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Artem G Shulga, Simon Kahmann, Dmitry N Dirin, Arko Graf, Jana Zaumseil, Maksym V Kovalenko, Maria Antonietta Loi
The application of light emitting field effect transistors (LEFET) is an elegant way of combining electrical switching and light emission in a single device architecture instead of two. This allows for a higher degree of miniaturisation and integration in future opto-electronic applications. Here, we report on a LEFET based on lead sulphide quantum dots processed from solution. Our device shows state-of-the-art electronic behaviour and emits near-infrared photons with a quantum yield exceeding 1% when cooled...
December 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Xiangsheng Han, Lili Lv, Mingjie Li, Jun You, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
Bovine serum albumin assembled into supramolecular fibrils and aligned into microtubes and nanosheets upon simply heating and cooling its solution in phosphate buffer under carefully-selected conditions. This unique "one-batch" synthesis was justified by the one-dimensional growth of phosphate crystals in combination with the strong affinity of phosphate ions to protein fibrils.
December 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Masatoshi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Shuhei Ohya, Takafumi Aoki, Daichi Suzuki, Mitsuki Shimamoto, Takanori Kikumoto, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Tomoya Takabayashi, Mtsuaki Edama
This study aimed to clarify the acute effect of static stretching (SS) with superficial cooling on dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) and muscle stiffness. Sixteen healthy males participated in the cooling condition and a control condition in a random order. The DF ROM and the shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius (MG) in the dominant leg were measured during passive dorsiflexion. All measurements were performed prior to (PRE) and immediately after 20 min of cooling or rested for 20 min (POST), followed by 2 min SS (POST SS)...
September 2018: Sports Med Int Open
Serena Santonicola, Maria Carmela Ferrante, Genni di Leo, Nicoletta Murru, Aniello Anastasio, Raffaelina Mercogliano
Diet represents the primary route for human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). As endocrine disruptor (ED), BPA has raised concerns about its adverse effects on human health. Therefore, EFSA recommended a tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and the EU Regulation n. 2018/213 fixed a specific migration limit (SML) of 0.05 mg/kg for BPA in food from plastic materials intended to come in contact with food. BPA could be present in milk due to environmental contamination, and also as a result of the migration from contact materials used during milking and storage...
September 26, 2018: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Sven Batke, Aidan Holohan, Roisin Hayden, Wieland Fricke, Amanda Sara Porter, Christiana Marie Evans-Fitz Gerald
Vascular epiphytes are a major biomass component of forests across the globe and they contribute to 9% of global vascular plant diversity. To improve our understanding of the whole-plant response of epiphytes to future climate change, we investigated for the first time both individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 (560 ppm) and light on the physiology and growth of two epiphyte species [ Tillandsia brachycaulos (CAM) and Phlebodium aureum (C3)] grown for 272 days under controlled conditions. We found that under elevated CO2 the difference in water loss between the light (650 μmol m-2 s-1 ) and shade (130 μmol m-2 s-1 ) treatment was strongly reduced...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Punnathat Bordeenithikasem, Jingbei Liu, Sebastian A Kube, Yanglin Li, Tianxing Ma, B Ellen Scanley, Christine C Broadbridge, Joost J Vlassak, Jonathan P Singer, Jan Schroers
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bahar Say, Ufuk Ergün, Ebru Turgal, İlknur Yardımcı
Clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is confirmed by nerve conduction studies (NCS). In some cases, NCS may be normal. We aimed to demonstrate changes of distal motor latency (DML) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) pathology of demyelination in entrapment neuropathy with cold application in case of clinical CTS with normal NCS. This prospective, cross-sectional, randomise, case-control involved 15 patients (25 hands) with clinically definite unilateral or bilateral CTS and normal nerve conduction studies (NCS), and 11 controls (22 hands)...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Cosimo Coletta, Rinaldo Botondi, Roberto Forniti, Simone Baccelloni, Andrea Bellincontro, Fabio Mencarelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In wine production, the temperature control is important and cooling techniques are frequently used to cool down grape must. Grape compound extraction is facilitated by enzymatic cell wall (CW) disassembly, thus our hypothesis has been that using alternating temperature could favor enzyme activity and, thus, berry compound extraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: White wine grapes (cvs 'Falanghina' and 'Fiano') were kept at 4°C or at alternating temperature (4 and 20°C with 6 h interval) for 24 h...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jianfeng Qian, Renci Peng, Zhonghui Shen, Jianyong Jiang, Fei Xue, Tiannan Yang, Longqing Chen, Yang Shen
The electrocaloric effect (ECE) refers to reversible thermal changes of a polarizable material upon the application or removal of electric fields. Without a compressor or cooling agents, all-solid-state electrocaloric (EC) refrigeration systems are environmentally benign, highly compact, and of very high energy efficiency. Relaxor ferroelectric ceramics and polymers are promising candidates as EC materials. Here, synergistic efforts are made by composing relaxor Ba(Zr0.21 Ti0.79 )O3 nanofibers with P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) to make relaxor-relaxor-type polymer nanocomposites...
December 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mingyue Liu, Qingdong Zeng, Yongnan Li, Gang Liu, Bingyang Ji
Brain injury associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been recognized in patients with congenital heart diseases and those undergoing aortic arch surgeries. However, the preclinical investigation of long-term cerebral injury and recovery mechanisms related to DHCA has been restricted to a satisfactory recovery animal model with a determined recovery time. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term surviving DHCA model without blood priming in rats, in order to investigate the pathophysiology of long-term complications in further studies...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Lou Reinisch, C Gaelyn Garrett
We use scatter-limited phototherapy techniques to calculate the time-dependent temperature profiles of incisions made with a commercial carbon dioxide laser being used to make a 1-mm incision under computer control using the Digital Acublade™ and with incisions made with the same laser under manual control. The goal is to understand the differences in the amount of lateral thermal damage that is likely from the computer-controlled incisions versus the manually controlled incisions. The temperature profiles are calculated from the absorption and scatter of light in a homogeneous material...
