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Dementia prediction

Marina Ávila-Villanueva, Ana Rebollo-Vázquez, José M Ruiz-Sánchez de León, Meritxell Valentí, Miguel Medina, Miguel A Fernández-Blázquez
Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Chiara Zucchella, Michelangelo Bartolo, Sara Bernini, Marta Picascia, Paola Malinverni, Elena Sinforiani
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between cognitive and functional impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at the earliest stages of the disease is not well characterized. This study aimed at investigating such relationships along AD evolution by means of the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). METHODS: Consecutive pairs of AD outpatients and their primary informal caregivers were enrolled. Patients were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and neuropsychological tests...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Tengfei Guo, Matthias Brendel, Timo Grimmer, Axel Rominger, Igor Yakushev
: Knowledge about spatial and temporal patterns of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is essential for understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for design of anti-amyloid drug trials. Here, we tested if the regional pattern of longitudinal Aβ accumulation can be predicted by baseline amyloid PET. METHODS: Analyzed were baseline and 2 years follow-up (18)F-florbetapir PET data from 58 patients with incipient and manifest dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). By determining how fast amyloid deposits in a given region relative to the whole brain grey matter, a pseudo-temporal accumulation rate for each region was calculated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ricarda A L Menke, Federica Agosta, Julian Grosskreutz, Massimo Filippi, Martin R Turner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Eero Vuoksimaa, Juha O Rinne, Noora Lindgren, Kauko Heikkilä, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaakko Kaprio
INTRODUCTION: On the basis of the proxy measures of cognitive reserve, we created a middle age self-report risk score for early prediction of dementia. METHODS: We used a longitudinal population-based study of 2602 individuals with a replication sample (N = 1011). Risk score at a mean age of 47 years was based on questions on educational and occupational attainments. Cognitive status at a mean age of 74 was determined via two validated telephone instruments. RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia was 10% after a mean follow-up of 28 years...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Antti J Luikku, Anette Hall, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Anna Sutela, Maria Kojoukhova, Jussi Mattila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Jaana Rummukainen, Irina Alafuzoff, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECTIVES: Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Dorene M Rentz, Elizabeth C Mormino, Kathryn V Papp, Rebecca A Betensky, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
We explored the cross-sectional relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ) and inferior temporal tau deposition (IFT Tau) on cognitive performance and whether cognitive reserve (CR) modifies these associations. We studied 156 participants classified into groups of clinically normal (CN = 133), mild cognitive impairment (MCI = 17) and Alzheimer disease (AD = 6) dementia. AMNART IQ served as a proxy of CR and cognitive performance was assessed using the MMSE. In separate linear regression models predicting MMSE, we examined the interactions of CR x global Aβ and CR x IFT tau across all participants and within the CN group alone...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Su Yun Lee, Hyun Ju Ryu, Jeong Wook Seo, Maeng Seok Noh, Sang Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) have had long-term follow-ups. Moreover, information on the duration from the onset to the development of dementia in patients with PD is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the median dementia-free survival time from the onset of PD to the development of dementia. METHODS: In total, 1,193 Korean patients with PD were recruited and assessed at regular intervals of 3-6 months...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Susanne Röhr, Tobias Luck, Arno Villringer, Matthias C Angermeyer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
Objective: Subjective cognitive decline is controversially discussed as early notable sign of future dementia in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether SCD predicts dementia in a sample of cognitively unimpaired older individuals (75+). Methods: 595 cognitively unimpaired individuals who participated in the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+) were regularly interviewed and cognitively tested over 8 years. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the association of SCD and development of dementia...
October 11, 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Hannah A D Keage, Ashleigh Smith, Tobias Loetscher, Peter Psaltis
Older individuals can now undergo invasive cardiovascular procedures without serious concern about mortality, and the numbers and proportions of the over 65s and 85s doing so in Australia has been increasing over the last 20 years. There is overwhelming evidence linking cardiovascular conditions to late-life (65 years and over) cognitive impairment and dementia including Alzheimer's Disease, primarily due to impaired cerebrovascularisation and cascading neuropathological processes. Somewhat paradoxically, these cardiovascular interventions, carried out with the primary aim of revascularisation, are not usually associated with short- or long-term improvements in cognitive function in older adults...
September 23, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Rosa López Mongil, José Antonio López Trigo
Because of the substantial increase in population ageing, age-related processes, such as dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD), are becoming highly prevalent. The course of this disease, including preprodromic phases, lasts at least 20 years. The presence of comorbidities, especially those of vascular origin, can trigger and aggravate disease progression. On the other hand, cognitive reserve, the absence or control of comorbid factors and healthy lifestyles can protect or modify -in the sense of slow down- disease progression...
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Carlos Fernández-Viadero, Magdalena Jiménez-Sanz, Anzu Fernández-Pérez, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Brain ageing leads to a series of changes that reduce the processes of adaptation and response. These transformations can end in cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Although the cause of these changes is diverse, inflammation and oxidative stress explain some of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these anomalies of brain functioning. Neuroinflammation triggers neuronal injury through the presence of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of microglia through membrane receptors and nuclear activation factors...
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Kazuhiko Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine psychosocial and clinico-demographic factors related to each symptomatic cluster (i.e., aggressiveness, psychosis, apathy/eating problems, and emotion/disinhibition) of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) needing interventional treatment against their agitation or psychotic symptoms. These clusters were classified from 12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscores in our previous study using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
N Franzmeier, M Á Araque Caballero, A N W Taylor, L Simon-Vermot, K Buerger, B Ertl-Wagner, C Mueller, C Catak, D Janowitz, E Baykara, B Gesierich, M Duering, M Ewers
Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reduces the risk of dementia. Despite the clinical significance of CR, a clinically useful diagnostic biomarker of brain changes underlying CR in AD is not available yet. Our aim was to develop a fully-automated approach applied to fMRI to produce a biomarker associated with CR in subjects at increased risk of AD. We computed resting-state global functional connectivity (GFC), i.e. the average connectivity strength, for each voxel within the cognitive control network, which may sustain CR due to its central role in higher cognitive function...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiuming Zhang, Elizabeth C Mormino, Nanbo Sun, Reisa A Sperling, Mert R Sabuncu, B T Thomas Yeo
We used a data-driven Bayesian model to automatically identify distinct latent factors of overlapping atrophy patterns from voxelwise structural MRIs of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia patients. Our approach estimated the extent to which multiple distinct atrophy patterns were expressed within each participant rather than assuming that each participant expressed a single atrophy factor. The model revealed a temporal atrophy factor (medial temporal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala), a subcortical atrophy factor (striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum), and a cortical atrophy factor (frontal, parietal, lateral temporal, and lateral occipital cortices)...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Hadar, E Milanesi, A Squassina, P Niola, C Chillotti, M Pasmanik-Chor, O Yaron, P Martásek, M Rehavi, D Weissglas-Volkov, N Shomron, I Gozes, D Gurwitz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. Misfolded protein pathological hallmarks of AD are brain deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and phosphorylated tau neurofibrillary tangles. However, doubts about the role of Aβ in AD pathology have been raised as Aβ is a common component of extracellular brain deposits found, also by in vivo imaging, in non-demented aged individuals. It has been suggested that some individuals are more prone to Aβ neurotoxicity and hence more likely to develop AD when aging brains start accumulating Aβ plaques...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
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