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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334840/review-of-caffeine-related-fatalities-along-with-postmortem-blood-concentrations-in-51-poisoning-deaths
#1
Alan Wayne Jones
Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (±SD) of the victims was 39 ± 17.8 years (range 18-84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age of males (42 ± 17...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294589/selective-hypersensitivity-to-cefazolin-and-contribution-of-the-basophil-activation-test
#2
J P Almeida, A Lopes, A Campos Melo, M C Pereira Santos, M Pereira Barbosa
The authors present 2 case reports of selective cefazolin hypersensitivity: a 49 year-old woman with a history of two perioperative reactions (urticaria and severe anaphylaxis) after the use of rocuronium, propophol and cefazolin; a 36 year-old pregnant woman who developed facial erythema, lips angioedema and hypotension immediately after administration of ropivacain, sufentanil, cefazolin, oxytocin and ephedrine. In both cases, intradermal skin tests were positive for cefazolin. A basophil activation test was performed for cefazolin, which was positive in one patient...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277383/the-use-of-vasopressors-during-spinal-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section
#3
Warwick D Ngan Kee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypotension remains one of the most researched subjects in obstetric anaesthesia. The purpose of this study is to review the most recent published articles on the use of vasopressors during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite continued research indicating advantages of phenylephrine over ephedrine, practitioners in some countries continue to favour ephedrine. Recent research has continued to compare the two drugs with some work emerging on high-risk patients...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274119/peptide-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enantioselective-separation-of-chiral-drugs
#4
José Navarro-Sánchez, Ana I Argente-García, Yolanda Moliner-Martínez, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán, Dmytro Antypov, Pilar Campíns-Falcó, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Carlos Martí-Gastaldo
We report the use of a chiral Cu(II) 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) based on the tripeptide Gly-l-His-Gly (GHG) for the enantioselective separation of metamphetamine and ephedrine. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that chiral recognition is linked to preferential binding of one of the enantiomers as a result of either stronger or additional H-bonds with the framework that lead to energetically more stable diastereomeric adducts. Solid-phase extraction of a racemic mixture by using Cu(GHG) as the extractive phase permits isolating >50% of the (+)-ephedrine enantiomer as target compound in only 4 min...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272490/distribution-analysis-via-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-ephedrine-in-the-lungs-of-rats-orally-administered-the-japanese-kampo-medicine-maoto
#5
Takashi Matsumoto, Hirotaka Kushida, Shoko Matsushita, Yoshiyuki Oyama, Takafumi Suda, Junko Watanabe, Yoshio Kase, Mitsutoshi Setou
Maoto, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has been used to treat various respiratory diseases, including respiratory infections and influenza. Ephedrine (EPD), the main ingredient in maoto, is also clinically used to treat respiratory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetics and distribution of EPD in the lungs after the administration of maoto have not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine the concentrations, distribution, and pharmacokinetics of EPD and its precursor methylephedrine (MEPD) in the lungs of rats orally administered maoto (1 and 4 g/kg)...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235526/cardiac-output-changes-with-phenylephrine-and-ephedrine-infusions-during-spinal-anesthesia-for-cesarean-section-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#6
W Mon, A Stewart, R Fernando, K Ashpole, N El-Wahab, S MacDonald, P Tamilselvan, M Columb, Y M Liu
Hypotension is a common side effect of spinal anesthesia. Phenylephrine and ephedrine are the two most frequently used vasopressors to treat spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery. In this randomized double-blind study, we aimed to evaluate cardiac output (CO) changes with phenylephrine or ephedrine infusions titrated to maintain baseline systolic blood pressure (bSBP) during spinal anesthesia. Women (n = 40) scheduled for elective cesarean delivery received either phenylephrine 100 μg/min or ephedrine 5 mg/min infusions...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219811/stress-echocardiography-in-patients-who-experienced-mechanical-ventilation-weaning-failure
#7
Manuel Ruiz-Bailén, Jesús Cobo-Molinos, Ana Castillo-Rivera, María Dolores Pola-Gallego-de-Guzmán, Antonio Cárdenas-Cruz, Antonio Martínez-Amat, María Sevilla-Martínez, Clara Hernández-Caballero
INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients may suffer varying degrees of temporary myocardial dysfunction during respiratory weaning that could play an important role in weaning failure. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tried to assess the existence of temporary diastolic dysfunction during respiratory weaning. METHODS: Inclusion period is from 2006 to 2015. In this study, we included 181 ventilated patients with cardiogenic shock that were being weaned from mechanical ventilation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203025/-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-in-skull-base-surgery