December 7, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Aret Çerçi Özkan, Erdem Güven, Berna Toktaş, Uygar Kızanlık, Onnik Agbulut
INTRODUCTION: Formation of less periorbital ecchymosis in post-operative period of rhinoplasty is a popular trend. We present the use of instantly crystallizing supercooled serum physiologic solution for periorbital cooling. PHYSICS OF SUPERCOOLING: There are circumstances in which water temperature drops below its freezing point, but no phase transition happens while water remains in the liquid phase. This is called supercooling. Pure water can be supercooled below the freezing temperature without transforming into ice...
December 10, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Gauthier Carnat, Ward Said-Ahmad, François Fripiat, Boris Wittek, Jean-Louis Tison, Christiane Uhlig, Alon Amrani
Sea ice microbial communities produce large amounts of the sulfur metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a precursor of the climate cooling gas dimethylsulfide. Despite their importance to the polar sulfur cycle, drivers and metabolic pathways of sea ice DMSP are uncertain. Here we report the first measurements of sea ice DMSP sulfur isotopic composition (34 S/32 S ratio, δ34 S). δ34 S values in ice cores from the Ross Sea and Weddell Sea reveal considerable variability across seasons and between ice horizons (from +10...
2018: Communications biology
David Rhodes, Jill Alexander
Background: Cryotherapy is commonly used in sport for the management of injury or during recovery, however the effects on concentric isokinetic strength appear unclear when considering the effect of joint cooling distal to the anterior thigh. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooling of the knee joint on quadriceps concentric isokinetic torque production. The results will inform the use of cryotherapy in practice. Study Design: Observational cohort, Repeated Measures...
December 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Rishi Lumba, Pradeep Mally, Michael Espiritu, Elena V Wachtel
Background Earlier initiation of therapeutic hypothermia in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy has been shown to improve neurological outcomes. The objective of the study was to compare safety and effectiveness of servo-controlled active vs. passive cooling used during neonatal transport in achieving target core temperature. Methods We undertook a prospective cohort quality improvement study with historic controls of therapeutic hypothermia during transport. Primary outcome measures were analyzed: time to cool after initiation of transport, time to achieve target temperature from birth and temperature on arrival to cooling centers...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
K D Burke, J W Williams, M A Chandler, A M Haywood, D J Lunt, B L Otto-Bliesner
As the world warms due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations, the Earth system moves toward climate states without societal precedent, challenging adaptation. Past Earth system states offer possible model systems for the warming world of the coming decades. These include the climate states of the Early Eocene (ca. 50 Ma), the Mid-Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma), the Last Interglacial (129-116 ka), the Mid-Holocene (6 ka), preindustrial (ca. 1850 CE), and the 20th century. Here, we quantitatively assess the similarity of future projected climate states to these six geohistorical benchmarks using simulations from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model Version 3 (HadCM3), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2-R (GISS), and the Community Climate System Model, Versions 3 and 4 (CCSM) Earth system models...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tina Lüdecke, Ottmar Kullmer, Ulrike Wacker, Oliver Sandrock, Jens Fiebig, Friedemann Schrenk, Andreas Mulch
New geochemical data from the Malawi Rift (Chiwondo Beds, Karonga Basin) fill a major spatial gap in our knowledge of hominin adaptations on a continental scale. Oxygen (δ18 O), carbon (δ13 C), and clumped (Δ47 ) isotope data on paleosols, hominins, and selected fauna elucidate an unexpected diversity in the Pleistocene hominin diet in the various habitats of the East African Rift System (EARS). Food sources of early Homo and Paranthropus thriving in relatively cool and wet wooded savanna ecosystems along the western shore of paleolake Malawi contained a large fraction of C3 plant material...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bryce M Henson, Dong K Shin, Kieran F Thomas, Jacob A Ross, Michael R Hush, Sean S Hodgman, Andrew G Truscott
The control and manipulation of quantum systems without excitation are challenging, due to the complexities in fully modeling such systems accurately and the difficulties in controlling these inherently fragile systems experimentally. For example, while protocols to decompress Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) faster than the adiabatic timescale (without excitation or loss) have been well developed theoretically, experimental implementations of these protocols have yet to reach speeds faster than the adiabatic timescale...
December 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A D Hillier, J S Lord, K Ishida, C Rogers
For the last 30 years, muon experiments at ISIS pulsed neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire have been making a significant contribution to a number of scientific fields. The muon facilities at ISIS consist of eight experimental areas. The European Commission Muon facility consists of three experimental areas with a fixed momentum (28 MeV c-1 ). The RIKEN-RAL facility has a variable momentum (17-90 MeV c-1 ) and a choice of negative or positive muons delivering muons to four experimental areas...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jie Song, Mengxue Lu, Jianguo Lu, Ling Chao, Zhen An, Yue Liu, Dongqun Xu, Weidong Wu
Although numerous studies have investigated the association between air pollution and hospitalization, few studies have focused on the health effect of air pollution on populations with hypertension. In this study, we conducted a time-series study to investigate the acute adverse effect of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5 ], inhalable particulate matter [PM10 ], nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], sulfur dioxide [SO2 ], ozone [O3 ], and carbon monoxide [CO]) on hospitalization of patients for hypertension in Shijiazhuang, China, from 2013 to 2016...
December 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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