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Alzheimer biomarker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458036/plasma-amyloid-levels-within-the-alzheimer-s-process-and-correlations-with-central-biomarkers
#2
Olivier Hanon, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Sylvain Lehmann, Stéphanie Bombois, Bernadette Allinquant, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Patrick Gelé, Christine Delmaire, Fredéric Blanc, Jean-François Mangin, Luc Buée, Jacques Touchon, Jacques Hugon, Bruno Vellas, Evelyne Galbrun, Athanase Benetos, Gilles Berrut, Elèna Paillaud, David Wallon, Giovanni Castelnovo, Lisette Volpe-Gillot, Marc Paccalin, Philippe-Henri Robert, Olivier Godefroy, Thierry Dantoine, Vincent Camus, Joël Belmin, Pierre Vandel, Jean-Luc Novella, Emmanuelle Duron, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Suzanna Schraen-Maschke, Audrey Gabelle
BACKGROUNDS: Diagnostic relevance of plasma amyloid β (Aβ) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) process yields conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To assess plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), nonamnestic MCI, and AD patients and to investigate relationships between peripheral and central biomarkers. METHODS: One thousand forty participants (417 amnestic MCI, 122 nonamnestic MCI, and 501 AD) from the Biomarker of AmyLoïd pepTide and AlZheimer's diseAse Risk multicenter prospective study with cognition, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were included...
February 16, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456500/auditory-memory-decay-as-reflected-by-a-new-mismatch-negativity-score-is-associated-with-episodic-memory-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#3
Daria Laptinskaya, Franka Thurm, Olivia C Küster, Patrick Fissler, Winfried Schlee, Stephan Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) peaking about 100-250 ms after the onset of a deviant tone in a sequence of identical (standard) tones. Depending on the interstimulus interval (ISI) between standard and deviant tones, the MMN is suitable to investigate the pre-attentive auditory discrimination ability (short ISIs, ≤ 2 s) as well as the pre-attentive auditory memory trace (long ISIs, >2 s). However, current results regarding the MMN as an index for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are mixed, especially after short ISIs: while the majority of studies report positive associations between the MMN and cognition, others fail to find such relationships...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#4
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453935/evaluation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-phosphorylated-tau-231-as-a-biomarker-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#5
Spomenka Kiđemet-Piskač, Mirjana Babić Leko, Antonela Blažeković, Lea Langer Horvat, Nataša Klepac, Zdenko Sonicki, Danijela Kolenc, Patrick R Hof, Marina Boban, Ninoslav Mimica, Fran Borovečki, Goran Šimić
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) is still largely based on clinical guidelines and exclusion of other diseases that may lead to dementia. AIMS: In this study, we assessed whether the use of sensitive and specific biomarkers such as phosphorylated tau proteins could contribute to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD and VaD, as well as to their differentiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 198 patients, of which 152 had AD, 28 VaD, and 18 were healthy controls (HC), were included in the analyses...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452686/technological-advances-and-changing-indications-for-lumbar-puncture-in-neurological-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
Technological advances have changed the indications for and the way in which lumbar puncture is done. Suspected CNS infection remains the most common indication for lumbar puncture, but new molecular techniques have broadened CSF analysis indications, such as the determination of neuronal autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis. New screening techniques have increased sensitvity for pathogen detection and can be used to identify pathogens that were previously unknown to cause CNS infections. Evidence suggests that potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, will rely on early detection of the disease with the use of CSF biomarkers...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449700/imaging-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteinopathies-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Victor L Villemagne, Vincent Doré, Samantha C Burnham, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe
Most neurodegenerative disorders are associated with aggregated protein deposits. In the case of Alzheimer disease (AD), extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles are the two neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Aβ-PET imaging has already been approved for clinical use and is being used in clinical trials of anti-Aβ therapies both for patient recruitment and as an outcome measure. These studies have shown that Aβ accumulation is a protracted process that can extend for more than 2 decades before the onset of clinical AD...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446720/electrochemistry-of-alzheimer-disease-amyloid-beta-peptides
#8
