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Wendy A Pethick, Holly J Murray, Paula McFadyen, Ryan Brodie, Catherine A Gaul, Trent Stellingwerff
The impact of hydration status was investigated during a 5-day heat acclimation (HA) training protocol versus mild/cool control conditions on plasma volume (PV) and performance (20km time-trial (TT)). Sub-elite athletes were allocated to one of two heat training groups (90 min/day): 1) dehydrated to ~2% body weight (BW) loss in heat (35°C; DEH; n=14); 2) euhydrated heat (35°C; EUH; n=10), where training was isothermally clamped to 38.5°C core temperature (Tc). A euhydrated mild control group (22°C; CON; n=9) was later added, with training clamped to the same relative heart rate (~75% HRmax) as elicited during DEH and EUH; thus all groups experienced the same internal training stress (%HRmax)...
October 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Na Liu, Chithra Karunakaran, Rachid Lahlali, Tom Warkentin, Rosalind A Bueckert
ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with uni- and multivariate analysis was used to quantify the spectral-chemical composition of the leaf cuticle of pea, investigating the effects of variety and heat stress. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is sensitive to heat stress and our goal was to improve canopy cooling and flower retention by investigating the protective role of lipid-related compounds in leaf cuticle, and to use results in the future to identify heat resistant genotypes. The objective was to use Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique, to investigate and quantify changes in adaxial cuticles of fresh leaves of pea varieties that were subjected to heat stress...
October 13, 2018: Planta
Sarah B White, Zhouli Zhang, Jeane Chen, Venkateswara R Gogineni, Andrew C Larson
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in immune responses between cryoablation and irreversible electroporation (IRE) in a preclinical mouse model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mouse pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-2) was implanted in the bilateral flanks of mice, and tumor-bearing mice were divided into 6 groups. One of the tumors was ablated either with contact cryoablation using an argon-cooled cryoablation probe for 1 minute at 5% power or by IRE for a total of 64 100-μs-duration, 1250-V/cm2 pulses with 100-ms spacing...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress abatement is not difficult to implement, and at a minimum all cows should have shade access regardless of housing or pasture access. Active cooling of lactating cows and dry cows can have dramatic effects on productive function and enhance immune status as well. Whereas the method of abatement may vary depending on humidity conditions at a particular location, cooling can be achieved in any environment. Therefore, producers should emphasize appropriate heat stress abatement throughout the production cycle to improve productivity and health, including limiting mastitis...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Chih-Hsuan Chang, Preston G Scrape, David J Nesbitt
High-resolution rotationally resolved spectra of the N-H stretch vibrational mode ( ν 1 ) of jet-cooled ND3 H+ ions are collected and analyzed in a sub-Doppler slit-jet infrared spectrometer. The isotopomeric ammonium ions are generated by proton transfer from H3 + to ND3 in a discharge of an ND3 /H2 gas mixture, whereby the slit jet expansion cools the nascent ND3 H+ ions into lower rotational states. Rotational assignments are confirmed by four-line combination differences that agree to within the spectrometer precision (9 MHz)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Michal Košťál, Martin Schulc, Jaroslav Šoltés, Evžen Losa, Ladislav Viererbl, Zdeněk Matěj, František Cvachovec, Vojtěch Rypar
The correct description of neutron transport in lead is an essential task for correct description of tritium production in the DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) breeding blanket because some concepts deal with lead as a major component: namely the WCLL (water cooled lithium lead blanket), HCLL (helium cooled lithium lead blanket), and DCLL (dual cooled lithium lead blanket). Concerning the improvement of the knowledge about the transport of fast neutrons in lead, a set of experiments and calculations was carried out to study this problem with a well-defined neutron beam...
