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neurodevelopmental delay genetics

Katherine Nelson, Christopher Jackman, Jennifer Bell, Chie-Schin Shih, Katelyn Payne, Stephen Dlouhy, Laurence Walsh
Mutations in the STE20-related kinase adaptor α ( STRADA) gene have been reported to cause an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile-onset epilepsy, developmental delay, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. To date, there have been 17 reported individuals diagnosed with STRADA mutations, 16 of which are from a single Old Order Mennonite cohort and share a deletion of exons 9-13. The remaining individual is of consanguineous Indian descent and has a homozygous single-base pair duplication...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Niu Li, Yirou Wang, Yu Yang, Pengpeng Wang, Hui Huang, Shiyi Xiong, Luming Sun, Min Cheng, Cui Song, Xinran Cheng, Yu Ding, Guoying Chang, Yao Chen, Yufei Xu, Tingting Yu, Ru-En Yao, Yiping Shen, Xiumin Wang, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by facial gestalt, neurodevelopmental delay, skeletal anomalies and growth retardation, which is caused by variation of KMT2A gene. To date, only 2 Chinese WDSTS patients have been reported. Here, we report the phenotypes and KMT2A gene variations in 14 unrelated Chinese WDSTS patients and investigate the phenotypic differences between the Chinese and French cohorts. METHODS: Next generation sequencing was performed for each patient, and the variants in the KMT2A gene were validated by Sanger sequencing...
October 11, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
John McCarthy, Philip J Lupo, Erin Kovar, Megan Rech, Bret Bostwick, Daryl Scott, Katerina Kraft, Tony Roscioli, Joel Charrow, Samantha A Schrier Vergano, Edward Lose, Robert Smiegel, Yves Lacassie, Christian P Schaaf
Schaaf-Yang Syndrome (SYS) is a genetic disorder caused by truncating pathogenic variants in the paternal allele of the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-15q13. SYS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has clinical overlap with Prader-Willi Syndrome in the initial stages of life but becomes increasingly distinct throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we describe the phenotype of an international cohort of 78 patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations in MAGEL2...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Linh Huynh, Fereydoun Hormozdiari
Early prediction of complex disorders (e.g., autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders) is one of the fundamental goals of precision medicine and personalized genomics. An early prediction of complex disorders can improve the prognosis, increase the effectiveness of interventions and treatments, and enhance the life quality of affected patients. Considering the genetic heritability of neurodevelopmental disorders, we are proposing a novel framework for utilizing rare coding variation for early prediction of these disorders in subset of affected samples...
October 8, 2018: Genetics
E Salzano, S E Raible, M Kaur, A Wilkens, G Sperti, R K Tilton, L R Bettini, A Rocca, G Cocchi, A Selicorni, L K Conlin, D McEldrew, R Gupta, S Thakur, K Izumi, I D Krantz
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a tissue limited mosaic disorder, characterized by variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability, typical craniofacial findings, skin pigmentation anomalies and multiple congenital malformations. The wide phenotypic spectrum of PKS in conjunction with the mosaic distribution of the i(12p) makes PKS an underdiagnosed disorder. Recognition of prenatal findings that should raise a suspicion of PKS is complicated by the fragmentation of data currently available in the literature and challenges in diagnosing a mosaic diagnosis on prenatal testing...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Naomi Tsuchida, Keisuke Hamada, Masaaki Shiina, Mitsuhiro Kato, Yu Kobayashi, Jun Tohyama, Kazue Kimura, Kyoko Hoshino, Vigneswari Ganesan, Keng Wee Teik, Mitsuko Nakashima, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Atsushi Takata, Noriko Miyake, Hirotomo Saitsu, Kazuhiro Ogata, Satoko Miyatake, Naomichi Matsumoto
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate-activated ion channels that are widely distributed in the central nervous system and essential for brain development and function. Dysfunction of NMDA receptors has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently, a de novo recurrent GRIN2D missense variant was found in two unrelated patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. In this study, we identified by whole exome sequencing novel heterozygous GRIN2D missense variants in three unrelated patients with severe developmental delay and intractable epilepsy...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Lucas L Baltussen, Priscilla D Negraes, Margaux Silvestre, Suzanne Claxton, Max Moeskops, Evangelos Christodoulou, Helen R Flynn, Ambrosius P Snijders, Alysson R Muotri, Sila K Ultanir
Loss-of-function mutations in CDKL5 kinase cause severe neurodevelopmental delay and early-onset seizures. Identification of CDKL5 substrates is key to understanding its function. Using chemical genetics, we found that CDKL5 phosphorylates three microtubule-associated proteins: MAP1S, EB2 and ARHGEF2, and determined the phosphorylation sites. Substrate phosphorylations are greatly reduced in CDKL5 knockout mice, verifying these as physiological substrates. In CDKL5 knockout mouse neurons, dendritic microtubules have longer EB3-labelled plus-end growth duration and these altered dynamics are rescued by reduction of MAP1S levels through shRNA expression, indicating that CDKL5 regulates microtubule dynamics via phosphorylation of MAP1S...
