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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827785/a-highly-sensitive-plasma-based-amyloid-%C3%AE-detection-system-through-medium-changing-and-noise-cancellation-system-for-early-diagnosis-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Yong Kyoung Yoo, Jinsik Kim, Gangeun Kim, Young Soo Kim, Hye Yun Kim, Sejin Lee, Won Woo Cho, Seongsoo Kim, Sang-Myung Lee, Byung Chul Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kyo Seon Hwang
We developed an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor system for blood-based Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis based on impedimetric detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is a representative candidate biomarker for AD. The IME sensing device was fabricated using a surface micromachining process. For highly sensitive detection of several tens to hundreds of picogram/mL of Aβ in blood, medium change from plasma to PBS buffer was utilized with signal cancellation and amplification processing (SCAP) system...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821686/effect-of-simvastatin-on-csf-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#2
Ge Li, Cynthia L Mayer, Daniel Morelli, Steven P Millard, Wendy H Raskind, Eric C Petrie, Monique Cherrier, Anne M Fagan, Murray A Raskind, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVE: To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. METHODS: Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819455/microvesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-senescence-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Qian Lei, Teng Liu, Fei Gao, Hui Xie, Li Sun, Aiqi Zhao, Wenxiang Ren, Hao Guo, Liming Zhang, Hongxiang Wang, Zhichao Chen, An-Yuan Guo, Qiubai Li
Senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only contributes to organism aging and the development of a variety of diseases but also severely impairs their therapeutic properties as a promising cell therapy. Studies searching for efficient biomarkers that represent cellular senescence have attracted much attention; however, no single marker currently provides an accurate cell-free representation of cellular senescence. Here, we studied characteristics of MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) that may reflect the senescence in their parental MSCs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818990/clinical-use-and-utility-of-amyloid-imaging
#4
Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri
Currently, three amyloid PET tracers are approved and commercially available for clinical use. They allow for the accurate in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical use and utility of amyloid imaging. Appropriate use criteria for the clinical application of amyloid imaging are established, and most currently available data point to their validity. Visual amyloid image analysis is highly standardized. Disclosure of amyloid imaging results is desired by many cognitively impaired subjects, and seems to be safe once appropriate education is delivered to the disclosing clinicians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818092/associations-of-thyroid-hormone-serum-levels-with-in-vivo-alzheimer-s-disease-pathologies
#5
Hyo Jung Choi, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun Ho Lee, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the relationships between thyroid hormone serum levels or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and two Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific biomarkers, cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) burden and glucose metabolism, in AD-signature brain regions in cognitively normal (CN) middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: This study assessed 148 CN individuals who received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments that included (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET) scans, (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans, and the quantification of serum triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, free thyroxine (fT4), and TSH levels...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#6
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816001/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-tau-and-neurofilament-concentrations-in-rapidly-progressive-neurological-syndromes-a-neuropathology-based-cohort
#7
G G Kovacs, U Andreasson, V Liman, G Regelsberger, M I Lutz, K Danics, E Keller, H Zetterberg, K Blennow
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) proteins have proved to be reliable biomarkers for neuronal damage; however, there is a strong need for blood-based tests. METHODS: The present study included 132 autopsy cases with rapidly progressive neurological syndromes, including Alzheimer disease (AD) (21), sporadic (65) and genetic (21) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 25 cases with vascular, neoplastic and inflammatory alterations, and additionally 18 healthy control individuals...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815614/resveratrol-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Christine Sawda, Charbel Moussa, R Scott Turner
The amyloid hypothesis suggests that the progressive accumulation and deposition of central nervous system (CNS) amyloid with aging is the proximate cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting molecular mechanisms of aging may be a viable treatment approach. Caloric restriction prevents diseases of aging, including AD, in animal models, perhaps by activation of sirtuins. The sirtuins (e.g., mammalian SIRT1) are deacetylases that link energy balance (NAD(+) /NADH) to regulation of gene transcription. Resveratrol is a potent activator of SIRT1, and thus may mimic caloric restriction to prevent diseases of aging...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#9
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#11
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808876/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-t-tau-and-p-tau-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-relative-to-those-with-normal-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#12
Xiaohui Hu, Yan Yang, Daokai Gong
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signature of reduced amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42), elevated total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau) is important for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau have been reported in numerous studies to contribute to predicting cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PDCI). However, no consistent conclusion can be drawn so far. Literatures regarding Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau in CSF were systematically reviewed, and a meta-analysis was thus performed to evaluate the changes of these biomarkers in PDCI patients, including PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and PD dementia (PDD) patients, relative to PD with normal cognition (PDNC) patients...
