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Alzheimer biomarker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904818/the-government-s-role-in-regulating-coordinating-and-standardizing-the-response-to-alzheimer-s-disease-anticipated-international-cooperation-in-the-area-of-intractable-and-rare-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Qi Tang, Peipei Song, Lingzhong Xu
The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903335/patterns-of-cortical-and-subcortical-amyloid-burden-across-stages-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Emily C Edmonds, Katherine J Bangen, Lisa Delano-Wood, Daniel A Nation, Ansgar J Furst, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: We examined florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid scans across stages of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cortical, allocortical, and subcortical regions. Stages were characterized using empirically defined methods. METHODS: A total of 312 cognitively normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and florbetapir PET scan. Participants were classified into stages of preclinical AD using (1) a novel approach based on the number of abnormal biomarkers/cognitive markers each individual possessed, and (2) National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) criteria...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903332/computerized-cognitive-tests-are-associated-with-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-cognitively-normal-individuals-10-years-prior
#3
Anja Soldan, Corinne Pettigrew, Abhay Moghekar, Marilyn Albert
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers become abnormal many years before the emergence of clinical symptoms of AD, raising the possibility that biomarker levels measured in cognitively normal individuals would be associated with cognitive performance many years later. This study examined whether performance on computerized cognitive tests is associated with levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of amyloid, tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) obtained approximately 10 years earlier, when individuals were cognitively normal and primarily middle-aged...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903329/prediction-of-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-performance-using-volumetric-and-amyloid-based-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Lisa Quenon, Laurence Dricot, John L Woodard, Bernard Hanseeuw, Nathalie Gilis, Renaud Lhommel, Adrian Ivanoiu
OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have investigated relationships between performance on clinical memory measures and indexes of underlying neuropathology related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated predictive relationships between Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) cue efficiency (CE) and free-recall (FR) measures and brain amyloid levels, hippocampal volume (HV), and regional cortical thickness. METHODS: Thirty-one older controls without memory complaints and 60 patients presenting memory complaints underwent the FCSRT, amyloid imaging using [F18]-flutemetamol positron emission tomography, and surface-based morphometry (SBM) using brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896965/identification-of-discriminative-imaging-proteomics-associations-in-alzheimer-s-disease-via-a-novel-sparse-correlation-model
#5
Jingwen Yan, Shannon L Risacher, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J Saykin, L I Shen
Brain imaging and protein expression, from both cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma, have been found to provide complementary information in predicting the clinical outcomes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying associations that contribute to such a complementary relationship have not been previously studied yet. In this work, we will perform an imaging proteomics association analysis to explore how they are related with each other. While traditional association models, such as Sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis (SCCA), can not guarantee the selection of only disease-relevant biomarkers and associations, we propose a novel discriminative SCCA (denoted as DSCCA) model with new penalty terms to account for the disease status information...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891223/is-apoe-%C3%A9-4-a-good-biomarker-for-amyloid-pathology-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Maowen Ba, Min Kong, Xiaofeng Li, Kok Pin Ng, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
Amyloid plaques are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are important in diagnosing amyloid pathology in vivo. ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE ɛ 4), which is a major genetic risk factor for late onset AD, is an important genetic biomarker for AD pathophysiology. It has been shown that ApoE ɛ 4 is involved in Aβ deposition and formation of amyloid plaques...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891089/effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-cognitive-function-and-metabolic-status-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-double-blind-and-controlled-trial
#7
Elmira Akbari, Zatollah Asemi, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Mahmoud Salami
: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with severe cognitive impairments as well as some metabolic defects. Scant studies in animal models indicate a link between probiotics and cognitive function. This randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 AD patients to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on cognitive function and metabolic status. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 in each group) treating with either milk (control group) or a mixture of probiotics (probiotic group)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890382/-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebro-spinal-fluid-biomarkers-a-clinical-research-tool-sometimes-useful-in-daily-clinical-practice-of-memory-clinics-for-the-diagnosis-of-complex-cases
#8
E Magnin, J Dumurgier, E Bouaziz-Amar, S Bombois, D Wallon, A Gabelle, S Lehmann, F Blanc, O Bousiges, D Hannequin, B Jung, C Miguet-Alfonsi, M Quillard, F Pasquier, K Peoc'h, J-L Laplanche, J Hugon, C Paquet
The role of biomarkers in clinical research was recently highlighted in the new criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (total Tau protein, threonine 181 phosphorylated Tau protein and amyloid Aβ1-42 peptide) are associated with cerebral neuropathological lesions observed in Alzheimer's disease (neuronal death, neurofibrillary tangle with abnormal Tau deposits and amyloid plaque). Aβ1-40 amyloid peptide dosage helps to interpret Aβ1-42 results. As suggested in the latest international criteria and the French HAS (Haute Autorité de santé) recommendations, using theses CSF biomarkers should not be systematic but sometimes could be performed to improve confidence about the diagnostic of Alzheimer's disease in young subjects or in complex clinical situations...