September 28, 2018: EMBO Journal
Mari E K Niemi, Hilary C Martin, Daniel L Rice, Giuseppe Gallone, Scott Gordon, Martin Kelemen, Kerrie McAloney, Jeremy McRae, Elizabeth J Radford, Sui Yu, Jozef Gecz, Nicholas G Martin, Caroline F Wright, David R Fitzpatrick, Helen V Firth, Matthew E Hurles, Jeffrey C Barrett
There are thousands of rare human disorders that are caused by single deleterious, protein-coding genetic variants1 . However, patients with the same genetic defect can have different clinical presentations2-4 , and some individuals who carry known disease-causing variants can appear unaffected5 . Here, to understand what explains these differences, we study a cohort of 6,987 children assessed by clinical geneticists to have severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as global developmental delay and autism, often in combination with abnormalities of other organ systems...
October 2018: Nature
Francesca Scionti, Maria Teresa Di Martino, Licia Pensabene, Valentina Bruni, Daniela Concolino
Submicroscopic chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs), such as deletions and duplications, account for about 15⁻20% of patients affected with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism spectrum disorder. Most of CNVs are de novo or inherited rearrangements with clinical relevance, but there are also rare inherited imbalances with unknown significance that make difficult the clinical management and genetic counselling. Chromosomal microarrays analysis (CMA) are recognized as the first-line test for CNV detection and are now routinely used in the clinical diagnostic laboratory...
September 14, 2018: High-throughput
Ana Carolina P Cruz, Adriano Ferrasa, Alysson R Muotri, Roberto H Herai
Mitochondria are small cytosolic organelles and the main source of energy production for the cells, especially in the brain. This organelle has its own genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and genetic variants in this molecule can alter the normal energy metabolism in the brain, contributing to the development of a wide assortment of Neurological Disorders (ND), including neurodevelopmental syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. These ND are comprised by a heterogeneous group of syndromes and diseases that encompass different cognitive phenotypes and behavioral disorders, such as autism, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Huntington disease, Leigh Syndrome and bipolar disorder...
September 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
Mona Entezam, Masoumeh Razipour, Saeed Talebi, Mehran Beiraghi Toosi, Mohammad Keramatipour
Microcephaly is a rare neurological disorder, occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. This classification could be confusing in rare disorders with variable phenotypic characteristics. However, identification of the causative gene through genetic study would allow determining the definite diagnosis. Here we reported a novel missense variant c.1133A>C (p.Lys378Thr) on the 13th exon of PNKP gene identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) in an Iranian multi-affected family with microcephaly, seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ) disorder...
September 5, 2018: Brain & Development
Lidia V Gabis, Shahar Shefer, Noah Gruber, Ravit Raviv, Yoram Cohen, Michal Berkenstadt, Liat Ries-Levavi, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Shai Elizur
At the end of the last century Fragile X syndrome was identified, and the main syndrome characteristics were discovered. The syndrome is caused from a flaw in the number of nucleotide repeats that encodes for a regulatory protein which is critical for neural connectivity and normal brain development. The syndrome is characterized by neurodevelopmental and intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum features and other clinical features associated with the same gene aberration. The number of trinucleotide repeats have a direct effect on the outcome and the need for genetic counseling...
August 2018: Harefuah
Nuria C Bramswig, Aida M Bertoli-Avella, Beate Albrecht, Aida I Al Aqeel, Amal Alhashem, Nouriya Al-Sannaa, Maissa Bah, Katharina Bröhl, Christel Depienne, Nathalie Dorison, Diane Doummar, Nadja Ehmke, Hasnaa M Elbendary, Svetlana Gorokhova, Delphine Héron, Denise Horn, Kiely James, Boris Keren, Alma Kuechler, Samira Ismail, Mahmoud Y Issa, Isabelle Marey, Michèle Mayer, Jennifer McEvoy-Venneri, Andre Megarbane, Cyril Mignot, Sarar Mohamed, Caroline Nava, Nicole Philip, Cecile Ravix, Arndt Rolfs, Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Lara Segebrecht, Valentina Stanley, Camille Trautman, Stephanie Valence, Laurent Villard, Thomas Wieland, Hartmut Engels, Tim M Strom, Maha S Zaki, Joseph G Gleeson, Hermann-Josef Lüdecke, Peter Bauer, Dagmar Wieczorek
NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively...
