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Microbe Percentage

Aline F O Ramos, Stephanie A Terry, Devin B Holman, Gerhard Breves, Luiz G R Pereira, André G M Silva, Alexandre V Chaves
Tucumã oil is sourced from the fruit pulp of the tucumã tree and contains high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Due to these properties it may have the potential to decrease enteric methane (CH4 ) from ruminants when included in the diet. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oil mechanically extracted from the fruit pulp of tucumã on fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and the microbial community using the rumen stimulation technique. Treatments consisted of a control diet (forage:concentrate; 70:30), and tucumã oil included at 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Imran Sulaiman, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Adrienne S Scott, Patrick Malecha, Benjamin Scaglione, Jing Wang, Ashwin Basavaraj, Samuel Chung, Katrina Bantis, Joseph Carpenito, Jose C Clemente, Nan Shen, Jamie Bessich, Samaan Rafeq, Gaetene Michaud, Jessica Donington, Charissa Naidoo, Grant Theron, Gail Schattner, Suzette Garofano, Rany Condos, David Kamelhar, Doreen Addrizzo-Harris, Leopoldo N Segal
Background: Aspiration is associated with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease and airway dysbiosis is associated with increased inflammation. We examined whether NTM disease was associated with a distinct airway microbiota and immune profile. Methods: 297 oral wash and induced sputum samples were collected from 106 participants with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with NTM. Lower airway samples were obtained in 20 participants undergoing bronchoscopy. 16S rRNA gene and a nested mycobacteriome sequencing approaches characterised microbiota composition...
August 9, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Peter Maenhout, Jan Van den Bulcke, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Veerle Cnudde, Stefaan De Neve, Steven Sleutel
Mineral nitrogen (N) availability to heterotrophic micro-organisms is known to impact organic matter (OM) decomposition. Different pathways determining the N accessibility depend to a large extent on soil structure. Contact between soil mineral and OM substrate particles can facilitate N transport toward decomposition hot spots. However, the impact of soil structure on N availability to microbes and thus heterotrophic microbial activity and community structure is not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that carbon mineralization (Cmin) from low-N substrate would be stimulated by increased N availability caused by closer contact with soil particles or by a higher moisture level, enhancing potential for N-diffusion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noopur Singh, Bijan Choudhury
Hypersaline environment is inhabited by array of microbes which have the potential to produce industrially important products. This study explored biomass and lipid production potential of the halophilic bacterium, strain NS12IITR which was isolated from Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacterium belonged to genus Lentibacillus. The salient feature of the isolate is its ability to accumulate total cellular lipid up to 18.9 ± 0.45% of dry cell weight. In addition, trans-esterification of extracted lipid yielded 77...
July 21, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Jessica L Sanchez, Joel C Trexler
Herbivory is thought to be an inefficient diet, but it independently evolved from carnivorous ancestors in many metazoan groups, suggesting that plant-eating is adaptive in some circumstances. In this study, we tested two hypotheses to explain the adaptive evolution of herbivory: (i) the Heterotroph Facilitation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because herbivores supplement their diets with heterotrophic microbes); and (ii) the Lipid Allocation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because algae, which have high lipid concentrations, are nutritionally similar to carnivory)...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has for the first time reported Prunus cerasifera leaf extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in a green and one-pot synthetic mode without utilization of any chemical reducing agents. Synthesized nanoparticles were analysed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis peak was detected at 380 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. A variety of biomolecules were revealed by FTIR involved in reduction cum stabilization of ZnO NPs...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Xia Zhang, Jingping Zhang, Yuan Shen, Changhao Zhou, Xiaoping Huang
Previous studies conducted on Daya Bay implied that the bay had been undergoing potential phosphorus limitation. In this context, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and the associated microbes were investigated in three different seasons in Daya Bay, South China Sea. Both bulk-community (fractioned into dissolved and particulate) and single-cell assays of APA were used to estimate the P status of phytoplankton at the community and species level. Unexpected high potential APA (Vmax ) was observed in Daya Bay...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yonghua Wang, Min Rui, Yang Nie, Guanghua Lu
Oral exposure is a major route of human bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. However, influence of gastrointestinal tract on BPA metabolism is unavailable. In this study, in vitro simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) was applied to investigate the changes in bioaccessibility and metabolism of BPA in different parts of gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small intestine and colon). Then the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was employed to compare toxic effects of BPA itself and effluents of SHIME system on hepatic gene expression profiles...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yujiao Sun, Shangwei Xu, Danyang Zheng, Jie Li, Hezhong Tian, Yong Wang
In this study, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10 , respectively), which was found at different concentrations in spring, was collected in Beijing. The chemical composition and bacterial community diversity of PM were determined, and the relationship between them was studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and mathematical statistics. Chemical composition analysis revealed greater relative percentages of total organic compounds (TOC) and secondary ions (NO3 - , SO4 2- , and NH4 + )...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mohanapriya Jayapal, Hema Jagadeesan, Manojkumar Shanmugam, Perinba Danisha J, Shobana Murugesan