Ana-Maria Chiorcea-Paquim, Teodor Adrian Enache, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a widespread form of dementia that is estimated to affect 44.4 million people worldwide. AD pathology is closely related to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in fibrils and plagues, the small oligomeric intermediate species formed during the Aβ peptides aggregation presenting the highest neurotoxicity. This review discusses the recent advances on the Aβ peptides electrochemical characterisation. The Aβ peptides oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode occurs in one or two steps, depending on the amino acid sequence, length and content...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445325/biomarkers-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-current-status-and-interest-of-oxysterols-and-phytosterols
#9
REVIEW
Anne Vejux, Amira Namsi, Thomas Nury, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a non-demyelinating neurodegenerative disease in adults with motor disorders. Two forms exist: a sporadic form (90% of cases) and a family form due to mutations in more than 20 genes including the Superoxide dismutase 1, TAR DNA Binding Protein, Fused in Sarcoma, chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 and VAPB genes. The mechanisms associated with this pathology are beginning to be known: oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, protein aggregation, reticulum endoplasmic stress, neuroinflammation, alteration of RNA metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444966/cerebral-microbleeds-and-csf-alzheimer-biomarkers-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#10
Aline Mendes, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Olivier Colliot, Alexandre Routier, Olivier Godefroy, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Olivier Moreaud, Florence Pasquier, Philippe Couratier, Karim Bennys, Martine Vercelletto, Olivier Martinaud, Bernard Laurent, Jérémie Pariente, Michèle Puel, Stéphane Epelbaum, Serge Belliard, Takoua Kaaouana, Ludovic Fillon, Marie Chupin, Bruno Dubois, Marc Teichmann
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the prevalence and localization of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in the 3 main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (logopenic, semantic, and nonfluent/agrammatic), to identify the relationship with underlying Alzheimer pathology, and to explore whether CMBs contribute to language breakdown. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design in a multicenter cohort of 82 patients with PPA and 19 similarly aged healthy controls. MRI allowed for rating CMBs (2-dimensional gradient recalled echo T2*, susceptibility weighted imaging sequences) and white matter hyperintensities...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439351/relationship-of-area-of-soft-drusen-in-retina-with-cerebral-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-and-blood-amyloid-%C3%AE-level-in-the-elderly
#11
Chiho Shoda, Yorihisa Kitagawa, Hiroyuki Shimada, Mitsuko Yuzawa, Amane Tateno, Yoshiro Okubo
BACKGROUND: Histopathological studies have confirmed that soft drusen contains amyloid-β (Aβ). OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the area of soft drusen in the macular area and cerebral Aβ accumulation or plasma Aβ level in elderly persons without dementia. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients (18 eyes) aged ≥50 years with macular soft drusen were studied prospectively. From color fundus photographs, the area of soft drusen (pixel) within a 6,000 μm diameter with the macula as center was measured...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439341/reproducibility-of-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-measurements-under-clinical-routine-conditions
#12
Jonathan Vogelgsang, Dirk Wedekind, Caroline Bouter, Hans-W Klafki, Jens Wiltfang
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the key tools for the state-of-the-art differential diagnosis of dementias. Dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by elevated CSF levels of total Tau (tTau) and phospho-181-Tau (pTau) and low CSF amyloid-β42 (Aβ42). Discrepancies in the laboratory analysis of human materials are well known and much effort has been put into harmonization procedures. In this study, we measured CSF biomarkers of more than 100 patients obtained under clinical routine conditions in two different clinical laboratories...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439329/subtle-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-type-pathological-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-common-among-neurologically-healthy-subjects
#13
Fanni Haapalinna, Merja Kokki, Olli Jääskeläinen, Merja Hallikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Anne Koivisto, Hannu Kokki, Teemu Paajanen, Janne Penttinen, Maria Pikkarainen, Minna Rautiainen, Hilkka Soininen, Eino Solje, Anne M Remes, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka
BACKGROUND: The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been shown to be rather common among the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to inspect the associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker concentrations, age, the APOEɛ4 allele, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cognitive performance in a cohort of a neurologically healthy population. METHODS: This study included 93 subjects (42 men, mean age 67 years) without previous neurological symptoms or subjective cognitive complaints...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439325/prediction-and-early-detection-of-alzheimer-s-dementia-professional-disclosure-practices-and-ethical-attitudes
