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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625306/spinal-induced-hypotension-incidence-mechanisms-prophylaxis-and-management-summarizing-20-years-of-research
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer E Lee, Ronald B George, Ashraf S Habib
Hypotension commonly occurs in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. This leads to maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, including maternal nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis, and might even lead to cardiovascular collapse if not treated. Arterial dilatation and reduction in systemic vascular resistance are the major contributors to spinal-induced hypotension. Therefore, strategies aimed at expanding the intravascular volume with fluid loading or increasing venous return with lower extremities mechanical compression and lateral tilt have had limited effectiveness in the management of spinal-induced hypotension...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603701/a-comparison-of-intravenous-ephedrine-or-phenylephrine-for-prevention-of-postspinal-hypotension-during-elective-lower-abdominal-surgery-a-randomized-double-blind-case-control-study
#2
Khosrou Naghibi, Mojtaba Rahimi, Zahra Mashayekhi
BACKGROUND: In this randomized, double-blinded case-control study, we investigated the intravenous effects of ephedrine or phenylephrine on prevention of post-spinal hypotension in elective lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II candidate for elective lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to three groups (45 each)...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602867/effect-of-gangjihwan-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Jong Seong Roh, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jeongjun Kim, Heejung Yang, Yooshik Yoon, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), is used to treat obesity in local Korean clinics. The constituents of DF have traditionally been reported to exert anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of DF on obesity and NAFLD and the underlying mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580580/illicit-drug-delivery-via-administration-of-human-blood
#4
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560111/clonidine-or-remifentanil-for-adequate-surgical-conditions-in-patients-undergoing-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-a-randomized-study
#5
Laurent Bairy, Marie Vanderstichelen, Jacques Jamart, Edith Collard
BACKGROUND: Deliberate hypotension is one way to achieve a bloodless surgical field in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). We compared two anaesthesia regimens to induce deliberate hypotension and attempted to determine the most efficient one. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients undergoing ESS were minimized into two groups. In the CLO group, patients received I.V. sufentanil 0.15 µg/kg together with I.V. clonidine 2-3 µg/kg. In the REMI group, patients received remifentanil at a rate of up to 1 µg/kg/min...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549524/-quadratus-lumborum-block-are-we-aware-of-its-side-effects-a-report-of-2-cases
#6
Miguel Sá, José Miguel Cardoso, Hugo Reis, Marta Esteves, José Sampaio, Isabel Gouveia, Pilar Carballada, Célia Pinheiro, Duarte Machado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The quadratus lumborum block was initially described in 2007 and aims at blocking the same nerves as the ones involved on the Transverse Abdominis Plane block, while accomplishing some visceral enervation as well due to closer proximity with the neuroaxis and sympathetic trunk. Given its versatility, we have successfully used it in a wide range of procedures. We report two cases where we believe the dispersion of local anesthetic is likely to have led to a previously undescribed complication...
May 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545666/mahuannin-b-an-adenylate-cyclase-inhibitor-attenuates-hyperhidrosis-via-suppressing-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-camp-signaling-pathway
#7
Zengyong Wang, Yu Cui, Guoyu Ding, Mengge Zhou, Xiaoyao Ma, Yuanyuan Hou, Min Jiang, Dailin Liu, Gang Bai
BACKGROUND: Based on the traditional application of traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), Ephedra Herba (EH) is used to cure cold fever by inducing sweating, whereas Ephedra Radix (ER) is used to treat hyperhidrosis. Although they come from the same plant, Ephedra sinica Stapf, but have play opposing roles in clinical applications. EH is known to contain ephedrine alkaloids, which is the driver of the physiological changes in sweating, heart rate and blood pressure. However, the active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) of ER and the mechanisms by which it restricts sweating remain unknown...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512368/-analysis-of-the-phenomenon-of-over-the-counter-drug-abuse-and-not-controlled-herbs-trade-by-polish-adolescents-part-i
#8
REVIEW
Daria Suchecka, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Katarzyna Groszewska, Monika Mak, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec
The phenomenon of stupefying by the use of available over-the-counter drugs (OTC) among adolescents is an essential problem in both Poland and throughout the world. Popular analgesics, cold medicine and antihistamines contain psychedelic substances, such as dextromethorphan (DXM), pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, codeine (methylmorphine), dimenhydrinate, paracetamol (acetaminophren) and others. Cases of fatal addiction to dextromethorphan, one of the active substances contained in medicines, e.g., the common cold, have been reported...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494776/aggregated-n-of-1-trials-for-unlicensed-medicines-for-small-populations-an-assessment-of-a-trial-with-ephedrine-for-myasthenia-gravis
#9
Stephanie S Weinreich, Charlotte Vrinten, Marja R Kuijpers, Alexander F Lipka, Kirsten J M Schimmel, Erik W van Zwet, Christine Gispen-de Wied, Yechiel A Hekster, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Martina C Cornel
BACKGROUND: Inexpensive medicines with a long history of use may currently be prescribed off-label for rare indications. Reimbursement is at the discretion of health insurance companies, and may be unpredictable. The example addressed was ephedrine as add-on treatment for myasthenia gravis. Stakeholders from academia, a patient organization, the Dutch National Health Care Institute (NHCI) and Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) advised on the trial design. The NHCI and MEB agreed to provide scientific advice on the suitability of the evidence generated by the trial, for regulatory decisions...
