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Vascular tumors molecular pathology

Jiale Lv, Jinxia Liu, Mingbin Xiao, Hui Xu, Chenzhou Xu, Xuening Zhang, Lei Tang, Feng Jiang, Yifan Zhou, Zijuan Zhang, Lishuai Qu, Cuihua Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, the study of the precise molecular mechanism underlying hepatocarcinogenesis has profound significance. In this study, we found that the expression of ARP3 was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Studies in liver cancer specimens showed that the expression of ARP3 is closely related to the pathological grade, distant metastasis and vascular invasion of HCC. According to the results of multivariate analysis, ARP3 is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients...
June 7, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Tamara Maghathe, William K Miller, Luke Mugge, Tarek R Mansour, Jason Schroeder
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, accounting for as much as 25% of intracranial neoplasms. Although existing remedies show success in treating most PAs, treatment of invasive and non-functioning PAs, in addition to functioning PAs unresponsive to standard therapy, remains challenging. With the continually increasing understanding of biochemical pathways involved in tumorigenesis, immunotherapy stands as a promising alternative therapy for pituitary tumors that are resistant to standard therapy...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Marta Sbaraglia, Angelo P Dei Tos
Soft tissue sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies exhibiting mesenchymal differentiation with an overall incidence of around 5/100,000/year. Rarity and morphologic heterogeneity significantly affect diagnostic accuracy; therefore, expertise can be achieved only through access to large number of cases. Soft tissue sarcomas are currently classified on the basis of the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors that integrate conventional morphology with immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics...
June 12, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Lukas Jennewein, Georg Bartsch, Kilian Gust, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Axel Haferkamp, Roman Blaheta, Michel Mittelbronn, Patrick N Harter, Jens Mani
Testicular germ cell cancer in a metastatic state is curable with a cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. However, 10-15% of these patients are resistant to first line chemotherapy and are thus left with only palliative options. Immunotherapies and inhibition of angiogenesis used in multiple types of cancer; however, the molecular context of angiogenesis and immune checkpoints in the development and progression of testicular cancers is still unknown. Therefore, the present study performed tissue micro array based analysis of 84 patients with immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) of testicular cancer and corresponding normal appearing testis tissue, matching the results with clinical data...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuji Konishi, Futoshi Kawamata, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shigenori Homma, Yasutaka Kato, Masumi Tsuda, Shinji Kohsaka, Takahiro Einama, Cheng Liu, Tadashi Yoshida, Akihisa Nagatsu, Mishie Tanino, Shinya Tanaka, Hideki Kawamura, Toshiya Kamiyama, Akinobu Taketomi
Tumor budding is thought to represent a manifestation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and it has been correlated with poor patient outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our group recently demonstrated that human chorionic gonadotropin-β (hCGβ) modulates EMT in CRC. In the current study, based on the likely relationships between tumor budding and hCGβ expression, we examined their clinicopathologic significance in CRC. Twenty-eight of 80 (35.0%) CRC showed tumor budding. Tumor budding significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0...
June 11, 2018: Medical Oncology
Jimmy C Yang, Andrew S Venteicher, Matthew J Koch, Christopher J Stapleton, Gabriel N Friedman, Emma M Venteicher, John H Shin
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Myopericytoma is an emerging class of neoplasm originating from the perivascular myoid cellular environment, previously classified as a variant of hemangiopericytoma. Most reported myopericytomas are found in soft tissues of the extremities; however, infrequent cases are described involving the central nervous system. Intracranial myopericytoma remains rare. Here, we describe the first report of myopericytoma occurring at the cervicomedullary junction in close proximity to the vertebral artery, mimicking a vascular lesion...
June 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Michelle L Chadwick, Adam Lane, Dana Thomas, Amanda R Smith, Angela R White, Dominique Davidson, Yuxin Feng, Elisa Boscolo, Yi Zheng, Denise M Adams, Anita Gupta, André Veillette, Lionel M L Chow
Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of vascular origin that occurs de novo or in the context of previous cancer therapy. Despite multi-modal aggressive treatment including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation, five-year overall survival remains poor at 35%. Due to its rarity, little is known about its molecular pathology and clinical trials have been extremely difficult to conduct. Development of animal models for rare diseases like angiosarcoma is critical to improve our understanding of tumorigenesis and to test novel treatment regimens...
May 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Frederic Debordeaux, Lucie Chansel-Debordeaux, Jean-Baptiste Pinaquy, Philippe Fernandez, Jurgen Schulz
Non-invasive investigation of integrin expression is an interesting approach in nuclear medicine department. Indeed, integrins are overexpressed in a wide array of diseases, including tumor neoangiogenesis, cardiovascular pathologies, immune dysfunction, etc. Different targets have been identified in order to be detected and quantified for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, among them VEGF, matrix metalloproteases, and integrins (αv β3 , but also α5 ß1 and αv β6 ). Their targeting appears of great interest either for early diagnosis, aggressiveness staging of the disease or for selection of responders to new-targeted therapies...
July 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Jin A Baek, Phil Hyun Song, YoungHwii Ko, Mi Jin Gu
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, and biologically shows highly heterogeneous clinical outcomes, despite early detection. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular markers that are associated with biological aggressiveness is very important for prostatic cancer clinical outcome predictions and treatment choices. Here, we investigate quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) expression and evaluate its clinicopathological significance and prognostic impact in prostate cancers, with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays...