September 3, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Liang Zhu
Despite more than 80 years of animal experiments and clinical practice, efficacy of hypothermia in improving treatment outcomes in patients suffering from cell and tissue damage caused by ischemia is still ongoing. This review will first describe the history of utilizing cooling in medical treatment, followed by chemical and biochemical mechanisms of cooling that can lead to neuroprotection often observed in animal studies and some clinical studies. The next sections will be focused on current cooling approaches/devices, as well as cooling parameters recommended by researchers and clinicians...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yi Xu, Bingru Huang
Heat and drought stress are primary abiotic stresses confining growth of cool-season grass species during summer. The objective of this study was to identify common molecular factors and metabolic pathways associated with heat and drought responses in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) by comparative analysis of transcriptomic profiles between plants exposed to heat and drought stress. Plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30 °C day/night temperature) or drought stress by withholding irrigation for 21 d in growth chambers...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenkai Li, Weidong Guo, Bo Qiu, Yongkang Xue, Pang-Chi Hsu, Jiangfeng Wei
The responses of atmospheric variability to Tibetan Plateau (TP) snow cover (TPSC) at seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales have been extensively investigated. However, the atmospheric response to faster subseasonal variability of TPSC has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the subseasonal variability of TPSC, as revealed by daily data, is closely related to the subsequent East Asian atmospheric circulation at medium-range time scales (approximately 3-8 days later) during wintertime. TPSC acts as an elevated cooling source in the middle troposphere during wintertime and rapidly modulates the land surface thermal conditions over the TP...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Wei Li, Yu Shi, Zhen Chen, Shanhui Fan
The colours of outdoor structures, such as automobiles, buildings and clothing, are typically chosen for functional or aesthetic reasons. With a chosen colour, however, one must control the radiative thermal load for heating or cooling purposes. Here we provide a comprehensive calculation of the tunable range of radiative thermal load for all colours. The range exceeds 680 Wm-2 for all colours, and can be as high as 866 Wm-2 , resulting from effects of metamerism, infrared solar absorption and radiative cooling...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
David L Chichester, James T Johnson, Scott M Watson, Jay D Hix, Scott J Thompson
Observations of photon and neutron background radiation were made in Rigby, Idaho, during the Great American Eclipse on August 21, 2017. Photon measurements were made using a mechanically-cooled, high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer, segmenting the data into four energy bands of < 1 MeV, 1-2 MeV, 2-3 MeV, and 3-7 MeV. Neutron measurements were made using 3 He proportional counter arrays embedded in polyethylene, either bare or wrapped with Cd or B filters. All data was analyzed in 900-s intervals starting one day before the eclipse and extending to one day after the eclipse...
September 8, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jan-Thorsten Klein, Franziska Berger, Walter Linzenbold, Luise Jäger, Markus D Enderle, Hans Bösmüller, Jens Mundhenk, Christian Schwentner, Christian Bolenz
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel device for cryobiopsy of the upper urinary tract (UUT) and to evaluate its feasibility in a standardized preclinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flexible cryoprobes (diameter 0.9 mm; cooling agent CO2) were developed and used to extract biopsies in porcine UUTs. Cryosamples obtained by ureterorenoscopy (URS) were systematically compared to biopsy specimens obtained with standard of care devices in terms of physical characteristics (deflection angle and irrigation flow rates) and histological criteria (assessability)...
October 9, 2018: Urology
Md Ariful Alam, Sheikh Mustafizur Rahman, Yoji Yamamoto, Ricardo Shohei Hattori, Toru Suzuki, Manabu Watanabe, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann
Microinjection has proven useful for introduction of low-permeability cryoprotective agents (CPAs) into fish eggs or embryos for cryopreservation. In this work, we examined the suitable conditions for single or combined microinjection into the perivitelline space (PS) and the yolk mass (YM) of embryos of the Japanese whiting, an alternative marine fish model for embryo cryopreservation studies. The parameters examined were injection volume, CPA type and concentration, vehicle (diluent), and suitable developmental stage...