The presence of unused dyes and dye degradation intermediates in the textile industry wastewaters is the major challenge in its treatment. A wide range of treatments including various physicochemical processes are used for this wastewater. Incomplete dye degradation results in hazardous colorless aromatic amine intermediates that are teratogenic in nature. A synergistic plant-microbe system operated in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic mode was evaluated for the complete degradation of a model azo dye methyl red under laboratory conditions...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Manoj Kamalanathan, Chen Xu, Kathy Schwehr, Laura Bretherton, Morgan Beaver, Shawn M Doyle, Jennifer Genzer, Jessica Hillhouse, Jason B Sylvan, Peter Santschi, Antonietta Quigg
Extracellular enzymes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a key role in overall microbial activity, growth and survival in the ocean. EPS, being amphiphilic in nature, can act as biological surfactant in an oil spill situation. Extracellular enzymes help microbes to digest and utilize fractions of organic matter, including EPS, which can stimulate growth and enhance microbial activity. These natural processes might have been altered during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill due to the presence of hydrocarbon and dispersant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kornelis S M van der Geest, Bart-Jan Kroesen, Gerda Horst, Wayel H Abdulahad, Elisabeth Brouwer, Annemieke M H Boots
Immune-aging is associated with perturbed immune responses in the elderly. CD161-expressing T cells, i.e., the previously described subsets of CD161+ CD4+ T cells, CD161high CD8+ T cells, and CD161int CD8+ T cells, are highly functional, pro-inflammatory T cells. These CD161-expressing T cells are critical in immunity against microbes, while possibly contributing to autoimmune diseases. So far, little is known about the impact of aging on the frequency, phenotype, and function of these CD161-expressing T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Hagenfeld, Raphael Koch, Sebastian Jünemann, Karola Prior, Inga Harks, Peter Eickholz, Thomas Hoffmann, Ti-Sun Kim, Thomas Kocher, Jörg Meyle, Doğan Kaner, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Benjamin Ehmke, Dag Harmsen
Empiric antibiotics are often used in combination with mechanical debridement to treat patients suffering from periodontitis and to eliminate disease-associated pathogens. Until now, only a few next generation sequencing 16S rDNA amplicon based publications with rather small sample sizes studied the effect of those interventions on the subgingival microbiome. Therefore, we studied subgingival samples of 89 patients with chronic periodontitis (solely non-smokers) before and two months after therapy. Forty-seven patients received mechanical periodontal therapy only, whereas 42 patients additionally received oral administered amoxicillin plus metronidazole (500 and 400 mg, respectively; 3x/day for 7 days)...
2018: PloS One
Ying Li, Lianhua Li, Yongming Sun, Zhenhong Yuan
To investigate whether bioaugmentation could improve the digestion performance of high C/N ratio feedstock without co-digestion with nitrogen-rich substrate, different forms of enriched methanogenic culture were introduced to the continuous feed digesters. The performance efficiency of bioaugmentation on digestion improvement was compared. The effect of bioaugmentation on microbial community composition was revealed as well. Results demonstrated that routine bioaugmentation with liquid culture (containing the microbes and the medium remains) showed the best performance, with the organic loading rate (OLR), methane percentage, volumetric methane production (VMP) and volatile solid methane production (VSMP) higher at 1...
August 2018: Bioresource Technology
Junpeng Zhang, Weiying Li, Jiping Chen, Wanqi Qi, Feng Wang, Yanyan Zhou
There is growing awareness of the antibiotic-resistance crisis and its implications for public health among clinicians, researchers, politicians, and the public. We studied bacterial antibiotic resistance transition and the role of biofilms in a drinking water distribution system (DWDS). We tracked several different antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) with resistance to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, and norfloxacin for one year in a DWDS. The results indicated that the amount of ARB increased in tap water, presumably due to biofilm detachment...
July 2018: Chemosphere
Joyati Das, Priyabrata Sarkar
Arsenic, a carcinogenic and toxic contaminant of soil and water, affects human health adversely. During last few decades, it has been an important global environmental issue. Among several arsenic detoxification methods remediation using arsenic resistant microbes is proved to be environment-friendly and cost-effective. This study aimed to test the effects of arsenic utilizing bacterial strain Acinetobacter lwoffii (RJB-2) on arsenic uptake and growth of mung bean plants (Vigna radiata). RJB-2 exhibited tolerance up to 125mM of arsenic (V) and 50mM of arsenic (III)...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Darshna Yagnik, Vlad Serafin, Ajit J Shah
The global escalation in antibiotic resistance cases means alternative antimicrobials are essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial capacity of apple cider vinegar (ACV) against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. The minimum dilution of ACV required for growth inhibition varied for each microbial species. For C. albicans, a 1/2 ACV had the strongest effect, S. aureus, a 1/25 dilution ACV was required, whereas for E-coli cultures, a 1/50 ACV dilution was required (p < 0.05)...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pablo Aguilar, Cristina Dorador, Irma Vila, Ruben Sommaruga
High-elevation lakes in the tropics are subject to extreme environmental fluctuations and microbes may harbor a unique genomic repertoire, but their composition and diversity are largely unknown. Here, we compared the planktonic bacterial community composition (BCC) and diversity of three tropical lakes located in the high Andean plateau (≥4400 m above sea level) during the dry and wet season. Diversity in these lakes was higher in the cool and wet season than in the warm and dry one. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) composition was significantly different among lakes and between seasons...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Abudukeremu Kadier, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Kuppam Chandrasekhar, Gunda Mohanakrishna, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are perceived as a potential and promising innovative biotechnological tool that can convert carbon-rich waste biomass or wastewater into hydrogen (H2 ) or other value-added chemicals. Undesired methane (CH4 ) producing H2 sinks, including methanogens, is a serious challenge faced by MECs to achieve high-rate H2 production. Methanogens can consume H2 to produce CH4 in MECs, which has led to a drop of H2 production efficiency, H2 production rate (HPR) and also a low percentage of H2 in the produced biogas...
February 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
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