#8
H Z Duan, Y Zhang, L Li, J Y Zhang, Z Q Yi, S D Bao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism, clinical features, and prognosis of Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) during skull base operations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 291 patients with skull base disease from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2015 in Peking University First Hospital. By reviewing the patients' operative data and anaesthetic electrical record, and we picked out all the patients who suffered from TCR during the operation and analyzed their surgical procedures, clinical features, influence factors, and prognosis...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164084/comparison-of-phenylephrine-and-ephedrine-in-treatment-of-spinal-induced-hypotension-in-high-risk-pregnancies-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Sasima Dusitkasem, Blair H Herndon, Monsicha Somjit, David L Stahl, Emily Bitticker, John C Coffman
PURPOSE: To compare maternal and fetal effects of intravenous phenylephrine and ephedrine administration during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery in high-risk pregnancies. SOURCE: An extensive literature search was conducted using the US National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE search engine, Cochrane review, and Google Scholar using search terms "ephedrine and phenylephrine," "preterm and term and spinal hypotension," "preeclampsia and healthy parturients," or "multiple and singleton gestation and vasopressor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157413/exploring-the-new-phenomena-of-home-made-extraction-and-injection-of-ephedra-plant-product-in-georgia
#10
David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Dessa Bergen-Cico
BACKGROUND: Since the end of 2015, reports by service providers have indicated a new trend in kitchen (homemade) production of an injection drug prepared from an ephedrine-containing conifer bush that is indigenous to the region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe an emerging new homemade psychoactive drug synthesized from the ephedra plant, and the drug consumption methods associated with its' use in the Eurasia. METHODS: Focus groups conducted with 16 people, self-identified as injection drug users (IDU's) who reported at least one incidence of ephedra preparation injection during the previous 30-days...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154331/clinical-research-testing-the-usefulness-of-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract
#11
Hiroshi Odaguchi
 We aimed to test the clinical usefulness of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE), which has been proven to be effective and safe in animal studies. First, we performed a safety trial with 7 healthy volunteers, and increased white blood cell counts were observed in 2. However, it was unknown whether this observation was a result of EFE administration. Then, we implemented a controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover trial as the second safety trial for EFE. The trial was conducted under strict conditions, and the participants were managed in the hospital and monitored using an increased number of endpoints...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154330/analgesic-effects-and-side-effects-of-ephedra-herb-extract-and-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract
#12
Yoshinori Kobayashi
 Ephedra Herb is classified "pungent, slightly bitter, and warm" in tastes and natures, and is used to provide warmth to the body, dispel coldness, remove dampness, and reduce pain. Similar herbs are "pungent and hot" chili peppers, "pungent and hot" evodia fruit," "pungent and warm" ginger, "pungent and hot" processed ginger, "pungent and hot" Zanthoxylum fruit, etc. These herbs are prescribed to provide heat to the outer or inner body. Some pungent components such as capsaicin, evodiamine, gingerol, and shogaol are known to be activators of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154329/the-pharmacological-actions-of-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephreda-herb-extract-and-preparation-for-clinical-application
#13
Sumiko Hyuga
 Ephedra Herb is defined in the 17th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as the terrestrial stem of Ephedra sinica STAPF., Ephedra intermedia SCHRENK et C.A. MEYER, or Ephedra equisetina BUNGE (Ephedraceae) which contains more than 0.7% ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine). The primary effects and adverse effects of Ephedra Herb are traditionally believed to be mediated by ephedrine alkaloids. We recently reported that Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) exhibits antimetastatic and antitumor effects by suppressing the hepatocyte growth factor-c-Met signaling pathway through the inhibition of c-Met tyrosine kinase activity...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154328/efficient-preparation-of-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract-and-its-antitumor-effect-and-putative-marker-compound
#14
Naohiro Oshima