May 12, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489683/intraoperative-use-of-vasopressors-does-not-increase-the-risk-of-free-flap-compromise-and-failure-in-cancer-patients
#10
Lin Fang, Jun Liu, Cuicui Yu, Matthew M Hanasono, Gang Zheng, Peirong Yu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of vasopressors on free flap outcomes. BACKGROUND: Most micro-surgeons avoid the use of vasopressors during free flap surgery due to concerns of vasoconstriction, which could potentially lead to vascular thrombosis and flap failure. Previous studies lack the statistical power to draw meaningful conclusions. METHODS: All free flaps between 2004 and 2014 from a single institution were reviewed retrospectively...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465076/dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-for-perioperative-pain-management-in-adolescents-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Janelle D Vaughns, Celeste Martin, Jonathon Nelson, Evan Nadler, Zenaide M Quezado
BACKGROUND: The anesthetic management of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery presents a number of challenges, including increased risk of postoperative opioid-related respiratory depression. These patients could benefit from adjunctive analgesics with opioid-sparring effects to optimize perioperative pain control. Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, has sedative and analgesic properties with no respiratory depressant effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on opioid requirement and perioperative pain management in obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458804/nutrition-pharmacological-and-training-strategies-adopted-by-six-bodybuilders-case-report-and-critical-review
#12
Paulo Gentil, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Antonio Paoli, José Alexandre Barbosa Dos Santos, Roberto Deivide Teixeira da Silva, José Romulo Pereira Junior, Edson Pereira da Silva, Rodrigo Ferro Magosso
The purpose of this study was to report and analyze the practices adopted by bodybuilders in light of scientific evidence and to propose evidence-based alternatives. Six (four male and two female) bodybuilders and their coaches were directly interviewed. According to the reports, the quantity of anabolic steroids used by the men was 500-750 mg/week during the bulking phase and 720-1160 mg during the cutting phase. The values for women were 400 and 740 mg, respectively. The participants also used ephedrine and hydrochlorothiazide during the cutting phase...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451389/effect-of-ephedrine-combined-with-bupivacaine-on-maternal-hemodynamic-and-spinal-nerve-block-in-cesarean-delivery
#13
Mingyue Ge, Sheng Wang, Zhigang Dai, Yan Li, Liping Xie, Xuejao Liu, Jiangwen Yin
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ephedrine intrathecal injection on maternal thermodynamics and spinal nerve block in cesarean section. A total of 107 patients undergoing elective cesarean section under combined spinal epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups: group E: Bupivacaine (6 mg) combined with ephedrine (15 mg) and group C: Bupivacaine (6 mg). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), the incidence of hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting were all recorded...
March 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444836/ephedra-alkaloid-contents-of-chinese-herbal-formulae-sold-in-taiwan
#14
Chih-Wei Chang, Szu-Yun Hu, Guan-Qian Huang, Mei-Chich Hsu
Consumption of Ephedra alkaloids has been prohibited in-competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In Taiwan, colds are often treated with Chinese herbal formulae containing Herba Ephedrae. We screened the products sold in Taiwan and preliminarily assessed their relationships with WADA threshold violations. Fifty-six concentrated powder products, including 19 Chinese herbal formulae that contained Herba Ephedrae, were collected. The content of Ephedra alkaloids, namely ephedrine (E), methylephedrine (ME), norpseudoephedrine (NPE; cathine), pseudoephedrine (PE), and norephedrine (NE; phenylpropanolamine), was determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method...