July 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
S David Nathanson, David Krag, Henry M Kuerer, Lisa A Newman, Markus Brown, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Ethel R Pereira, Timothy P Padera
Breast cancer metastasizes through the lymphovascular system to the regional lymph nodes in the axilla and to both visceral and non-visceral sites. Renewed interest in the route by which tumor cells gain access to blood and lymphatic capillaries are the subject of research at mechanical, anatomic, pathologic, genetic, epidemiologic and molecular levels. Two papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Cancer Metastasis in San Francisco showed tumor cells entering the systemic circulation through the sentinel lymph node...
May 23, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Hong-Feng Zhang, Yan-Li Wang, Cheng Gao, Yan-Ting Gu, Jian Huang, Jin-Hui Wang, Jia-Hong Wang, Zhou Zhang
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is a minor phenolic carboxylic acid extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Bunge (Danshen). SAA exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-thrombotic, neuroprotective, and anti-fibrotic effects, as well as protection from myocardial ischemia and prevention of diabetes and other diseases. Furthermore, SAA has shown renal-protective effects in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. However, there has been limited research regarding the effects of SAA and underlying mechanisms in chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 23, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Neha S Agnihotri, Madhusudan Astekar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck regions and accounts for more than 90% of cancers in the oral cavity. The angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition are known to be pivotal for tumor progression and metastasis. In the last decade, much data has been generated concerning the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and its significance in pathological conditions. The main angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors have been identified as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), forkhead box (FOX) C2 while vascular endothelial growth factor C/D (VEGF-C/D), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), LYVE-1, podoplanin, Tie/Angioprotein (Ang) 2 and EphrinB2 respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
Zubair Baloch, Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa
The application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of thyroid lesions has increased as new biomarkers have emerged. In this review, we discuss the biomarkers that are critical for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Immunohistochemical markers are used to confirm that an unusual tumor in the thyroid is indeed of thyroid origin, either of follicular epithelial or C-cell differentiation; the various mimics include nonthyroidal lesions such as parathyroid tumors, paragangliomas, thymic neoplasms, and metastatic malignancies...
May 9, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Jiming Li, Jingjing Zeng, Lianpin Wu, Luyuan Tao, Zhiyong Liao, Maoping Chu, Lei Li
The tumor suppressor p53 is recognized as the guardian of the genome in cell cycle and cell death. P53 expression increases as cardiac hypertrophy worsens to heart failure, suggesting that p53 may play important role in cardiac remodeling. In the present study, deletion of p53 in the mice heart would ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. The role of p53 on heart was investigated using in vivo models. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice was induced by transverse aortic banding surgery. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was examined by echocardiography, as well as pathological and molecular analyses of heart tissue...
June 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Min Yu, Yao Han, Hongyu Zhuo, Shuang Zhang
Pathological angiogenesis can be a significant barrier to effective cancer therapy. Recent evidence suggests that Endostar may induce vascular normalization, thereby improving tumor perfusion and systemic chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism by which Endostar makes chemotherapy more effective remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, established 4T1 breast tumor-bearing animals treated with Endostar were evaluated at serial time points for treatment-associated changes in vascular architecture...
May 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Jichun Gu, Hexige Saiyin, Deliang Fu, Ji Li
Pancreatic cancer is a uniformly lethal malignancy with an abundant dense desmoplastic stroma. Because of its dense stroma, conventional drugs were considered to not penetrate this physical barrier, and this caused a systemic drug resistance. Thus, abolishing this barrier with targeted agents is considered to improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic treatment. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of pancreas development and plays diversified roles in pancreatic cancer stroma and neoplastic cells...
April 2018: Pancreas
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Shingo Miyazaki, Ashish D Diwan, Kenji Kato, Kevin Cheng, Won C Bae, Yang Sun, Junichi Yamada, Carol Muehleman, Mary E Lenz, Nozomu Inoue, Robert L Sah, Mamoru Kawakami, Koichi Masuda
PURPOSE: To elucidate the effects of growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) on: (i) gene expression of inflammatory/pain-related molecules and structural integrity in the rabbit intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration model, and (ii) sensory dysfunction and changes in pain-marker expression in dorsal nerve ganglia (DRGs) in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model. METHODS: Forty-six adolescent rabbits received anular-puncture in two non-consecutive lumbar IVDs. Four weeks later, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GDF6 (1, 10 or 100 µg) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (NP) of punctured discs and followed for 4 weeks for gene expression analysis and 12 weeks for structural analyses...
April 2018: European Spine Journal
Lu Yan, Qing-Fu Li, Yan-Ting Rong, Yong-Heng Chen, Zhao-Hong Huang, Zhi-Zhi Wang, Jie Peng
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the acute inflammation of the pancreas. The morbidity of AP has increased in recent years. Certain patients eventually develop severe AP (SAP), which rapidly progresses to multiple organ dysfunction; the incidence of this occurring in patients with AP is 20-30%. To date, no specific drugs or methods exist to treat this disease. Rutaecarpine relaxes vascular smooth muscle by stimulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release via activation of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1)...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Afkar Al-Ramadan, Anja C Mortensen, Jörgen Carlsson, Marika V Nestor
Multicellular spheroids have proven suitable as three-dimensional in vivo -like models of non-vascularized micrometastases. Unlike monolayer-based models, spheroids mirror the cellular milieu and the pathophysiological gradients inside tumor nodules. However, there is limited knowledge of the radiation effects at the molecular level in spheroids of human origin. The present study is a presentation of selected cell biological processes that may easily be analyzed with methods available at routine pathology laboratories...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
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