September 2018: Human Genetics
Raly James Perez Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Leandro Val Sayson, Arvie Abiero, Zae Young Ryoo, Bung-Nyun Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 8-12% of children globally. Factor analyses have divided ADHD symptoms into two domains: inattention and a combination of hyperactivity and impulsivity. The identification of domain-specific genetic risk variants may help uncover potential genetic mechanisms underlying ADHD. We have previously identified that thyroid hormone-responsive (THRSP) gene expression is upregulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrl) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rats which exhibited inattention behavior...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Xue Li, Xin Han, Xiaomeng Tu, Dan Zhu, Yue Feng, Tian Jiang, Youping Yang, Jia Qu, Jie-Guang Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic component. Disruptions of FOXP1, a transcription factor expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, were associated with ASD. FOXP1(R525X) is a de novo heterozygous mutation found in patients with autism and severe mental retardation. To explore the neuronal basis of FOXP1(R525X) in ASD, we created Foxp1(R521X), a mouse homolog of the human variant. Ectopic expression of Foxp1(R521X) led to cytoplasmic aggregates and activated macroautophagy in neuroblastoma N2a cells and the developing neuronal cells...
August 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yanjie Fan, Wu Yin, Bing Hu, Antonie D Kline, Victor Wei Zhang, Desheng Liang, Yu Sun, Lili Wang, Sha Tang, Zöe Powis, Lei Li, Huifang Yan, Zhen Shi, Xiaoping Yang, Yinyin Chen, Jingmin Wang, Yuwu Jiang, Hu Tan, Xuefan Gu, Lingqian Wu, Yongguo Yu
Neurodevelopment is a transcriptionally orchestrated process. Cyclin K, a regulator of transcription encoded by CCNK, is thought to play a critical role in the RNA polymerase II-mediated activities. However, dysfunction of CCNK has not been linked to genetic disorders. In this study, we identified three unrelated individuals harboring de novo heterozygous copy number loss of CCNK in an overlapping 14q32.3 region and one individual harboring a de novo nonsynonymous variant c.331A>G (p.Lys111Glu) in CCNK. These four individuals, though from different ethnic backgrounds, shared a common phenotype of developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD/ID), language defects, and distinctive facial dysmorphism including high hairline, hypertelorism, thin eyebrows, dysmorphic ears, broad nasal bridge and tip, and narrow jaw...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Zeren Barış, Figen Özçay, Lale Olcay, Serdar Ceylaner, Taner Sezer
We present a patient with failure to thrive and severe hypotonia, who was initially suspected of having a neurometabolic disease but later diagnosed as Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), which was genetically confirmed. SDS is a multisystemic disease, which is characterized by exocrine pancreatic deficiency, bone marrow dysfunction with increased risk for malignant transformation, and skeletal abnormalities. It should be included in differential diagnosis of patients with failure to thrive and unexplained neurodevelopmental delay with neutropenia...
September 2018: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Anne Gregor, Lynette G Sadleir, Reza Asadollahi, Silvia Azzarello-Burri, Agatino Battaglia, Lilian Bomme Ousager, Paranchai Boonsawat, Ange-Line Bruel, Rebecca Buchert, Eduardo Calpena, Benjamin Cogné, Bruno Dallapiccola, Felix Distelmaier, Frances Elmslie, Laurence Faivre, Tobias B Haack, Victoria Harrison, Alex Henderson, David Hunt, Bertrand Isidor, Pascal Joset, Satoko Kumada, Augusta M A Lachmeijer, Melissa Lees, Sally Ann Lynch, Francisco Martinez, Naomichi Matsumoto, Carey McDougall, Heather C Mefford, Noriko Miyake, Candace T Myers, Sébastien Moutton, Addie Nesbitt, Antonio Novelli, Carmen Orellana, Anita Rauch, Monica Rosello, Ken Saida, Avni B Santani, Ajoy Sarkar, Ingrid E Scheffer, Marwan Shinawi, Katharina Steindl, Joseph D Symonds, Elaine H Zackai, André Reis, Heinrich Sticht, Christiane Zweier
Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Shannon Rose, Dmitriy M Niyazov, Daniel A Rossignol, Michael Goldenthal, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects ~ 2% of children in the United States. The etiology of ASD likely involves environmental factors triggering physiological abnormalities in genetically sensitive individuals. One of these major physiological abnormalities is mitochondrial dysfunction, which may affect a significant subset of children with ASD. Here we systematically review the literature on human studies of mitochondrial dysfunction related to ASD. Clinical aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD include unusual neurodevelopmental regression, especially if triggered by an inflammatory event, gastrointestinal symptoms, seizures, motor delays, fatigue and lethargy...
October 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Yin Liu, David Michelson, Robin Clark, June-Anne Gold
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome (OMIM 613457) is a rare genomic disorder with a variable phenotype. METHODS: We report 2 full siblings, a brother and sister, with a unique familial 2.4 Mb microdeletion at 14q13.1-14q13.3 by microarray (first identified in the brother, Mayo Clinical Laboratories, 2010). RESULTS: Both children presented with infantile spasms that evolved to intractable epilepsy and profound developmental delay...
July 17, 2018: Neurology
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