#14
Mark Schweda, Anna Kögel, Claudia Bartels, Jens Wiltfang, Anja Schneider, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Biomarker-supported testing for preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) finds its way into clinical practice. Professional attitudes and practices regarding disclosure and ethical issues are controversial in many countries. OBJECTIVES: Against this background, the objective was to survey the actual practice and the attitudes of physicians in German hospitals and memory clinics in order to explore possible practical insecurities and ethical concerns...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439323/interrelationship-between-the-levels-of-c9orf72-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-human-cells%C3%A2-and-brain-samples
#15
Stina Leskelä, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Nadine Huber, Jussi Paananen, Vikram Mitra, Tuomas Rauramaa, Petra Mäkinen, Ville Leinonen, Hilkka Soininen, Ian Pike, Anne M Remes, Mikko Hiltunen, Annakaisa Haapasalo
A subset of C9orf72 repeat expansion-carrying frontotemporal dementia patients display an Alzheimer-like decrease in cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β (Aβ) biomarker levels. We report that downregulation of C9orf72 in non-neuronal human cells overexpressing amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) resulted in increased levels of secreted AβPP fragments and Aβ, while levels of AβPP or its C-terminal fragments (CTFs) remained unchanged. In neuronal cells, AβPP and C83 CTF levels were decreased upon C9orf72 knockdown, but those of secreted AβPP fragments or Aβ remained unchanged...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439322/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-are-differentially-related-to-structural-and-functional-changes-in-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-s-type
#16
Charles B Malpas, Michael M Saling, Dennis Velakoulis, Patricia Desmond, Rodney J Hicks, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Terence J O'Brien
The two cardinal pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop according to distinct anatomical trajectories. Cerebral tau-related pathology first accumulates in the mesial temporal region, while amyloid-related pathology first appears in neocortex. The eventual distributions of these pathologies reflect their anatomical origins. An implication is that the cardinal pathologies might exert preferential effects on the structurofunctional brain changes observed in AD. We investigated this hypothesis in 39 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438037/tau-negative-amnestic-dementia-masquerading-as-alzheimer-disease-dementia
#17
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Mary M Machulda, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Melissa E Murray, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenomenon of tau-negative amnestic dementia mimicking Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically and radiologically and to highlight the importance of biomarkers in AD research. METHODS: Eight participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia were evaluated by a behavioral neurologist and had a standardized neuropsychological battery performed. All participants completed structural (MRI) and molecular (amyloid and tau PET) imaging...
February 7, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436240/oxidative-stress-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Fabrice Collin, Clémence Cheignon, Christelle Hureau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435558/association-between-amyloid-and-tau-accumulation-in-young-adults-with-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#19
Yakeel T Quiroz, Reisa A Sperling, Daniel J Norton, Ana Baena, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez, Danielle Cosio, Aaron Schultz, Molly Lapoint, Edmarie Guzman-Velez, John B Miller, Leo A Kim, Kewei Chen, Pierre N Tariot, Francisco Lopera, Eric M Reiman, Keith A Johnson
Importance: It is critically important to improve our ability to diagnose and track Alzheimer disease (AD) as early as possible. Individuals with autosomal dominant forms of AD can provide clues as to which and when biological changes are reliably present prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Objective: To characterize the associations between amyloid and tau deposits in the brains of cognitively unimpaired and impaired carriers of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434324/the-utility-of-a-network-based-clustering-method-for-dimension-reduction-of-imaging-and-non-imaging-biomarkers-predictive-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Hisako Yoshida, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Fumio Yamashita, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
While the identification of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical, emphasis must also be placed on defining the relationship between these and other indicators. To this end, we propose a network-based radial basis function-sparse partial least squares (RBF-sPLS) approach to analyze structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data of the brain. This intermediate phenotype for AD represents a more objective approach for exploring biomarkers in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The proposed method has two unique features for effective biomarker selection...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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