August 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807434/nutritional-strategies-in-the-management-of-alzheimer-disease-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis
#13
Shirley Steffany Muñoz Fernández, Terry Ivanauskas, Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major cause of dependency and disability in the elderly. Numerous studies have sought to achieve its prevention and/or management examining a role for modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition. This work aims to investigate the effects of food and/or nutrients in the management of AD at different stages. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for clinical trials examining the effect of nutrient intervention in individuals with AD, compared with placebo, published up to 2014...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800331/alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-interactively-influence-physical-activity-mobility-and-cognition-associations-in%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-non-demented-aging-population
#14
Sherilyn Thibeau, G Peggy McFall, Richard Camicioli, Roger A Dixon
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk-reduction strategies (e.g., increasing physical activity, improving mobility) have garnered increasing attention in the literature. However, the effect of such modifiable factors on the preclinical trajectories of brain and cognitive health may be moderated by non-modifiable biomarkers associated with AD. OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal sample of non-demented older adults, we examine the independent predictors everyday physical activity (EPA) and mobility on executive function (EF) performance and change...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800330/pet-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-divergent-relationship-with-age-cognition-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#15
Ivan Koychev, Roger N Gunn, Azadeh Firouzian, Jennifer Lawson, Giovanna Zamboni, Basil Ridha, Barbara J Sahakian, James B Rowe, Alan Thomas, Lynn Rochester, Dominic Ffytche, Robert Howard, Henrik Zetterberg, Clare MacKay, Simon Lovestone
BACKGROUND: Combining PET amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau imaging may be critical for tracking disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the relationship between Aβ and tau ligands as well as with other measures of pathology. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational study in early AD (MMSE >20) participants aged 50 to 85 y. The schedule included cognitive assessments (ADAS-Cog) and CSF measurement of Aβ and tau at baseline and 6 months; PET-CT imaging with Aβ ([18F]AV45) and tau ([18F]AV1451) ligands at baseline...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800327/analytical-strategy-to-prioritize-alzheimer-s-disease-candidate-genes-in-gene-regulatory-networks-using-public-expression-data
#16
Shweta Bagewadi Kawalia, Tamara Raschka, Mufassra Naz, Ricardo de Matos Simoes, Philipp Senger, Martin Hofmann-Apitius
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progressively destroys cognitive abilities in the aging population with tremendous effects on memory. Despite recent progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms, high drug attrition rates have put a question mark behind our knowledge about its etiology. Re-evaluation of past studies could help us to elucidate molecular-level details of this disease. Several methods to infer such networks exist, but most of them do not elaborate on context specificity and completeness of the generated networks, missing out on lesser-known candidates...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798686/strong-association-between-plasma-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-activity-and-impaired-cognitive-function-in-elderly-population-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#17
Bo Chen, Tianpeng Zheng, Linyuan Qin, Xueping Hu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Yihong Liu, Hongbo Liu, Shenghua Qin, Gang Li, Qinghua Li
Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798225/ethical-issues-in-alzheimer-s-disease-research-involving-human-subjects
#18
Dena S Davis
As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are (1) the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects' death; (2) the creation of cohorts of 'study ready' volunteers, many of whom will be competent to consent at the beginning of the process, but move into cognitive impairment later; (3) reliance on adaptive trial design, creating challenges for informed consent, equipoise and justice; (4) the use of biomarkers and predictive tests that describe risk rather than certainty, and that can threaten participants' welfare if the information is obtained by insurance companies or long-term care providers; (5) the use of study partners that creates unique risks of harm to the relationship of subject and study partner...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797738/tissue-magnetic-susceptibility-mapping-as-a-marker-of-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
J O'Callaghan, H Holmes, N Powell, J A Wells, O Ismail, I F Harrison, B Siow, R Johnson, Z Ahmed, A Fisher, S Meftah, M J O'Neill, T K Murray, E C Collins, K Shmueli, M F Lythgoe
Alzheimer's disease is connected to a number of other neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as 'tauopathies', by the presence of aggregated tau protein in the brain. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in AD are associated with tau pathology and both the breakdown of axonal sheaths in white matter tracts and excess iron accumulation grey matter brain regions. Despite the identification of myelin and iron concentration as major sources of contrast in quantitative susceptibility maps of the brain, the sensitivity of this technique to tau pathology has yet to be explored...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793924/on-the-path-to-2025-understanding-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#20
REVIEW
Paul S Aisen, Jeffrey Cummings, Clifford R Jack, John C Morris, Reisa Sperling, Lutz Frölich, Roy W Jones, Sherie A Dowsett, Brandy R Matthews, Joel Raskin, Philip Scheltens, Bruno Dubois
Basic research advances in recent years have furthered our understanding of the natural history of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is now recognized that pathophysiological changes begin many years prior to clinical manifestations of disease and the spectrum of AD spans from clinically asymptomatic to severely impaired. Defining AD purely by its clinical presentation is thus artificial and efforts have been made to recognize the disease based on both clinical and biomarker findings. Advances with biomarkers have also prompted a shift in how the disease is considered as a clinico-pathophysiological entity, with an increasing appreciation that AD should not only be viewed with discrete and defined clinical stages, but as a multifaceted process moving along a seamless continuum...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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