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Vascular tumors molecular pathology

Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Jordi Rimola
Hepatic angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) might be clinically considered a spectrum since, although more frequently presenting indolent behavior, EHE occasionally evolves to high-grade neoplasms. However, in most circumstances, pathological and immunohistochemical patterns define this differential diagnosis. More recently, molecular pathways for angiosarcoma and for EHE from other organs and from soft tissue have been proved different, paving the way for future morpho-molecular assessment of their hepatic counterpart...
December 7, 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Yusuke Ishida, Masumi Tsuda, Yutaka Sawamura, Kyoko Fujii, Hiroshi Murai, Naruyoshi Horiuchi, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa, William W Hall, Kazuo Nagashima, Shinya Tanaka
A 24 year-old female presented with a mass lesion in the right temporal lobe. This case was difficult to diagnose using histological and immunological methods and therefore molecular analyses were applied to provide a definitive diagnosis. The tumor was well-demarcated, partially cystic, and irregularly-enhanced on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Pathologically, a large part of the tumor consisted of cells with fine cytoplasmic processes on a myxoid and mucinous background. Cells formed a microcystic structure around the mucinous tissue...
November 12, 2018: Pathology International
William J Anderson, Jason L Hornick
Sarcomas encompass a broad group of malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, whose accurate diagnosis and classification relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the widespread application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has continued to expand, as many genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of novel diagnostic markers that act as surrogates for their detection...
November 1, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Marco Presta, Eleonora Foglio, Ander Churruca Schuind, Roberto Ronca
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones, plays a key role in various physiological and pathological conditions. Alteration of the angiogenic balance, consequent to the deranged production of angiogenic growth factors and/or natural angiogenic inhibitors, is responsible for angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including cancer. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) represents the prototypic member of the FGF family, able to induce a complex "angiogenic phenotype" in endothelial cells in vitro and a potent neovascular response in vivo as the consequence of a tight cross talk between pro-inflammatory and angiogenic signals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Laleh Vahedi, Maryam Ghasemi, Jamshid Yazdani, Samaneh Ranjbar, Banafshe Nouri, Ahad Alizadeh, Parvaneh Afshar
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world, especially in Iran. There are large numbers of molecular and genomic factors causing breast cancer as well as many markers associated with tumor invasion. Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate leukocyte trafficking in the homeostatic conditions and specific immune responses. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) belongs a class A subtype 7-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. CCR7 plays a role in the migration of tumor cells such as immune cells into lymphoid organs through binding to its only two ligands CCL19/CCL21...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A Attia, Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
The underlying pathology of cardiac damage involves various molecular and signaling pathways. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the role of Quercetin (Querc), alone or in combination with Melatonin (Melat) against cardiac damage induced by sodium nitrite (Sod nit), as well as to elucidate different signaling pathways. Querc and Melat were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), followed by induction of hypoxia in rats by using a single dose of Sod nit (60 mg/kg, s.c.). Treatment with Sod nit significantly decreased hemoglobin (Hb) levels in blood...
February 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Hiroshi Kinashi, Yasuhiko Ito, Ting Sun, Takayuki Katsuno, Yoshifumi Takei
Lymphatic vessels drain excess tissue fluids to maintain the interstitial environment. Lymphatic capillaries develop during the progression of tissue fibrosis in various clinical and pathological situations, such as chronic kidney disease, peritoneal injury during peritoneal dialysis, tissue inflammation, and tumor progression. The role of fibrosis-related lymphangiogenesis appears to vary based on organ specificity and etiology. Signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 is a central molecular mechanism for lymphangiogenesis...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel E Simpson, Nathan J Cockerill, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Eugene P Ceppa, Michael G House, Nicholas J Zyromski, Attila Nakeeb, Mohammad A Al-Haddad, C Max Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm remains challenging. Integrated molecular pathology combines pancreatic fluid DNA and clinical factors into a malignant potential score. We sought to determine the utility of DNA components alone in predicting high-grade dysplasia/invasive disease. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively the records from 1,106 patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. We excluded non-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm cases and cases with definitive malignant cytology...
August 20, 2018: Surgery
Jiale Lv, Jinxia Liu, Mingbin Xiao, Hui Xu, Chenzhou Xu, Xuening Zhang, Lei Tang, Feng Jiang, Yifan Zhou, Zijuan Zhang, Lishuai Qu, Cuihua Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, the study of the precise molecular mechanism underlying hepatocarcinogenesis has profound significance. In this study, we found that the expression of ARP3 was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Studies in liver cancer specimens showed that the expression of ARP3 is closely related to the pathological grade, distant metastasis and vascular invasion of HCC. According to the results of multivariate analysis, ARP3 is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients...
September 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Tamara Maghathe, William K Miller, Luke Mugge, Tarek R Mansour, Jason Schroeder
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, accounting for as much as 25% of intracranial neoplasms. Although existing remedies show success in treating most PAs, treatment of invasive and non-functioning PAs, in addition to functioning PAs unresponsive to standard therapy, remains challenging. With the continually increasing understanding of biochemical pathways involved in tumorigenesis, immunotherapy stands as a promising alternative therapy for pituitary tumors that are resistant to standard therapy...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Marta Sbaraglia, Angelo P Dei Tos
Soft tissue sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies exhibiting mesenchymal differentiation with an overall incidence of around 5/100,000/year. Rarity and morphologic heterogeneity significantly affect diagnostic accuracy; therefore, expertise can be achieved only through access to large number of cases. Soft tissue sarcomas are currently classified on the basis of the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors that integrate conventional morphology with immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics...