 Ephedra Herb is a crude drug for the treatment of headache, bronchial asthma, nasal inflammation, and the common cold. Although it has been considered that ephedrine alkaloids (EAs) are the principal active ingredients of Ephedra Herb, EAs are known to induce palpitations, hypertension, insomnia, and dysuria as major side effects. Therefore, the administration of EAs-containing drugs to patients with cardiovascular-related diseases is strongly contraindicated. Previously, we isolated herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside from Ephedra Herb...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154327/characterization-of-phenolic-constituents-from-ephedra-herb-extract
#15
Yoshiaki Amakura
 Ephedra Herb (Japanese name: mao) is defined as the terrestrial stem of Ephedra species. It is one of the most important crude drugs in Kampo prescriptions such as maoto, kakkonto, and shoseiryuto. The traditional biological properties of Ephedra Herb are mainly attributable to ephedrine alkaloids. Recently, our research group has found that Ephedra Herb extract also shows alkaloid-independent pharmacological action; therefore, we focused on polyphenols, other active ingredients of Ephedra Herb extract. Reports on the constituents of the extract other than ephedrine alkaloids are limited, although condensed tannins of procyanidin A-type have been found in some Ephedra species...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154325/our-approaches-to-the-new-drug-application-of-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract-efe-toward-breakthrough-in-natural-medicines-in-japan
#16
Yukihiro Goda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139893/chemometrics-assisted-chromatographic-fingerprinting-an-illicit-methamphetamine-case-study
#17
Nafiseh Shekari, Maryam Vosough, Kourosh Tabar Heidar
The volatile chemical constituents in complex mixtures can be analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. This analysis allows the tentative identification of diverse impurities of an illicit methamphetamine sample. The acquired two-dimensional data of liquid-liquid extraction was resolved by multivariate curve resolution alternating curve resolution to elucidate the embedded peaks effectively. This is the first report on the application of a curve resolution approach for chromatogram fingerprinting to identify particularly the embedded impurities of a drug of abuse...
March 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132112/combining-mosced-with-molecular-simulation-free-energy-calculations-or-electronic-structure-calculations-to-develop-an-efficient-tool-for-solvent-formulation-and-selection
#18
Courtney E Cox, Jeremy R Phifer, Larissa Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Gonçalves Nogueira, Ryan T Ley, Elizabeth J O'Loughlin, Ana Karolyne Pereira Barbosa, Brett T Rygelski, Andrew S Paluch
Solubility parameter based methods have long been a valuable tool for solvent formulation and selection. Of these methods, the MOdified Separation of Cohesive Energy Density (MOSCED) has recently been shown to correlate well the equilibrium solubility of multifunctional non-electrolyte solids. However, before it can be applied to a novel solute, a limited amount of reference solubility data is required to regress the necessary MOSCED parameters. Here we demonstrate for the solutes methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, lidocaine and ephedrine how conventional molecular simulation free energy calculations or electronic structure calculations in a continuum solvent, here the SMD or SM8 solvation model, can instead be used to generate the necessary reference data, resulting in a predictive flavor of MOSCED...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130905/characterization-of-complexes-between-phenethylamine-enantiomers-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-derivatives-by-capillary-electrophoresis-determination-of-binding-constants-and-complex-mobilities
#19
Joachim Wahl, Takayuki Furuishi, Etsuo Yonemochi, Lorenz Meinel, Ulrike Holzgrabe
To optimize chiral separation conditions and to improve the knowledge of enantioseparation, it is important to know the binding constants K between analytes and cyclodextrins and the electrophoretic mobilities of the temporarily formed analyte-cyclodextrin-complexes. K values for complexes between eight phenethylamine enantiomers, namely ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine and norephedrine, and four different β-cyclodextrin derivatives were determined by affinity capillary electrophoresis. The binding constants were calculated from the electrophoretic mobility values of the phenethylamine enantiomers at increasing concentrations of cyclodextrins in running buffer...
January 28, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128660/cardiac-failure-in-a-trisomy-9-patient-undergoing-anesthesia-a-case-report
#20
Cara J Riley, Timothy Moore, Lauren Eagelston, Dale Burkett, Scott Auerbach, Richard J Ing
A 27-year-old female with Trisomy 9 mosaicism presented to Children's Hospital Colorado for outpatient dental surgery under general anesthesia. The patient's past medical history was also significant for premature birth, gastroesophageal reflux, scoliosis and kyphosis, obesity, and developmental delay. Per her mother's report, the patient had no cardiac issues. She had undergone multiple previous general anesthetics, some of which documented respiratory complications such as laryngospasm, bronchospasm, and possible aspiration...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
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