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Elena Biagi, Arianna Aceti, Sara Quercia, Isadora Beghetti, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Matteo Soverini, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Giacomo Faldella, Marco Candela, Luigi Corvaglia, Patrizia Brigidi
Mother's own milk represents the optimal source for preterm infant nutrition, as it promotes immune defenses and gastrointestinal function, protects against necrotizing enterocolitis, improves long-term clinical outcome and is hypothesized to drive gut microbiota assembly. Preterm infants at birth usually do not receive their mother's milk directly from the breast, because active suckling and coordination between suckling, swallowing and breathing do not develop until 32-34 weeks gestational age, but actual breastfeeding is usually possible as they grow older...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jingnan Yang, Xuran Liu, Dongbo Wang, Qiuxiang Xu, Qi Yang, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, Yiwen Liu, Jilai Gong, Jun Ye, Hailong Li
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has been recently used as an additive to pretreat waste activated sludge (WAS) to enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production. However, the mechanisms of how PMS enhances SCFAs production remain largely unknown. This work therefore aims to explore the mechanisms through deeply understanding its impact on the disintegration of sludge cells, the biodegradability of organics released and the bioprocesses involved in anaerobic fermentation, and differentiating the contributions of its degradation intermediates to SCFAs production...
October 24, 2018: Water Research
Weipeng Zhang, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Wei Ding, Yi Lan, Ren-Mao Tian, Jin Sun, Chong Chen, Lin Cai, Yongxin Li, Kazumasa Oguri, Takashi Toyofuku, Hiroshi Kitazato, Jeffrey C Drazen, Douglas Bartlett, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hadal environments sustain diverse microorganisms. A few studies have investigated hadal microbial communities consisting of free-living or particle-associated bacteria and archaea. However, animal-associated microbial communities in hadal environments remain largely unexplored, and comparative analyses of animal gut microbiota between two isolated hadal environments have never been done so far. In the present study, 228 gigabases of gut metagenomes of the giant amphipod Hirondellea gigas from two hadal trenches, the Mariana Trench and Japan Trench, were sequenced and compared...
October 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Stephen K Tyring, Theodore Rosen, Brian Berman, Nathan Stasko, Todd Durham, Tomoko Maeda-Chubachi
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, is endogenously produced in human cells. In high concentration, NO neutralizes many disease-causing microbes. The topical investigational drug SB206 releases NO and has the potential to treat skin diseases caused by viruses. Genital warts (condyloma acuminata) are primarily caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. Available treatments have low tolerability and efficacy rates and are inconvenient for the patient. Genital warts can recur if HPV is incompletely eradicated during treatment...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Yan Yang, Lingyun Xia, Markus Haapasalo, Wei Wei, Duo Zhang, Jingzhi Ma, Ya Shen
OBJECTIVES: Novel synthetic antimicrobial peptides which consist of a new immunomodulatory peptide 1018 and two different modifications with hydroxyapatite-binding affinity were developed. We compared the effect(s) of these peptides against oral plaque biofilms and measured their effectiveness in killing biofilm microbes and in reducing biofilm volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The high affinity hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptide 1018 (SHABP), the mild affinity HA-binding peptide 1018 (MHABP), and peptide 1018 without additional amino acid sequence (peptide 1018) were synthesized...
October 23, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Tao Liu, Shirong Xu, Shaoyong Lu, Pan Qin, Bin Bi, Haodong Ding, Ying Liu, Xiaochun Guo, Xiaohui Liu
The residues of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have been widely detected in rivers, the gulf, and even groundwater and drinking water, which may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Compared to other treatments, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been demonstrated to be a cost-effective alternative risk mitigation strategy for non-point-source pesticide pollution. This review summarizes 32 studies related to the remediation of OPPs in 117 CWs during 2001-2017 worldwide. The performances, mechanisms and influencing factors in the studies are comprehensively and critically reviewed in this paper...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Robert Schlaberg, Amanda Barrett, Kornelia Edes, Michael Graves, Litty Paul, Jenna Rychert, Bert K Lopansri, Daniel T Leung
Background: Host factors play an important role in pathogenesis and disease outcome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and characterization of these responses could uncover potential host biomarkers to complement existing microbe-based diagnostics. Methods: We extracted RNA from fecal samples of patients with CDI and profiled human mRNA using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS). We compared the fecal host mRNA transcript expression profiles of patients with CDI to controls with non-CDI diarrhea...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Long Li, Jibran Iqbal, Ying Zhu, Peng Zhang, Wanchao Chen, Amit Bhatnagar, Yiping Du
In the present study, the potential of synthesized chitosan/Ag-substituted hydroxyapatite nanocomposite beads to remove basic dye, heavy metal and microbes from aqueous solutions was investigated. Beads were prepared in different ratios via embedding of Ag-hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) into chitosan (CS) solution. The beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to get an insight of the functional groups and morphology. Batch adsorption studies were conducted with copper ions (Cu (II)) and rhodamine B (RhB) dye by changing several parameters such as Ag-HA to Cs ratio, contact time, solution pH and initial concentration of pollutants...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cajetan Neubauer, Alex L Sessions, Ian R Booth, Benjamin P Bowen, Sebastian H Kopf, Dianne K Newman, Nathan F Dalleska
RATIONALE: Microbial growth rate is an important physiological parameter that is challenging to measure in situ, partly because microbes grow slowly in many environments. Recently, it has been demonstrated that generation times of S. aureus in cystic fibrosis (CF) infections can be determined by D2 O-labeling of actively synthesized fatty acids. To improve species specificity and allow growth rate monitoring for a greater range of pathogens during the treatment of infections, it is desirable to accurately quantify trace incorporation of deuterium into phospholipids...