June 12, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Lukas Jennewein, Georg Bartsch, Kilian Gust, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Axel Haferkamp, Roman Blaheta, Michel Mittelbronn, Patrick N Harter, Jens Mani
Testicular germ cell cancer in a metastatic state is curable with a cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. However, 10-15% of these patients are resistant to first line chemotherapy and are thus left with only palliative options. Immunotherapies and inhibition of angiogenesis used in multiple types of cancer; however, the molecular context of angiogenesis and immune checkpoints in the development and progression of testicular cancers is still unknown. Therefore, the present study performed tissue micro array based analysis of 84 patients with immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) of testicular cancer and corresponding normal appearing testis tissue, matching the results with clinical data...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuji Konishi, Futoshi Kawamata, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shigenori Homma, Yasutaka Kato, Masumi Tsuda, Shinji Kohsaka, Takahiro Einama, Cheng Liu, Tadashi Yoshida, Akihisa Nagatsu, Mishie Tanino, Shinya Tanaka, Hideki Kawamura, Toshiya Kamiyama, Akinobu Taketomi
Tumor budding is thought to represent a manifestation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and it has been correlated with poor patient outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our group recently demonstrated that human chorionic gonadotropin-β (hCGβ) modulates EMT in CRC. In the current study, based on the likely relationships between tumor budding and hCGβ expression, we examined their clinicopathologic significance in CRC. Twenty-eight of 80 (35.0%) CRC showed tumor budding. Tumor budding significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0...
June 11, 2018: Medical Oncology
Jimmy C Yang, Andrew S Venteicher, Matthew J Koch, Christopher J Stapleton, Gabriel N Friedman, Emma M Venteicher, John H Shin
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Myopericytoma is an emerging class of neoplasm originating from the perivascular myoid cellular environment, previously classified as a variant of hemangiopericytoma. Most reported myopericytomas are found in soft tissues of the extremities; however, infrequent cases are described involving the central nervous system. Intracranial myopericytoma remains rare. Here, we describe the first report of myopericytoma occurring at the cervicomedullary junction in close proximity to the vertebral artery, mimicking a vascular lesion...
June 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Michelle L Chadwick, Adam Lane, Dana Thomas, Amanda R Smith, Angela R White, Dominique Davidson, Yuxin Feng, Elisa Boscolo, Yi Zheng, Denise M Adams, Anita Gupta, André Veillette, Lionel M L Chow
Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of vascular origin that occurs de novo or in the context of previous cancer therapy. Despite multi-modal aggressive treatment including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation, five-year overall survival remains poor at 35%. Due to its rarity, little is known about its molecular pathology and clinical trials have been extremely difficult to conduct. Development of animal models for rare diseases like angiosarcoma is critical to improve our understanding of tumorigenesis and to test novel treatment regimens...
May 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Frederic Debordeaux, Lucie Chansel-Debordeaux, Jean-Baptiste Pinaquy, Philippe Fernandez, Jurgen Schulz
Non-invasive investigation of integrin expression is an interesting approach in nuclear medicine department. Indeed, integrins are overexpressed in a wide array of diseases, including tumor neoangiogenesis, cardiovascular pathologies, immune dysfunction, etc. Different targets have been identified in order to be detected and quantified for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, among them VEGF, matrix metalloproteases, and integrins (αv β3 , but also α5 ß1 and αv β6 ). Their targeting appears of great interest either for early diagnosis, aggressiveness staging of the disease or for selection of responders to new-targeted therapies...
July 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Jin A Baek, Phil Hyun Song, YoungHwii Ko, Mi Jin Gu
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, and biologically shows highly heterogeneous clinical outcomes, despite early detection. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular markers that are associated with biological aggressiveness is very important for prostatic cancer clinical outcome predictions and treatment choices. Here, we investigate quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) expression and evaluate its clinicopathological significance and prognostic impact in prostate cancers, with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays...
July 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
S David Nathanson, David Krag, Henry M Kuerer, Lisa A Newman, Markus Brown, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Ethel R Pereira, Timothy P Padera
Breast cancer metastasizes through the lymphovascular system to the regional lymph nodes in the axilla and to both visceral and non-visceral sites. Renewed interest in the route by which tumor cells gain access to blood and lymphatic capillaries are the subject of research at mechanical, anatomic, pathologic, genetic, epidemiologic and molecular levels. Two papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Cancer Metastasis in San Francisco showed tumor cells entering the systemic circulation through the sentinel lymph node...
August 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Hong-Feng Zhang, Yan-Li Wang, Cheng Gao, Yan-Ting Gu, Jian Huang, Jin-Hui Wang, Jia-Hong Wang, Zhou Zhang
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is a minor phenolic carboxylic acid extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Bunge (Danshen). SAA exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-thrombotic, neuroprotective, and anti-fibrotic effects, as well as protection from myocardial ischemia and prevention of diabetes and other diseases. Furthermore, SAA has shown renal-protective effects in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. However, there has been limited research regarding the effects of SAA and underlying mechanisms in chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 23, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Neha S Agnihotri, Madhusudan Astekar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck regions and accounts for more than 90% of cancers in the oral cavity. The angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition are known to be pivotal for tumor progression and metastasis. In the last decade, much data has been generated concerning the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and its significance in pathological conditions. The main angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors have been identified as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), forkhead box (FOX) C2 while vascular endothelial growth factor C/D (VEGF-C/D), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), LYVE-1, podoplanin, Tie/Angioprotein (Ang) 2 and EphrinB2 respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
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