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Adeela Usman, Sarah Lewis, Kathryn Hinsliff-Smith, Annabelle Long, Gemma Housley, Jake Jordan, Heather Gage, Tom Dening, John R F Gladman, Adam L Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Research into interventions to improve health and well-being for older people living in care homes is increasingly common. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently used as an outcome measure, but collecting both self-reported and proxy HRQoL measures is challenging in this setting. This study will investigate the reliability of UK care home staff as proxy respondents for the EQ-5D-5L and HowRu measures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective cohort study of a subpopulation of care home residents recruited to the larger Proactive Healthcare for Older People in Care Homes (PEACH) study...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Claire M Nightingale, Alicja R Rudnicka, Bina Ram, Aparna Shankar, Elizabeth S Limb, Duncan Procter, Ashley R Cooper, Angie S Page, Anne Ellaway, Billie Giles-Corti, Christelle Clary, Daniel Lewis, Steven Cummins, Peter H Whincup, Derek G Cook, Christopher G Owen
OBJECTIVES: The neighbourhood environment is increasingly shown to be an important correlate of health. We assessed associations between housing tenure, neighbourhood perceptions, sociodemographic factors and levels of physical activity (PA) and adiposity among adults seeking housing in East Village (formerly London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games Athletes' Village). SETTING: Cross-sectional analysis of adults seeking social, intermediate and market-rent housing in East Village...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Helena Lewis-Smith, Phillippa Claire Diedrichs, Diana Harcourt
Body image interventions for breast cancer survivors are lacking in empirical support. Examining existing research on effective body image interventions for women in midlife more broadly may provide useful insights. This pilot study assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based intervention adapted from women in midlife to promote positive body image among breast cancer survivors. Twenty-two breast cancer survivors received the 7-week group intervention, co-facilitated by a clinical psychologist and peer...
August 16, 2018: Body Image
Richard P Tobin, Kimberly R Jordan, William A Robinson, Dana Davis, Virginia F Borges, Rene Gonzalez, Karl D Lewis, Martin D McCarter
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved overall survival rates for many cancers, yet the majority of patients do not respond to treatment and succumb to disease progression. One tumor-related mechanism limiting the efficacy of immunotherapies in melanoma is the recruitment and expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Therefore, targeting MDSCs in combination with immunotherapies is an attractive strategy to improve response rates and effectiveness. METHODS: We tested this strategy by designing a randomized phase II clinical trial treating advanced melanoma patients with either Ipilimumab monotherapy or Ipilimumab plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)...
August 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Monica H Breitve, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Luiza J Chwiszczuk, Minna J Hynninen, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the consequences of apathy in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), because previous research on apathy in dementia focused mainly on Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we included patients with AD (n = 128) and patients with DLB (n = 81). At baseline, we analyzed the associations between apathy and cognition in the total sample and in AD and DLB separately. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between apathy and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over 4 years, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the association between apathy and survival or nursing home admission...
August 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Enrico Bagnoli, Una FitzGerald
The olfactory bulb (OB) is often affected at very early stages of neurodegenerative disorders, in the so-called 'prodromal' phase. In Parkinson's disease (PD), olfactory disturbances appear years before motor symptoms arise. Additionally, pathological alpha-synuclein aggregates are found in olfactory regions before spreading to other areas of the brain. Being positioned at the frontier between the brain and a potentially hostile environment, could explain the particular vulnerability of the OB. Mitral cells (MCs), the principal projecting neurons of the olfactory system, are involved in the pathogenesis and in the prion-like progression of PD...
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Carrie-Anne Lewis, Susan de Jersey, George Hopkins, Ingrid Hickman, Emma Osland
BACKGROUND: The restrictive and/or malabsorptive nature of bariatric surgery may increase the risk for micronutrient deficiencies. This systematic review aimed to identify and critique the evidence for vitamin A, B1, C or E deficiencies associated with bariatric surgery. METHODS: This review utilised PRISMA and MOOSE frameworks with NHMRC evidence hierarchy and the American Dietetic Association bias tool to assess the quality of articles. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included and once critiqued all studies were of level IV grade and neutral or negative in quality...
August 17, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mariano Méndez, Andrés Cedillo
The chemical reactivity of a set of borophosphines of the general formula R2 B-G-PY2 , where G is the connector group between the Lewis acidic site, a borane group, and the Lewis basic site, a phosphine fragment, is theoretically investigated through their Lewis acidity and Lewis basicity, as well as the location of the Fukui function and the shape of the molecular electrostatic potential. The role of some global reactivity descriptors, like the vertical ionization potential, I, and the vertical electron affinity, A, is also analyzed in order to gain a deeper insight on the intrinsic chemical reactivity of these borophosphines...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Daniel W Chung, Youjin Chung, H Holly Bazmi, David A Lewis
Working memory requires the activity of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Impaired working memory and lower PV expression in the DLPFC are reported in schizophrenia and to a lesser degree in mood disorders. We previously proposed that activity-dependent PV expression is lower in schizophrenia due to a shift in the splicing of erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ErbB4) transcripts from major to inactive minor variants that reduces excitatory drive to PV interneurons...
August 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michelle Yen, Richard S Lewis
The binding of STIM1 to Orai1 controls the opening of store-operated CRAC channels as well as their extremely high Ca2+ selectivity. Although STIM1 dimers are known to bind directly to the cytosolic C termini of the six Orai1 subunits (SUs) that form the channel hexamer, the dependence of channel activation and selectivity on the number of occupied binding sites is not well understood. Here we address these questions using dimeric and hexameric Orai1 concatemers in which L273D mutations were introduced to inhibit STIM1 binding to specific Orai1 SUs...
