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Smriti Shrestha, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Anil Kumar Anal
The conjugates of biomacromolecules such as protein and polysaccharides have potential to stabilize the emulsion system and encapsulate valuable bioactive compounds for biofortification in food systems. In this study, native banana starch (NBS) was isolated from green culled banana and modified into resistant starch (type III) by lintnerization followed by autoclaving-cooling process, resulting in lintnerized-autoclaved banana starch (LABS). Soy protein isolate (SPI) was used for developing the polysaccharide-protein conjugates i...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ziv Meir, Meirav Pinkas, Tomas Sikorsky, Ruti Ben-Shlomi, Nitzan Akerman, Roee Ozeri
Sympathetic cooling is the process of energy exchange between a system and a colder bath. We investigate this fundamental process in an atom-ion experiment where the system is composed of a single ion trapped in a radio-frequency Paul trap and prepared in a classical oscillatory motion with total energy of ∼200  K, and the bath is an ultracold cloud of atoms at μK temperature. We directly observe the sympathetic cooling dynamics with single-shot energy measurements during one to several collisions in two distinct regimes...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
José Alí Porras-Salazar, David P Wyon, Beatriz Piderit-Moreno, Sergio Contreras-Espinoza, Pawel Wargocki
A two-week long intervention study was performed in two classrooms in an elementary school in Costa Rica. Split-cooling air conditioning (AC) units were installed in both classrooms. During the first week, the air temperature was reduced in one classroom while in the other (placebo) classroom the fans were operated but no cooling was provided. During the second week, the conditions were exchanged to create a 2x2 crossover design in which each pupil was their own control. A total of 37 children performed tasks similar to school work and completed questionnaires reporting their thermal sensation and perceptions...
August 17, 2018: Indoor Air
Florence de la Barrière, Guillaume Druart, Nicolas Guérineau, Frédéric Champagnat, Aurélien Plyer, Gilles Lasfargues, Serge Magli
We present an ultracompact infrared cryogenic camera integrated inside a standard Sofradir's detector dewar cooler assembly (DDCA) whose field of view is equal to 120°. The multichannel optical architecture produces four nonredundant images on a single SCORPIO detector with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. This ultraminiaturized optical system brings a very low additional optical and mechanical mass to be cooled in the DDCA: the cool-down time is comparable to an equivalent DDCA without an imagery function. Limiting the number of channels is necessary to keep the highest number of resolved points in the final image...
June 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Yusuke Hisai, Kohei Ikeda, Haruki Sakagami, Tomoyuki Horikiri, Takumi Kobayashi, Kazumichi Yoshii, Feng-Lei Hong
Frequency offset locking between two Nd:YAG lasers is performed using frequency locking with an electrical delay line. The relative frequency instability of the offset locking is measured to be 3.5×10-12 for an averaging time of 1 s, which is approximately 77 times smaller than that of the free-running case. The frequency instability of the frequency locking is compared to that of the phase locking between the two Nd:YAG lasers. Furthermore, a compact solid-state laser is frequency locked to an optical frequency comb with a frequency instability of 8...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Abdoulaye Taram, Cyrielle Roquelet, Philip Meilland, Thomas Dupuy, Christine Kaczynski, Jean-Luc Bodnar, Thierry Duvaut
The paper presents the use of eddy current thermography for detecting cracks in resistance spot welds. The sample is a three-sheet stack-up joined together by welding spots. Inductive Helmholtz coil is used for heating up the sample, and the thermal response of each spot is monitored using a cooled indium antimonide camera. The sequence of images captured is processed using the pulsed-phase thermography technique. The phase image is completed with a supplementary filtering operation to allow outlining defects...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Allen Y Yi
Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as enabling materials for low-cost infrared optics due to their transparency in shortwave-to-longwave infrared bands and the possibility to be mass produced by precision glass molding (PGM), a near net-shape process. This paper aims to evaluate the thermoforming mechanism of As40 S60 glass around its glass transition temperature (Tg ) and investigate its refractive index change and residual stresses in a molded lens during and after PGM. First, a constitutive model was introduced to precisely predict the material behavior in PGM by integrating subroutines into a commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Xiaoyang Guo, Shigeki Tokita, Kazuyoshi Hirose, Takahiro Sugiyama, Akiyoshi Watanabe, Kenji Ishizaki, Susumu Noda, Noriaki Miyanaga, Junji Kawanaka
The passively Q-switched operation of a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser was demonstrated with end pumping by a photonic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL). This laser generated 70 μJ/1.7 ns/3.2 kHz pulses with near diffraction limited beam quality (M2 =1.1) at 1029.4 nm. There were no coupling optics between the microchip laser crystal and PCSEL, which made the system simple and compact.
