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L X Quan, H X An, D X Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of 0.4 μg/(kg×h) dose of dexmedetomidine on intra-operative wake-up test in children patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients for posterior scoliosis correction (ASA I-II, aged 5-16 years) from March 2013 to April 2015 were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, The patients were randomly classified into two groups to receive dexmedetomidine (group RD, n=30) or saline solution (group R, n=30)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Kalpana Rajendra Kulkarni, Amruta Girish Naik, Sunetra Girish Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is a preferred technique over general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. It avoids maternal airway related complications, aspiration and neonatal depression. However hypotension following spinal anesthesia can lead to decrease in uterine blood flow and neonatal hypoxia. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 15 1of crystalloid preloading versus prophylactic intravenous bolus of 10 mg ephedrine as an antihypotensive measure for cesarean section...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Jie Xu, Rui Yan
This study aims to study the changes of metabolism of Ephedra sinica Stapf caused by processing. A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the quantitation of the major metabolite of ephedrine, 4-hydroxyephedrine, utilizing lidocaine as the internal standard in rat urine. Urine samples were precipitated with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Ultimate C18 analytical column. Detection was performed by a multiple reaction monitoring mode via an electrospray ionization source operating in the positive ionization mode...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
M C Vallejo, A F Attaallah, O M Elzamzamy, D T Cifarelli, A L Phelps, G R Hobbs, R E Shapiro, P Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: During spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery phenylephrine is the vasopressor of choice but can cause bradycardia. Norepinephrine has both β- and α-adrenergic activity suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less bradycardia. We hypothesized that norepinephrine would be superior to phenylephrine, requiring fewer rescue bolus interventions to maintain blood pressure. METHODS: Eighty-five parturients having spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to Group P (phenylephrine 0...
August 28, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Ivano Alessandri, Irene Vassalini, Michela Bertuzzi, Nicolò Bontempi, Maurizio Memo, Alessandra Gianoncelli
SiO2/TiO2 core/shell (T-rex) beads were exploited as "all-in-one" building-block materials to create analytical assays that combine plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry (RaMassays). Such a multi-modal approach relies on the unique optical properties of T-rex beads, which are able to harvest and manage light in both UV and Vis range, making ionization and Raman scattering more efficient. RaMassays were successfully applied to the detection of small (molecular weight, M...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Li Shuying, Li Ping, Ni Juan, Luo Dong
BACKGROUND: Cough is one of the most common complications of opioids. Many studies have evaluated the effect of various drugs in preventing opioid-induced cough (OIC). However, there is existing controversy about those reports. The present study was performed to assess the efficacy of different interventions on OIC. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of different drugs in the prevention of OIC...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Kajal Jain, Jeetinder Kaur Makkar, Siva Subramani Vp, Shalini Gander, Praveen Kumar
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence showed that use of phenylephrine was associated with higher umbilical artery pH (UA pH) than ephedrine after elective cesarean delivery (CD). However, the best choice of vasopressor and its effect on funic gases in cases of acute fetal compromise require additional studies. METHODS: Ninety parturients showing acute fetal compromise during intrapartum period and taken up for CD (category II) under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive prophylactic infusion of ephedrine 2...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Pertti Pere, Jukka Harju, Pekka Kairaluoma, Veikko Remes, Päivi Turunen, Per H Rosenberg
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Comparison of local anesthetic infiltration (LAI), spinal anesthesia (SPIN) and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for open inguinal herniorrhaphy. We hypothesized that patients receiving LAI could be discharged faster than SPIN and TIVA patients. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective trial. SETTING: University hospital day-surgery center. PATIENTS: 156 adult male patients (ASA 1-3) undergoing day-case open inguinal herniorrhaphy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Ibrahim A Abdel-Hamid, Moustafa A Elsaied, Taymour Mostafa
Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Veronika Pilařová, Mumtaz Sultani, Kristine Skoglund Ask, Lucie Nováková, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Astrid Gjelstad
The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Mahshid Nikooseresht, Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei, Pooran Hajian, Razieh Dastaran, Nasim Alipour
BACKGROUND: Despite controversies about the safest anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery in severely preeclamptic women, there is evidence that supports the use of spinal anesthesia in this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: This prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of low-dose spinal bupivacaine and the incidence of spinal anesthesia-associated hypotension in severely preeclamptic and healthy parturients undergoing cesarean sections...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Mary Choy
Cabozantinib (Cabometyx) for advanced renal cell carcinoma; glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (Bevespi Aerosphere) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and ephedrine sulfate (Akovaz) for hypotension during anesthesia.
