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Alzheimer biomarker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046054/porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-role-of-epigenetic-modifications-to-the-inflammation
#1
Francesca Diomede, Soundara Rajan Thangavelu, Ilaria Merciaro, Monica D'Orazio, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Periodontitis is a chronic oral inflammatory disease produced by bacteria. Gingival retraction and bone and connective tissues resorption are the hallmarks of this disease. Chronic periodontitis may contribute to the risk of onset or progression of neuroinflammatory pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. The main goal of the present study was to investigate if the role of epigenetic modulations is involved in periodontitis using human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) as an in vitro model system...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042634/a-novel-quantification-driven-proteomic-strategy-identifies-an-endogenous-peptide-of-pleiotrophin-as-a-new-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Tobias Skillbäck, Niklas Mattsson, Karl Hansson, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Rahil Dahlén, Wiesje van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Floor Duits, Oskar Hansson, Charlotte Teunissen, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Johan Gobom
We present a new, quantification-driven proteomic approach to identifying biomarkers. In contrast to the identification-driven approach, limited in scope to peptides that are identified by database searching in the first step, all MS data are considered to select biomarker candidates. The endopeptidome of cerebrospinal fluid from 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 40 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and 40 controls with subjective cognitive decline was analyzed using multiplex isobaric labeling. Spectral clustering was used to match MS/MS spectra...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039020/systemic-inflammation-and-multimodal-biomarkers-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
T N C Magalhães, M Weiler, C V L Teixeira, T Hayata, A S Moraes, V O Boldrini, L M Dos Santos, B M de Campos, T J R de Rezende, H P G Joaquim, L L Talib, O V Forlenza, F Cendes, Marcio L F Balthazar
There is increasing evidence suggesting that one of the most relevant pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuroinflammation, which plays an important role in the production and regulation of AD-related proteins (amyloid beta (Aβ) and Tau) and exacerbates AD pathology. Neuroinflammation can also be induced by systemic influences (factors from outside the central nervous system). However, the role of systemic inflammation in AD pathophysiology is much less understood. Thus, our main objective in this study was to verify whether the presence of serum cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α) affects different AD biomarkers: Aβ1-42 and Tau protein levels, hippocampal volumes (HV), and default mode network functional connectivity (DMN FC) in healthy elderly controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients due to AD, and mild AD patients...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037152/low-plasma-tryptophan-is-associated-with-olfactory-function-in-healthy-elderly-community-dwellers-in-japan
#4
Yusuke Adachi, Yoshiki Shimodaira, Hidehiro Nakamura, Akira Imaizumi, Maiko Mori, Yoko Kageyama, Yasushi Noguchi, Asuka Seki, Yuki Okabe, Yuko Miyake, Kaori Ono, Shu Kumagai
BACKGROUND: Decreased circulating tryptophan (Trp) levels are frequently observed in elderly patients with neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease. Trp may serve as a potential biomarker for monitoring disease risk in elderly people. We aimed to investigate the association between low plasma Trp levels and olfactory function, which is known to predict age-related diseases including dementia in elderly people. METHODS: A total of 144 healthy elderly Japanese community (≥ 65 years old) dwellers from the Health, Aging and Nutritional Improvement study (HANI study) were the subjects of our analysis...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037101/the-potential-of-solanezumab-and-gantenerumab-to-prevent-alzheimer-s-disease-in-people-with-inherited-mutations-that-cause-its-early-onset
#5
Francesco Panza, Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Bruno P Imbimbo, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Rosanna Tortelli, Rosa Capozzo, Paola Bisceglia, Andrea Dimitri, Roberta Stallone, Vittorio Dibello, Nicola Quaranta, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
The recent failure of several clinical trials on anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) drugs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggested earlier intervention in the disease course. Secondary prevention trials have been started in autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) individuals without cognitive dysfunction and in cognitively healthy subjects at risk of developing sporadic AD (SAD). Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss prevention trials in ADAD and SAD, with a focus on the anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies solanezumab and gantenerumab presently in Phase III clinical development...