August 17, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Dannielle Zierath, Theresa Olmstead, Astiana Stults, Angela Shen, Allison Kunze, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND: A robust adrenergic response following stroke impairs lymphocyte function, which may prevent the development of autoimmune responses to brain antigens. We tested whether inhibition of the sympathetic response after stroke would increase the propensity for developing autoimmune responses to brain antigens. METHODS: Male Lewis rats were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA) prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), labetalol after MCAO, or appropriate controls...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Nakul Valsangkar, Hai V N Salfity, Lava Timsina, DuyKhanh P Ceppa, Eugene P Ceppa, Thomas J Birdas
BACKGROUND: The effect of operative duration on postoperative outcomes of esophagectomy is not well understood. The relationship between operative duration and postoperative complications was explored. METHODS: Esophagectomies with gastric reconstruction performed between 2010 and 2015 were queried from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Linear and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine if operative duration correlated with outcomes independent of comorbidities...
August 15, 2018: Surgery
Francesca Solmi, Daniela Melamed, Glyn Lewis, James B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences might represent non-specific markers of poor mental health in adolescence. However, only a few predominantly cross-sectional studies have tested their association with disordered eating behaviours in adolescent and adult populations. The aim of this study was to explore the association between psychotic experiences at age 13 years, and disordered eating behaviours and body-mass index (BMI) at age 18 years. METHODS: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in Avon (England, UK) including mothers with an expected delivery date between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992, and their children...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Dipendu Mandal, Richa Gupta, Rowan D Young
Monodefluorination of gem-difluoromethyl groups is achieved using a Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP) approach. Tri-arylphosphines and group 13 Lewis acids were surveyed as FLP components, with the combination of P(o-Tol)3 and B(C6F5)3 found to provide the best results, although the reaction is feasible with more economical components (PPh3 and BF3.OEt2). The α-fluoroalkylphosphonium products arising from the reaction were of lower activity, in regards to further fluoride abstraction, as compared to difluoride starting materials - leading to highly selective monodefluorina-tion...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Malvina Hoxha, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas
BACKGROUND: Leukotrienes are important lipid mediators of inflammation arising from arachidonic acid cascade. They are implicated in vascular inflammation and produced in different pathologic conditions as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Different studies have investigated the role of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) in reducing some cardiovascular events, especially in animals. We conducted a systematic review of both in vivo animal and human studies to determine the potential role of leukotriene receptor antagonist in reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events...
July 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
George M Ibrahim, Alexander G Weil, Shaina Sedighim, Nathan B Schoen, Mirriam Mikhail, Priya Sharma, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Iahn Cajigas, Walter J Jermakowicz, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Evan C Lewis, Aria Fallah, Nolan Altman, Santiago Medina, Esperanza Pacheco-Jacome, Prasanna Jayakar, Ann Hyslop, Ian Miller, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia, Byron Bernal
PURPOSE: Magnetic Resonance-guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (MRgLITT) is an emerging minimally-invasive alternative to resective surgery for medically-intractable epilepsy. The precise lesioning effect produced by MRgLITT supplies opportunities to glean insights into epileptogenic regions and their interactions with functional brain networks. In this exploratory analysis, we sought to characterize associations between MRgLITT ablation zones and large-scale brain networks that portended seizure outcome using resting-state fMRI...
August 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Alexander Tuchman, Lawrence G Lenke, Meghan Cerpa, Michael G Fehlings, Stephen J Lewis, Christopher I Shaffrey, Kenneth M C Cheung, Leah Yacat Carreon, Mark B Dekutoski, Frank J Schwab, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Khaled Kebaish, Christopher P Ames, Yong Qiu, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Benny T Dahl, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé, Sigurd H Berven
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Scoli-RISK-1 is a multicenter prospective cohort designed to study neurologic outcomes following complex adult spinal deformity (ASD). The effect of unilateral versus bilateral postoperative motor deficits on the likelihood of long term recovery has not been previously studied in this population. PURPOSE: Evaluate if bilateral postoperative neurologic deficits have a worse recovery than unilateral deficits. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter, international cohort study...
August 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Antonio Lopalco, Valentino J Stella, Ward H Thompson
The purpose of this study is to try to identify the etiology and formulation implications of the significant pKa drop in aqueous solution that occurs when boronic acids are reversibly esterified by reaction with alcohols, especially 1,2-diols. Experimental studies have shown that conversion of a boronic acid to a boronic acid ester, both Lewis acids, is accompanied by an increase in the acidity, that is, a lowering of the pKa value in aqueous solution. The drop in pKa value has significant implications for the formulation of boronic acid-based drugs...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
N U M Howes, Z S Mir, M A Blitz, S Hardman, T R Lewis, D Stone, P W Seakins
Recent, direct studies have shown that several reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) are significantly faster than indicated by earlier indirect measurements. The reaction of SCI with SO2 may contribute to atmospheric sulfate production, but there are uncertainties in the mechanism of the reaction of the C1 Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, with SO2. The reactions of C1, CH2OO, and C2, CH3CHOO, Criegee intermediates with SO2 have been studied by generating stabilized Criegee intermediates by laser flash photolysis (LFP) of RI2/O2 (R = CH2 or CH3CH) mixtures with the reactions being followed by photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS)...
August 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yanshuang Zhao, Sheng Huang, Zhiru Cui, Quan Chai, Yanlei Liu, Jing Ren, Jianzhong Zhang, Elfed Lewis, Zhihai Liu, Jun Yang, Libo Yuan
An electric-arc-based scheme to generate strength-controllable weak polarization mode coupling (PMC) points in polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) is described. The resulting PMC strengths can be readily controlled to be in the very weak range of -60 to -40  dB. In this range, excellent mechanical strength combined with high return loss is achieved. An experimental quasi-distributed temperature sensor is formed by three separate PMC points in a single PMF using the electric arc method.
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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