September 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Ban Leong Sng, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, Wan Ling Leong, Pryseley N Assam, Edwin Sy Chan, Kelvin H Tan, Alex T Sia
BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine is an amide local anaesthetic used in hyperbaric and isobaric forms. These are administered intrathecally into the spine to provide regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Several trials have compared hyperbaric and isobaric bupivacaine but none have conclusively shown the benefit of either. This review was first published in 2013 and updated in 2016. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to:1. Determine the effectiveness of hyperbaric bupivacaine compared to isobaric bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia in women undergoing caesarean section;2...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guang-Hui Zhang, Ni-Hao Jiang, Wan-Ling Song, Chun-Hua Ma, Sheng-Chao Yang, Jun-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The medicinal herb, Pinellia ternata, is purported to be an anti-emetic with analgesic and sedative effects. Alkaloids are the main biologically active compounds in P. ternata, especially ephedrine that is a phenylpropylamino alkaloid specifically produced by Ephedra and Catha edulis. However, how ephedrine is synthesized in plants is uncertain. Only the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and relevant genes in this pathway have been characterized. Genomic information of P. ternata is also unavailable...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wail N Khraise, Mohammed Z Allouh, Mohammad Y Hiasat, Raed S Said
BACKGROUND Intraoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare life-threatening complication in patients undergoing surgical intervention. Generally, cancer patients have a higher risk for developing this complication. Unfortunately, there is no standard procedure for its management. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with high-grade glioma in the right frontal lobe who was admitted to the surgical theater for craniotomy and excision of the tumor. During the general anesthesia procedure and just before inserting the central venous line, her end-tidal CO2 and O2 saturation dropped sharply...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Tuna Sahin, Ersel Gulec, Meziyet Sarac Ahrazoglu, Sibel Tetiker
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Preoperative anxiety can be associated with poor postoperative clinical outcomes. We aimed to assess whether preoperative maternal anxiety level of obstetric patients scheduled for elective cesarean surgery has an effect on clinical outcome of the newborn. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Operating room. PATIENTS: Sixty pregnant women with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 scheduled for elective cesarean surgery were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Yinghong Tang, Mengkai Zheng, Yu-Lin Chen, Jianzhen Chen, Yu He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ephedra alkaloids, including ephedrine (EP), pseudoephedrine (PEP) and methylephedrine (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many Ephedra (Ephedrae herba) preparations, such as Ephedra decoction, have been clinically applied for centuries. In order to explore the possible detoxification mechanism of Ephedra alkaloids, four representative compounds in Ephedra decoction (cinnamic acid, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin) were studied for their pharmacokinetic effects on Ephedra alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 11, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Chuixiu Huang, Knut Fredrik Seip, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min...
August 31, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xiao-zheng Li, Hai-fang Yu, Xiao-min Wang, Jie-ping Li, Yun Zhang, Rui-you Guo, Qiang Wang, Yan-lin Bi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Scalp acupuncture on serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S-100β concentrations, and incidence rates of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive function (POCD) of elderly patients undergoing hip replacement. METHODS: Eighty-four patients undergoing scheduled hip replacement under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) were assigned to the control group (group C) and the scalp acupuncture group (group S) according to random digit table, 42 cases in each group...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Justin L Poklis, Amanda J Mohs, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
In healthcare settings drug diversion and impairment of physicians are major concerns requiring a rapid and efficient method for surveillance and detection. A Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source coupled to a JEOL AccuTOF(TM) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) method was developed to screen parenteral pharmaceutical formulations for potential drug diversion. Parenteral pharmaceutical formulations are also known as injectable formulations and are used with intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intra-articular administration...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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