November 24, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889678/early-hippocampal-hyperexcitability-in-ps2app-mice-role-of-mutant-ps2-and-app
#9
Roberto Fontana, Mario Agostini, Emanuele Murana, Mufti Mahmud, Elena Scremin, Maria Rubega, Giovanni Sparacino, Stefano Vassanelli, Cristina Fasolato
Alterations of brain network activity are observable in Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment, before overt pathology. However, in humans as well in AD mouse models, identification of early biomarkers of network dysfunction is still at its beginning. We performed in vivo recordings of local field potential activity in the dentate gyrus of PS2APP mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutation and the presenilin-2 (PS2) N141I. From a frequency-domain analysis, we uncovered network hyper-synchronicity as early as 3 months, when intracellular accumulation of amyloid beta was also observable...
November 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886011/odor-identification-screening-improves-diagnostic-classification-in-incipient-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Megan Quarmley, Paul J Moberg, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sushila Kabadi, Steven E Arnold, David A Wolk, David R Roalf
BACKGROUND: Measurements of olfaction may serve as useful biomarkers of incipient dementia. Here we examine the improvement in diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) when assessing both cognitive functioning and odor identification. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of odor identification as a supplementary screening test in incipient AD. METHODS: Sniffin' Sticks Odor Identification Test (SS-OIT) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were administered in 262 AD, 174 MCI [150 amnestic (aMCI), and 24 non-amnestic (naMCI)], and 292 healthy older adults (HOA)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886009/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-combined-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-t-prp-t-tau-p-tau-and-a%C3%AE-42-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-from-alzheimer-s-disease-with-emphasis-on-atypical-disease-variants
#11
Samir Abu Rumeileh, Francesca Lattanzio, Michelangelo Stanzani Maserati, Romana Rizzi, Sabina Capellari, Piero Parchi
According to recent studies, the determination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau)/phosphorylated tau (p-tau) ratio and total prion protein (t-PrP) levels significantly improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in atypical cases with clinical or laboratory features mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). However, this has neither been validated nor tested in series including atypical CJD variants. Furthermore, the added diagnostic value of amyloid-β (Aβ)42 remains unclear...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873182/tau-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-and-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
Jared R Brosch, Martin R Farlow, Shannon L Risacher, Liana G Apostolova
In vivo imaging of the tau protein has the potential to aid in quantitative diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, corroborate or dispute the amyloid hypothesis, and demonstrate biomarker engagement in clinical drug trials. A host of tau positron emission tomography agents have been designed, validated, and tested in humans. Several agents have characteristics approaching the ideal imaging tracer with some limitations, primarily regarding off-target binding. Dozens of clinical trials evaluating imaging techniques and several pharmaceutical trials have begun to integrate tau imaging into their protocols...
November 21, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870940/blood-based-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-disease-current-state-of-the-science-and-a-novel-collaborative-paradigm-for-advancing-from-discovery-to-clinic
#13
Sid E O'Bryant, Michelle M Mielke, Robert A Rissman, Simone Lista, Hugo Vanderstichele, Henrik Zetterberg, Piotr Lewczuk, Holly Posner, James Hall, Leigh Johnson, Yiu-Lian Fong, Johan Luthman, Andreas Jeromin, Richard Batrla-Utermann, Alcibiades Villarreal, Gabrielle Britton, Peter J Snyder, Kim Henriksen, Paula Grammas, Veer Gupta, Ralph Martins, Harald Hampel
The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research focused on the identification of blood-based biomarkers that have utility in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Blood-based biomarkers have significant advantages of being time- and cost-efficient as well as reduced invasiveness and increased patient acceptance. Despite these advantages and increased research efforts, the field has been hampered by lack of reproducibility and an unclear path for moving basic discovery toward clinical utilization. Here we reviewed the recent literature on blood-based biomarkers in AD to provide a current state of the art...
