis, Lrig1+ cells form clusters located in the basal layer in which CD44 expression is downregulated and Lef1 expression reflects an active Wnt signaling. In senescent atrophic human epidermis, we found retention of Lrig1high+ cells all along the basal layer, forming no clusters, with decrease of CD44 and lef1 expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099203/evaluation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-micrografts-demonstrate-induction-of-catagen-like-processes-during-storage
#7
Walter Krugluger, Karl Stiefsohn, Karl Moser, Claudia Moser, Katarina Laciak
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gene expression patterns may contribute to the commonly observed transient reduction of hair shaft elongation in hair restoration surgery. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the molecular causes, we evaluated changes in gene expression patterns in hair follicle micrografts during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micrografts with different amounts of adjacent connective tissue (regular, skinny, and chubby) were stored for different periods, and the expression of key genes was determined: dermal papilla (DP): FGF7, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), versican; outer root sheath: Krt15; inner root sheath: Krt 25; cuticula: Krt85; Henle layer: filaggrin; genes related to apoptosis and growth/differentiation: Caspase 3, Ovol1, and Foxo1...
January 17, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098826/hair-growth-promoting-and-anticancer-effects-of-p21-activated-kinase-1-pak1-inhibitors-isolated-from-different-parts-of-alpinia-zerumbet
#8
Nozomi Taira, Binh Cao Quan Nguyen, Shinkichi Tawata
PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia) and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (KOG) and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%-180% and 132%-226%, respectively, at 10-100 μM...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095884/optimal-fsh-usage-in-revascularization-of-allotransplanted-ovarian-tissue-in-mice
#9
Wen-Zhi Ma, Xiao-Min Zheng, Chang-Chun Hei, Cheng-Jun Zhao, Sha-Sha Xie, Qing Chang, Yu-Fang Cai, Hua Jia, Xiu-Ying Pei, Yan-Rong Wang
BACKGROUD: Ovarian transplantation is a useful method for preserving the fertility of young women with cancer who undergo radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is use to protect transplanted ovarian tissues from ischemia injury through promoting revascularization after transplantation, but the side effect of high level FSH is ovarian overstimulation leading to substantial follicular loss. In this study, we investigated the optimal usage of FSH on revascularization in the in vitro cultured ovarian tissues before and after transplantation...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095856/baff-index-and-cxcl13-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-associate-respectively-with-intrathecal-igg-synthesis-and-cortical-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis-at-clinical-onset
#10
M Puthenparampil, L Federle, S Miante, A Zito, E Toffanin, S Ruggero, M Ermani, S Pravato, D Poggiali, P Perini, F Rinaldi, P Gallo
BACKGROUND: B lymphocytes are thought to play a relevant role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. The in vivo analysis of intrathecally produced B cell-related cytokines may help to clarify the mechanisms of B cell recruitment and immunoglobulin production within the central nervous system (CNS) in MS. METHODS: Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum specimens from 40 clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS or early-onset relapsing-remitting MS patients (CIS/eRRMS) and 17 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed for the intrathecal synthesis of IgG (quantitative formulae and IgG oligoclonal bands, IgGOB), CXCL13, BAFF, and IL-21...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095555/megasessions-for-robotic-hair-restoration
#11
Joa O Carlos Pereira, Joa O Carlos Pereira Filho, Joa O Pedro Cabrera Pereira
A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095543/clinical-evaluation-of-hair-removal-using-an-810-nm-diode-laser-with-a-novel-scanning-device
#12
Erin Courtney, David J Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Diode lasers are often considered as the gold standard preference for hair removal due to the deep penetration and ef- fective targeting of the hair follicle. A wide variety of diode lasers are available, which can differ in terms of their parameters (such as fluence, pulse duration, repetition rate, scanner, and cooling). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef cacy of hair removal with an 810 nm novel scanning diode laser, up to six months after last treatment...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094870/igf1r-signaling-acts-on-the-anagen-to-catagen-transition-in-the-hair-cycle
#13
Mathieu Castela, Fabien Linay, Edwige Roy, Philippe Moguelet, Jie Xu, Martin Holzenberger, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Selim Aractingi
Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is important for skin development and homeostasis. However, overexpression and inactivation studies have produced variable findings regarding its role in hair follicle (HF) biology. Here, we studied a conditional and inducible knockout of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in keratin 15-expressing bulge cells. Deletion of IGF1R after the development of the skin appendages in K15-IGF1R(KO) mice showed no abnormalities in epidermal homeostasis. Numbers of bulge cells were lower in K15-IGF1R(KO) mice than in controls, without consequences on wound healing, at least in young mice...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094433/bmp15-knockout-like-effect-in-familial-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-with-persistent-ovarian-reserve
#14
Anne Mayer, Baptiste Fouquet, Michel Pugeat, Micheline Misrahi
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) affects 1-2% of women under 40 years. BMP15 variants have been described in POI. We studied a family with two sisters compound heterozygous for deletions in the BMP15 gene on chromosome Xp11.22 yielding a human "knockout-like" effect: a c.151_152delGA deletion yielded a p.Glu51IlefsTer27 mutation transmitted by the hemizygous father and a c.189_198delAGGGCATTCAinsTG deletion/insertion yielded a p.Glu64AlafsTer12 mutation transmitted by the heterozygous mother. Both deletions resulted in frameshifts with premature stop codons at positions 78 and 76 in the proregion, precluding mature BMP15 production...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093668/molecular-characterization-of-hoxc8-gene-and-methylation-status-analysis-of-its-exon-1-associated-with-the-length-of-cashmere-fiber-in-liaoning-cashmere-goat
#15
Wen L Bai, Jiao J Wang, Rong H Yin, Yun L Dang, Ze Y Wang, Yu B Zhu, Yu Y Cong, Liang Deng, Dan Guo, Shi Q Wang, Shu H Yang, Hui L Xue
Homeobox protein Hox-C8 (HOXC8) is a member of Hox family. It is expressed in the dermal papilla of the skin and is thought to be associated with the hair inductive capacity of dermal papilla cells. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame of HOXC8 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, as well as, established a phylogenetic relationship of goat HOXC8 with that of other species. Also, we investigated the effect of methylation status of HOXC8 exon 1 at anagen secondary hair follicle on the cashmere fiber traits in Liaoning cashmere goat...
January 16, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#16
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 13, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090459/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-as-a-predictor-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-treated-with-clomiphene-citrate
#17
Andon Hestiantoro, Yuwono Sri Negoro, Yohana Afrita, Budi Wiweko, Kanadi Sumapradja, Muharam Natadisastra
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the threshold of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of follicular growth failure in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC). METHODS: Fifty female subjects with PCOS were recruited and divided into two groups based on successful and unsuccessful follicular growth. Related variables such as age, infertility duration, cigarette smoking, use of Moslem hijab, sunlight exposure, fiber intake, body mass index, waist circumference, AMH level, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, and growth of dominant follicles were obtained, assessed, and statistically analyzed...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089945/zearalenone-exposure-impairs-ovarian-primordial-follicle-formation-via-down-regulation-of-lhx8-expression-in-vitro
#18
Guo-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yan-Zhong Feng, Bo Li, Ya-Peng Li, Fan Yang, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Wei Shen, Shi-Duo Sun, Lan Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089848/sparc-preserves-follicular-epithelium-integrity-in-insect-ovaries
#19
Paula Irles, Saray Ramos, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups...
January 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089824/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-in-human-cumulus-cells-is-associated-with-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-maintaining-gap-junction-integrity-and-progesterone-synthesis
#20
Hongshan Ge, Fan Zhang, Duan Ping, Nan Zhu, Jiayan Zhang, Feijun Ye, Dan Shan, Hua Chen, XiaoSheng Lu, ChunFang Zhu, Renshan Ge, Zhenkun Lin
To explore the roles of mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) in cumulus cells (CCs), human CCs were cultured in vitro, and the UCP2 was inhibited by treatment with Genipin, a special UCP inhibitor, or by RNA interference targeting UCP2. No significant differences in adenosine triphosphate levels and the ratio of ADP/ATP were observed after UCP2 inhibition. UCP2 inhibition caused a significant increase in cellular oxidative damage, which was reflected in alterations to several key parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels and the ratio of reduced GSH to GSSG...
January 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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