October 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036825/the-emergence-of-a-new-conceptual-framework-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Dubois Bruno
The New Criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), published by a group of experts in 2007, have resulted in a revolution in the comprehension of the disease. Before 2007, the diagnosis of AD dementia was done through a process of exclusion: it was considered in the case of patients with a dementia syndrome without identified etiologies. This traditional algorithm had three major limitations that penalize the disease: 1) a low accuracy of the performance which may share responsibility for negative results in clinical trials; 2) a late identification of the patients only when they reach the threshold of dementia which may delay the activation of optimal care; and last but not least, 3) an absence of clear recognition of AD as a disease because of the lack of specific arguments for its identification...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036824/alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-and-future-decline-in-cognitive-normal-older-adults
#7
Julien Dumurgier, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Frances B Hatling, Kelly A Judge, Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Deborah Blacker, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Bradley T Hyman, Teresa Gómez-Isla
BACKGROUND: Identifying older adults at risk of cognitive decline represents a challenge as Alzheimer's disease (AD) modifying therapies move toward preclinical stages. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between AD biomarkers and subsequent change in cognition in a cohort of cognitively intact older adults. METHODS: 84 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 59% women) were recruited through the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the Harvard Aging Brain Study and followed over 3 years...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036819/age-and-graphomotor-decision-making-assessed-with-the-digital-clock-drawing-test-the-framingham-heart-study
#8
Ryan J Piers, Kathryn N Devlin, Boting Ning, Yulin Liu, Ben Wasserman, Joseph M Massaro, Melissa Lamar, Catherine C Price, Rod Swenson, Randall Davis, Dana L Penney, Rhoda Au, David J Libon
BACKGROUND: Digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) technology enables the examination of detailed neurocognitive behavior as behavior unfolds in in real time; a capability that cannot be obtained using a traditional pen and paper testing format. OBJECTIVE: Parameters obtained from the dCDT were used to investigate neurocognitive constructs related to higher-order neurocognitive decision-making and information processing speed. The current research sought to determine the effect of age as related to combined motor and non-motor components of drawing, and higher-order, decision-making latencies...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036818/a-9-microrna-signature-in-serum-serves-as-a-noninvasive-biomarker-in-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Rui Guo, Gang Fan, Jian Zhang, Chunxiao Wu, Yifeng Du, Hui Ye, Zhang Li, Lili Wang, Zhihui Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yueran Zhao, Zhiming Lu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related neurodegenerative disorder; nevertheless, nowadays there are no reliable biomarkers or non-invasive techniques available for its early detection. Recent studies have indicated that the circulating level profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) have the potential to be used as valuable biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, and progress monitoring of various diseases. Here we report a novel 9-miRNA signature (hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-181c-3p, hsa-miR-126-5p, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-148b-5p, hsa-miR-106b-3p, hsa-miR-6119-5p, hsa-miR-1246, and hsa-miR-660-5p) that can be utilized as biomarker for detecting AD...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036817/initial-heart-rate-reactivity-to-socioemotional-pictures-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Aditi Joshi, Elvira Jimenez, Mario F Mendez
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often have generalized anxiety, particularly in early-onset AD (EOAD) or the first stages of their disease. This increased anxiety could be associated with decreased sensorimotor gating with increased attention to significant stimuli from AD pathology in the entorhinal cortex. We investigated whether widening initial attention to socioemotional stimuli was association with anxiety among 16 patients with first stage EOAD compared to 19 normal controls (NCs). The participants underwent assessment of their initial heart rate deceleration ("orienting response"; OR), a measure of attentional refocusing, to pictures (International Affective Picture Stimuli) varying in pleasant-unpleasant valence and social-nonsocial content...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036813/association-between-later-life-lifestyle-factors-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-non-demented-individuals-a-longitudinal-descriptive-cohort-study
#11
Babette L R Reijs, Stephanie J B Vos, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjonen, Juha Koikkalainen, Maria Pikkarainen, Anette Hall, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B Frisoni, Lutz Frölich, Flavio Nobili, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Luiza Spiru, Magda Tsolaki, Åsa K Wallin, Philip Scheltens, Frans Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036183/mri-assessed-atrophy-subtypes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-cognitive-reserve-hypothesis
#12
Karin Persson, Rannveig Sakshaug Eldholm, Maria Lage Barca, Lena Cavallin, Daniel Ferreira, Anne-Brita Knapskog, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Ingvild Saltvedt, Eric Westman, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MRI assessment of the brain has demonstrated four different patterns of atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD): typical AD, limbic-predominant AD, hippocampal-sparing AD, and a subtype with minimal atrophy, previously referred to as no-atrophy AD. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe the differences between these four AD subtypes in a longitudinal memory-clinic study. METHODS: The medial temporal lobes, the frontal regions, and the posterior regions were assessed with MRI visual rating scales to categorize 123 patients with mild AD according to ICD-10 and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and the clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) into atrophy subtypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032190/transient-increase-in-sapp%C3%AE-secretion-in-response-to-a%C3%AE-1-42-oligomers-an-attempt-of-neuronal-self-defense
#13
Christiane Rose, Emilie Dorard, Mickael Audrain, Lucie Gorisse-Hussonnois, Nathalie Cartier, Jérome Braudeau, Bernadette Allinquant
Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key molecule of Alzheimer disease, is metabolized in 2 antagonist pathways generating the soluble APP alpha (sAPPα) having neuroprotective properties and the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide at the origin of neurotoxic oligomers, particularly Aβ1-42. Whether extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers modulate the formation and secretion of sAPPα is not known. We report here that the addition of Aβ1-42 oligomers to primary cortical neurons induced a transient increase in α-secretase activity and secreted sAPPα 6-9 hours later...