November 18, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868476/latent-structure-of-cognitive-performance-in-the-adult-children-study
#14
Denise Head, Samantha Allison, Nathaniel Lucena, Jason Hassenstab, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: The Adult Children Study (ACS) at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center is a longitudinal investigation designed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cognitively normal individuals with and without a family history of AD. The purpose of the current study was to validate the proposed latent structure of the ACS psychometric battery. METHOD: Confirmatory factor analyses of baseline data in a sample of 229 (75 men) cognitively normal middle-aged to older adult individuals assessed a hypothesized 4-factor model of cognitive performance...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867033/differences-in-a%C3%AE-brain-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-controls
#15
Huoqiang Duan, Jiehui Jiang, Jun Xu, Hucheng Zhou, Zhemin Huang, Zhihua Yu, Zhuangzhi Yan
The prevailing β-amyloid (Aβ)-cascade hypothesis is the most classical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this hypothesis, excessive Aβ plaque deposition in human brain is considered to be the cause of AD. Carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B Positron emission tomography (11C-PiB PET) is the latest technology to detect Aβ plaques in vivo. Thus, it is possible to investigate the difference of Aβ brain networks between AD patients and Health Controls (HC) by analyzing 11C-PiB PET images. In this study, a graph-theoretical method was employed to investigate the topological properties of Aβ networks in 18 Chinese AD patients and 16 HC subjects from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864881/visual-system-manifestations-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yael Kusne, Andrew B Wolf, Kate Townley, Mandi Conway, Gholam A Peyman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly common disease with massive personal and economic costs. While it has long been known that AD impacts the visual system, there has recently been an increased focus on understanding both pathophysiological mechanisms that may be shared between the eye and brain and how related biomarkers could be useful for AD diagnosis. Here, were review pertinent cellular and molecular mechanisms of AD pathophysiology, the presence of AD pathology in the visual system, associated functional changes, and potential development of diagnostic tools based on the visual system...
November 19, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864543/long-non-coding-rnas-a-novel-paradigm-for-toxicology
#17
REVIEW
Joseph L Dempsey, Julia Yue Cui
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are over 200 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from the mammalian genome in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated pattern. There is growing recognition that lncRNAs are novel biomarkers and/or key regulators of toxicological responses in humans and animal models. Lacking protein-coding capacity, the numerous types of lncRNAs possess a myriad of transcriptional regulatory functions that include cis and trans gene expression, transcription factor activity, chromatin remodeling, imprinting, and enhancer up-regulation...
November 17, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861589/role-of-plasma-clusterin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-india
#18
Venugopalan Y Vishnu, Manish Modi, Sandeep Sharma, Manju Mohanty, Manoj Kumar Goyal, Vivek Lal, Niranjan Khandelwal, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Sudesh Prabhakar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of plasma clusterin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACKGROUND: Plasma clusterin is a promising biomarker as various studies have shown it to be associated with AD. But other studies have shown that plasma clusterin levels were not related to Alzheimer's disease or presymptomatic AD. Hence the diagnostic value of plasma clusterin is still not conclusive. METHODS: Neuropsychological assessment, MRI brain, FDG-PET brain and CSF biomarkers of AD were used for establishing the diagnosis of MCI, AD or Vascular dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858714/feasibility-of-lumbar-puncture-in-the-study-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-subjects-with-down-syndrome
#19
María Carmona-Iragui, Telma Santos, Sebastián Videla, Susana Fernández, Bessy Benejam, Laura Videla, Daniel Alcolea, Kaj Blennow, Rafael Blesa, Alberto Lleó, Juan Fortea
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main medical problem in older adults with Down syndrome (DS). Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers are limited and the feasibility of lumbar puncture (LP) is controversial in this population. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of complications after a LP in DS. METHODS: We collected data from 80 adults with DS that underwent a LP within the Down Alzheimer Barcelona Neuroimaging Initiative...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858710/app-mutations-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-with-or-without-cortical-calcifications-report-of-three-families-and-a%C3%A2-literature-review
#20
François Sellal, David Wallon, Laurent Martinez-Almoyna, Cecilia Marelli, Abhinav Dhar, Héléne Oesterlé, Anne Rovelet-Lecrux, Stéphane Rousseau, Christina E Kourkoulis, Jon Rosand, Zora Y DiPucchio, Matthew Frosch, Claudine Gombert, Bertrand Audoin, Manuéle Mine, Florence Riant, Thierry Frebourg, Didier Hannequin, Dominique Campion, Steven M Greenberg, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve, Gaël Nicolas
BACKGROUND: Specific APP mutations cause cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed at reporting APP mutations associated with CAA, describe the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid AD biomarkers, and neuroimaging features, and compare them with the data from the literature. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in two French genetics laboratories by gathering all clinical and neuroimaging data from patients referred for a genetic diagnosis of CAA with an age of onset before 66 years and fulfilling the other Boston revised criteria...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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