October 9, 2018: Cryobiology
Xavier Monnier, Daniele Cangialosi
We employ fast scanning calorimetry to assess the thermodynamic state attained after a given cooling rate and the molecular mobility of glassy poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) confined at the micrometer length scale. We show that, for such a large confinement length scale, thermodynamic states with a fictive temperature (T_{f}) 80 K below the polymer glass transition temperature (T_{g}) are attained, which allows to bypass the geological timescales required for bulk glasses. Access to such states is promoted by a fast mechanism of equilibration...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Felix Schmidt, Daniel Mayer, Quentin Bouton, Daniel Adam, Tobias Lausch, Nicolas Spethmann, Artur Widera
We report on spin dynamics of individual, localized neutral impurities immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Single cesium atoms are transported into a cloud of rubidium atoms and thermalize with the bath, and the ensuing spin exchange between localized impurities with quasispin F_{i}=3 and bath atoms with F_{b}=1 is resolved. Comparing our data to numerical simulations of spin dynamics, we find that, for gas densities in the Bose-Einstein condensate regime, the dynamics is dominated by the condensed fraction of the cloud...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tomoaki Sugaya, Takashi Fujihara, Takashi Naka, Takao Furubayashi, Akiyuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Isago, Akira Nagasawa
For the first time, the spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon was observed in an FeII-S6 system in a tris(chelate)-type iron(II) complex with a zwitterionic sulfur donor bidentate, bis(N,N-diethylamino)carbeniumdithiocarboxylate (EtL), [FeII(EtL)3](PF6)2, (1), as synthesized by the reaction of a precursor complex [FeII(CH3CN)6](PF6)2 with EtL. In the solid state, the high-spin d6 (HS) state at ambient temperature and the low-spin d6 (LS) state at temperatures lower than ~240 K were evidenced by magnetic measurements with SQUID and Mössbauer spectra in the temperature range 4-280 K...
October 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Julien Garnon, Roberto Luigi Cazzato, Jean Caudrelier, Maud Nouri-Neuville, Pramod Rao, Emanuele Boatta, Nitin Ramamurthy, Guillaume Koch, Afshin Gangi
Although rare, unintended thermal injury to organs surrounding the ablation zone can lead to severe complications. Over the past 15 years, different protective methods have been developed to limit risk of complications, and expand indications to include more challenging lesions in various locations including liver, kidney, lung and bone. The most frequently used techniques include hydrodissection, carbodissection, balloon interposition and probe torqueing. In most cases, tumours can be physically separated from sensitive structures, reducing risk of thermal injury...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Hiroshi Oike, Manabu Kamitani, Yoshinori Tokura, Fumitaka Kagawa
Exploration for superconductivity is one of the research frontiers in condensed matter physics. In strongly correlated electron systems, the emergence of superconductivity is often inhibited by the formation of a thermodynamically more stable magnetic/charge order. Thus, to develop the superconductivity as the thermodynamically most stable state, the free-energy balance between the superconductivity and the competing order has been controlled mainly by changing thermodynamic parameters, such as the physical/chemical pressure and carrier density...
October 2018: Science Advances
Kang-Kuen Ni, Till Rosenband, David D Grimes
We propose a two-qubit gate based on dipolar exchange interactions between individually addressable ultracold polar molecules in an array of optical dipole traps. Our proposal treats the full Hamiltonian of the 1 Σ+ molecule NaCs, utilizing a pair of nuclear spin states as storage qubits. A third rotationally excited state with rotation-hyperfine coupling enables switchable electric dipolar exchange interactions between two molecules to generate an iSWAP gate. All three states are insensitive to external magnetic and electric fields...
September 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Haiquan Tian, Jing-Bu Su, Song-Song Bao, Mohamedally Kurmoo, Xin-Da Huang, Yi-Quan Zhang, Li-Min Zheng
{Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )(μ4 -C15 H11 PO3 )(μ2 -AcO)2 (AcO)2 (H2 O)(CH3 OH)2 }2 (μ4 -C2 O4 )· x H2 O ( I ), where H2 EDDC is N ', N '', E , N ', N '', E-N ', N ''-(ethane-1,2-diylidene)dipyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and C15 H11 PO3 H2 is 9-anthrylmethylphosphonic acid, is found to undergo two consecutive single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. The first is under UV irradiation ( λ = 365 nm for 3 d in air) to {Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )2 (μ2 -AcO)2 (AcO)2 (H2 O)3 }2 (μ4 -C2 O4 )· x H2 O ( I-UV ) where the two CH3 OH are replaced by two H2 O and the second by annealing under N2 at 100 °C on a diffractometer or under Ar in a glovebox to {Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )2 (μ2 -AcO)4 (H2 O)}2 (μ4 -C2 O4 ) ( I-A-N2 or I-A-Ar ) where it has lost two H2 O molecules...
August 14, 2018: Chemical Science
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