April 25, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438121/leg-elevation-decreases-the-incidence-of-post-spinal-hypotension-in-cesarean-section-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Ahmed Hasanin, Ahmed Aiyad, Ahmed Elsakka, Atef Kamel, Reham Fouad, Mohamed Osman, Ali Mokhtar, Sherin Refaat, Yasmin Hassabelnaby
BACKGROUND: Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section (CS). In this study we investigated the role of leg elevation (LE) as a method for prevention of post-spinal hypotension (PSH) for cesarean section. METHODS: One hundred and fifty full term parturients scheduled for CS were included in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group LE (leg elevation group, n = 75) and group C (Control group, n = 75)...
April 24, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416053/-treatment-of-anaphylactic-schock-in-pregnant-women
#16
Therese Simonsen Straarup, Ulla Bang
This is an update on the treatment of anaphylactic shock in pregnant women. Most guidelines recommend adrenaline as first-line treatment in all patients, but in pregnant patients some recommend ephedrine due to a potential risk of utero-placental hypoperfusion with adrenaline. However, ephedrine is a less potent vasopressor than adrenaline and does not possess the same anti-inflammatory or broncho-dilating effects. As immediate and correct treatment is essential for both the maternal and the fetal outcome, adrenaline should be first-line treatment also in pregnant women...
April 10, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413279/comparing-slow-and-rapid-bolus-of-ephedrine-in-pregnant-patients-undergoing-planned-cesarean-section-under-spinal-anesthesia
#17
Prabu Gunasekaran, Lenin Babu Elakkumanan, Hemavathi Balachander, M V S Satyaprakash
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While ephedrine was the preferred drug for treating spinal-induced hypotension in pregnancy, its use has declined because of resultant fetal acidosis. The objective of this randomized control trial was to compare the effects of a slow and rapid bolus of ephedrine on fetal acidosis, maternal blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) during cesarean section performed under spinal anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty full-term parturients scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386582/preliminary-phytochemical-screening-quantitative-analysis-of-alkaloids-and-antioxidant-activity-of-crude-plant-extracts-from-ephedra-intermedia-indigenous-to-balochistan
#18
Rahman Gul, Syed Umer Jan, Syed Faridullah, Samiullah Sherani, Nusrat Jahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, screening the phytogenic chemical compounds, and to assess the alkaloids present in the E. intermedia to prove its uses in Pakistani folk medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Standard methods were used for the identification of cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative purpose of ephedrine alkaloids in E...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378467/compared-effects-on-cerebral-oxygenation-of-ephedrine-vs-phenylephrine-to-treat-hypotension-during-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
Jugurtha Aliane, Christian Dualé, Nader Guesmi, Charlotte Baud, Eugenio Rosset, Bruno Pereira, Damien Bouvier, Pierre Schoeffler
While both ephedrine and phenylephrine are currently used to treat hypotension occurring during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under general anaesthesia, phenylephrine may have deleterious effects on the cerebral watershed, due to its exclusively vasoconstrictive action. In this controlled, double-blind randomised trial, we compared the effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine administered in a standardised algorithm to treat the first hypotensive event occurring since induction of anaesthesia until carotid cross-clamping...
April 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377840/bacterial-contamination-of-anaesthetic-and-vasopressor-drugs-in-the-operating-theatres-ameliyathanelerde-anestetik-ve-vazopress%C3%A3-r-%C3%A4-la%C3%A3-lar%C3%A4-n-bakteriyel-kontaminasyonu
#20
Rongrong Rueangchira-Urai, Panthila Rujirojindakul, Alan Frederick Geater, Edward McNeil
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in anaesthetic and vasopressor drugs before and after use in operating theatres. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the operating theatres of a university hospital. We collected 945 samples of three different drugs, namely, propofol, vecuronium and ephedrine, from 20 operating rooms and refrigerators where the unused drugs were stored. Each drug was divided into two groups, the pre-use group and the post-use group...
February 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
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