September 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031664/nonlinearity-aware-based-dimensionality-reduction-and-over-sampling-for-ad-mci-classification-from-mri-measures
#14
Peng Cao, Xiaoli Liu, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao, Min Huang, Jian Zhang, Osmar Zaiane
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been not only a substantial financial burden to the health care system but also an emotional burden to patients and their families. Making accurate diagnosis of AD based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more critical and emphasized at the earliest stages. However, the high dimensionality and imbalanced data issues are two major challenges in the study of computer aided AD diagnosis. The greatest limitations of existing dimensionality reduction and over-sampling methods are that they assume a linear relationship between the MRI features (predictor) and the disease status (response)...
October 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030451/weighting-and-standardization-of-frequencies-to-determine-prevalence-of-ad-imaging-biomarkers
#15
Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Jeremy A Syrjanen, Jeremiah A Aakre, Maria Vassilaki, Walter K Kremers, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Yonas E Geda, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of elevated brain amyloid and reduced cortical thickness (as a marker for neurodegeneration) in a defined population. METHODS: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants underwent MRI to assess a composite Alzheimer disease (AD) signature cortical thickness measure and PET to assess brain amyloid accumulation. Participants were characterized as having elevated amyloid (A+/A-), reduced cortical thickness (N+/N-), and A+N+, A+N-, A-N+, or A-N-...
October 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028155/a-parallel-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometric-method-for-analysis-of-potential-csf-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Gunnar Brinkmalm, Simon Sjödin, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Henrik Zetterberg, Ann Brinkmalm, Kaj Blennow
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM-MS) assay consisting of a panel of potential protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirteen proteins were selected based on their association with neurodegenerative diseases and involvement in synaptic function, secretory vesicle function, or innate immune system. CSF samples were digested and 2-3 peptides per protein were quantified using stable isotope-labeled peptide standards...
October 13, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028108/effect-of-vegf-on-neuronal-degeneration-and-interaction-between-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers
#17
H-C Yuan, C-W Jiang, L-Y Hou, Y-B Lv, X-Z Feng, L-F Guo, G Sun, K Liu, Y-J Liu, B Xu, C-Y Wang
The article "Effect of VEGF on neuronal degeneration and interaction between Alzheimer's disease biomarkers" by H.-C. Yuan, C.-W. Jiang, L.-Y. Hou, Y.-B. Lv, X.-Z. Feng, L.-F. Guo, G. Sun, K. Liu, Y.-J. Liu, B. Xu, C.-Y. Wang, published in Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21 (16): 3649-3657 has been withdrawn.
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026940/advanced-bioanalytics-for-precision-medicine
#18
Aldo Roda, Elisa Michelini, Cristiana Caliceti, Massimo Guardigli, Mara Mirasoli, Patrizia Simoni
Precision medicine is a new paradigm that combines diagnostic, imaging, and analytical tools to produce accurate diagnoses and therapeutic interventions tailored to the individual patient. This approach stands in contrast to the traditional "one size fits all" concept, according to which researchers develop disease treatments and preventions for an "average" patient without considering individual differences. The "one size fits all" concept has led to many ineffective or inappropriate treatments, especially for pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer...
October 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025866/declining-levels-of-functionally-specialized-synaptic-proteins-in-plasma-neuronal-exosomes-with-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Edward J Goetzl, Erin L Abner, Gregory A Jicha, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Janice B Schwartz
Interactions of the presynaptic proteins, neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) and neurexin 2α (NRXN2α), with their respective postsynaptic functional partners, GluA4-containing glutamate (AMPA4) receptor and neuroligin 1 (NLGN1), enhance excitatory synaptic activity in some areas of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. As early damage of such excitatory circuits in the brain tissues of participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with cognitive losses, plasma neuron-derived exosome (NDE) levels of these 2 pairs of specialized synaptic proteins were quantified to assess their biomarker characteristics...
October 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024348/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease-weighing-the-evidence
#20
REVIEW
S Alford, D Patel, N Perakakis, C S Mantzoros
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA today; therefore, it is imperative that public health initiatives and clinical strategies are developed to prevent and effectively treat AD. Despite the enormous impact that AD has on individuals, families, society, and the health care system, there are no biomarkers to clearly identify those at risk for AD, public health prevention strategies in place, or treatments to address the underlying pathology or stop the progression of AD. There is ample scientific as well as empirical evidence that obesity and its metabolic and vascular comorbidities are related to AD and likely in the causative pathway...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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