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Sadahiro Nomura, Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Hirayama, Hirochika Imoto, Takao Inoue, Hiroshi Moriyama, Dai Mitsushima, Michiyasu Suzuki
This study aimed to understand the mechanism by which brain cooling terminates epileptic discharge. Cortical slices were prepared from rat brains (n = 19) and samples from patients with intractable epilepsy that had undergone temporal lobectomy (n = 7). We performed whole cell current clamp recordings at approximately physiological brain temperature (35℃) and at cooler temperatures (25℃ and 15℃). The firing threshold in human neurons was lower at 25℃ (-32.6 mV) than at 35℃ (-27.0 mV). The resting potential and spike frequency were similar at 25℃ and 35℃...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Mahsan Sadeghi, Richard de Dear, Graeme Wood, Bijan Samali
This study assessed the effect of wind on human thermal comfort by preforming outdoor urban climatic comfort simulations using state-of-the-art heat-balance models of human thermo-physiology (Universal Thermal Climate Index-UTCI). A series of simulations for computing "wind cooling potential" have been performed using the UTCI index temperatures. The comfort cooling effect of wind has been estimated by modelling with wind taken into account, and under calm wind (0.05 m/s) (ΔUTCI). A novel wind rose biometeorological data visualisation tool that integrates an additional thermal comfort dimension into the conventional climatology wind rose visualisation was developed in this study...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
M V Ovchinnikova, A G Mikhailova, D M Karlinsky, V A Gorlenko, L D Rumsh
A unique property was found for oligopeptidase B from Serratia proteamaculans (PSP) as well as its mutants: they can undergo reversible thermal inactivation at 37°C, with activity being restored or even increased with respect to the initial one upon subsequent cooling. The process can be repeated several times, with the same results achieved (up to 5 cycles). This effect can be explained by a shift in the equilibrium between the inactive open form of the enzyme and the active closed one upon variation of the incubation temperature...
April 2018: Acta Naturae
Tessa Maroni, Brian Dawson, Myles Dennis, Louise Naylor, Carly Brade, Karen Wallman
This study aimed to assess the separate and combined effects of a cooling glove (CG) and a gel-cooling jacket (CJ) used during a half-time break on manual dexterity performance (Purdue Pegboard test) and subsequent repeat-sprint cycling performance in hot conditions. Twelve male athletes performed four experimental trials (within subjects, counterbalanced design) that consisted of: wearing a CG, wearing a CJ, combination of CG and CJ (CG+J) or a no-cooling control (NC) for 15 min during a 20 min half-time break performed between 2 x 30 min repeated-sprint cycling bouts in heat (35...
September 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Mark Taubert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Zhen Chi, Huihui Chen, Zhuo Chen, Qing Zhao, Hailong Chen, Yuxiang Weng
Atomically thin two-dimensional materials have emerged as a promising system for optoelectronic applications; however, the low quantum yield, mainly caused by non-radiative energy dissipation, has greatly limited practical applications. To reveal the details for non-radiative energy channels, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with a detection wavelength ranging from visible to near-infrared to mid-infrared is performed on few-layer MoS2 . With this method, the many-body effects, occupation effects and phonon dynamics are clearly identified...
August 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Wei Li, Shanhui Fan
The ability to control thermal radiation is of fundamental importance for a wide range of applications. Nanophotonic structures, where at least one of the structural features are at a wavelength or sub-wavelength scale, can have thermal radiation properties that are drastically different from conventional thermal emitters, and offer exciting opportunities for energy applications. Here we review recent developments of nanophotonic control of thermal radiation, and highlight some exciting energy application opportunities, such as daytime radiative cooling, thermal textile, and thermophotovoltaic systems that are enabled by nanophotonic structures...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
R Liang, J Li, M Liu, Z Y Huang
Influence of the surface characteristics of three stainless steels (SS304, 316L and 317) and presence of scale inhibitors on adhesion kinetics of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in circulating cooling water, were investigated by evaluating surface free energy, adhesion kinetic constants in a parallel plate flow chamber. Results show that the surface free energy values of SS317, SS316L and SS304 are -31.69, -24.18 and -13.92 mJ m-2 , respectively. SS317 surface had higher surface hydrophobicity than SS316L and SS304...
August 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Katherine S Cools, Hanna K Sanoff, Hong Jin Kim, Jen Jen Yeh, Karyn B Stitzenberg
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection provides the only potentially curative treatment of pancreatic cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation (NAT) is used to downstage patients with borderline resectable tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the postoperative morbidity and mortality of NAT after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Targeted Pancreatectomy data, we identified patients who underwent a PD for PDA from 2014 to 2015...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Steven K Rice, Thomas A Gagliardi, Rebecca A Krasa
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nonvascular plants play important roles in exchange of water and heat at the soil-atmosphere interface. Differential evaporative cooling may cause temperature gradients within bryophyte canopies, influencing convective heat and mass transport. Understanding mechanisms that affect fluxes through moss layers should improve models of forest floor function. METHODS: A three-dimensional thermal imaging system measured temperature distributions within moss shoot systems that were used to explore relationships among canopy structure, temperature gradients, evaporation, and conductance to water vapor (gs )...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hyunkoo Lee, Hyunsu Cho, Chun-Won Byun, Jun-Han Han, Byoung-Hwa Kwon, Sukyung Choi, Jonghee Lee, Nam Sung Cho
We demonstrate independently and simultaneously controlled color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with vertically stacked blue, green, and red elements. The blue, green, and red elements were placed at the bottom, middle, and top positions, respectively, forming color-tunable OLEDs. The independently driven blue, green, and red elements in the color-tunable OLEDs exhibited low driving voltages of 5.3 V, 3.0 V, and 4.6 V, as well as high external quantum efficiencies of 11.1%, 10.9%, and 9.6%, respectively, at approximately 1000 cd/m2 ...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Ya-Lan Shih, Yu-Ching Hsu, Wei-Hsin Chiu, Co-Shi Chantal Chao
Preparing for a good death is an important and meaningful concept in Chinese culture because people hope to know residual life to make effort for their unfinished business. However, the family of terminally ill patients with cancer may be annoyed and frustrated about unexpected bereavement if they have unresolved conflicts with the loved one, missing a chance for declaring love, untimely apologizing and saying goodbye. The study aimed to explore this difficult issue. The medical records of 121 deceased terminally ill patients with cancer at National Cheng Kung University Hospital between December 2010 and February 2012 were reviewed...
September 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
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