December 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yingmeng Ni, Lin Ding, Youchao Yu, Ranran Dai, Hong Chen, Guochao Shi
Oscillatory positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been utilized as an adjunct therapy to conventional chest physiotherapy (CPT) to promote the clearance of respiratory secretions in individuals with impaired ability to cough, particularly in chronic diseases. However, few studies have focused on the effectiveness of OPEP in lower respiratory tract infection. In the present study, all patients with lower respiratory tract infections hospitalized in the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital (Shanghai, China) between February 2016 and July 2017 were analyzed...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Linkun Wu, Juanying Wang, Hongmiao Wu, Jun Chen, Zhigang Xiao, Xianjin Qin, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
Consecutive monoculture of Rehmannia glutinosa , highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, leads to a severe decline in both quality and yield. Rhizosphere microbiome was reported to be closely associated with the soil health and plant performance. In this study, comparative metagenomics was applied to investigate the shifts in rhizosphere microbial structures and functional potentials under consecutive monoculture. The results showed R. glutinosa monoculture significantly decreased the relative abundances of Pseudomonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae , but significantly increased the relative abundances of Sphingomonadaceae and Streptomycetaceae ...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aline F O Ramos, Stephanie A Terry, Devin B Holman, Gerhard Breves, Luiz G R Pereira, André G M Silva, Alexandre V Chaves
Tucumã oil is sourced from the fruit pulp of the tucumã tree and contains high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Due to these properties it may have the potential to decrease enteric methane (CH4 ) from ruminants when included in the diet. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oil mechanically extracted from the fruit pulp of tucumã on fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and the microbial community using the rumen stimulation technique. Treatments consisted of a control diet (forage:concentrate; 70:30), and tucumã oil included at 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Imran Sulaiman, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Adrienne S Scott, Patrick Malecha, Benjamin Scaglione, Jing Wang, Ashwin Basavaraj, Samuel Chung, Katrina Bantis, Joseph Carpenito, Jose C Clemente, Nan Shen, Jamie Bessich, Samaan Rafeq, Gaetene Michaud, Jessica Donington, Charissa Naidoo, Grant Theron, Gail Schattner, Suzette Garofano, Rany Condos, David Kamelhar, Doreen Addrizzo-Harris, Leopoldo N Segal
Aspiration is associated with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease and airway dysbiosis is associated with increased inflammation. We examined whether NTM disease was associated with a distinct airway microbiota and immune profile.297 oral wash and induced sputum samples were collected from 106 participants with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with NTM. Lower airway samples were obtained in 20 participants undergoing bronchoscopy. 16S rRNA gene and nested mycobacteriome sequencing approaches characterised microbiota composition...
October 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Peter Maenhout, Jan Van den Bulcke, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Veerle Cnudde, Stefaan De Neve, Steven Sleutel
Mineral nitrogen (N) availability to heterotrophic micro-organisms is known to impact organic matter (OM) decomposition. Different pathways determining the N accessibility depend to a large extent on soil structure. Contact between soil mineral and OM substrate particles can facilitate N transport toward decomposition hot spots. However, the impact of soil structure on N availability to microbes and thus heterotrophic microbial activity and community structure is not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that carbon mineralization (Cmin) from low-N substrate would be stimulated by increased N availability caused by closer contact with soil particles or by a higher moisture level, enhancing potential for N-diffusion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noopur Singh, Bijan Choudhury
Hypersaline environment is inhabited by array of microbes which have the potential to produce industrially important products. This study explored biomass and lipid production potential of the halophilic bacterium, strain NS12IITR which was isolated from Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacterium belonged to genus Lentibacillus. The salient feature of the isolate is its ability to accumulate total cellular lipid up to 18.9 ± 0.45% of dry cell weight. In addition, trans-esterification of extracted lipid yielded 77...
November 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Jessica L Sanchez, Joel C Trexler
Herbivory is thought to be an inefficient diet, but it independently evolved from carnivorous ancestors in many metazoan groups, suggesting that plant-eating is adaptive in some circumstances. In this study, we tested two hypotheses to explain the adaptive evolution of herbivory: (i) the Heterotroph Facilitation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because herbivores supplement their diets with heterotrophic microbes); and (ii) the Lipid Allocation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because algae, which have high lipid concentrations, are nutritionally similar to carnivory)...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has for the first time reported Prunus cerasifera leaf extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in a green and one-pot synthetic mode without utilization of any chemical reducing agents. Synthesized nanoparticles were analysed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis peak was detected at 380 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. A variety of biomolecules were revealed by FTIR involved in reduction cum stabilization of ZnO NPs...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Xia Zhang, Jingping Zhang, Yuan Shen, Changhao Zhou, Xiaoping Huang
Previous studies conducted on Daya Bay implied that the bay had been undergoing potential phosphorus limitation. In this context, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and the associated microbes were investigated in three different seasons in Daya Bay, South China Sea. Both bulk-community (fractioned into dissolved and particulate) and single-cell assays of APA were used to estimate the P status of phytoplankton at the community and species level. Unexpected high potential APA (Vmax ) was observed in Daya Bay...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yonghua Wang, Min Rui, Yang Nie, Guanghua Lu
Oral exposure is a major route of human bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. However, influence of gastrointestinal tract on BPA metabolism is unavailable. In this study, in vitro simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) was applied to investigate the changes in bioaccessibility and metabolism of BPA in different parts of gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small intestine and colon). Then the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was employed to compare toxic effects of BPA itself and effluents of SHIME system on hepatic gene expression profiles...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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