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Microbe Percentage

Tao Liu, Shirong Xu, Shaoyong Lu, Pan Qin, Bin Bi, Haodong Ding, Ying Liu, Xiaochun Guo, Xiaohui Liu
The residues of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have been widely detected in rivers, the gulf, and even groundwater and drinking water, which may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Compared to other treatments, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been demonstrated to be a cost-effective alternative risk mitigation strategy for non-point-source pesticide pollution. This review summarizes 32 studies related to the remediation of OPPs in 117 CWs during 2001-2017 worldwide. The performances, mechanisms and influencing factors in the studies are comprehensively and critically reviewed in this paper...
October 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Robert Schlaberg, Amanda Barrett, Kornelia Edes, Michael Graves, Litty Paul, Jenna Rychert, Bert K Lopansri, Daniel T Leung
Background: Host factors play an important role in pathogenesis and disease outcome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and characterization of these responses could uncover potential host biomarkers to complement existing microbe-based diagnostics. Methods: We extracted RNA from fecal samples of patients with CDI and profiled human mRNA using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS). We compared the fecal host mRNA transcript expression profiles of patients with CDI to controls with non-CDI diarrhea...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Long Li, Jibran Iqbal, Ying Zhu, Peng Zhang, Wanchao Chen, Amit Bhatnagar, Yiping Du
In the present study, the potential of synthesized chitosan/Ag-substituted hydroxyapatite nanocomposite beads to remove basic dye, heavy metal and microbes from aqueous solutions was investigated. Beads were prepared in different ratios via embedding of Ag-hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) into chitosan (CS) solution. The beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to get an insight of the functional groups and morphology. Batch adsorption studies were conducted with copper ions (Cu (II)) and rhodamine B (RhB) dye by changing several parameters such as Ag-HA to Cs ratio, contact time, solution pH and initial concentration of pollutants...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cajetan Neubauer, Alex L Sessions, Ian R Booth, Benjamin P Bowen, Sebastian H Kopf, Dianne K Newman, Nathan F Dalleska
RATIONALE: Microbial growth rate is an important physiological parameter that is challenging to measure in situ, partly because microbes grow slowly in many environments. Recently, it has been demonstrated that generation times of S. aureus in cystic fibrosis (CF) infections can be determined by D2 O-labeling of actively synthesized fatty acids. To improve species specificity and allow growth rate monitoring for a greater range of pathogens during the treatment of infections, it is desirable to accurately quantify trace incorporation of deuterium into phospholipids...
September 25, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yingmeng Ni, Lin Ding, Youchao Yu, Ranran Dai, Hong Chen, Guochao Shi
Oscillatory positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been utilized as an adjunct therapy to conventional chest physiotherapy (CPT) to promote the clearance of respiratory secretions in individuals with impaired ability to cough, particularly in chronic diseases. However, few studies have focused on the effectiveness of OPEP in lower respiratory tract infection. In the present study, all patients with lower respiratory tract infections hospitalized in the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital (Shanghai, China) between February 2016 and July 2017 were analyzed...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Linkun Wu, Juanying Wang, Hongmiao Wu, Jun Chen, Zhigang Xiao, Xianjin Qin, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
Consecutive monoculture of Rehmannia glutinosa , highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, leads to a severe decline in both quality and yield. Rhizosphere microbiome was reported to be closely associated with the soil health and plant performance. In this study, comparative metagenomics was applied to investigate the shifts in rhizosphere microbial structures and functional potentials under consecutive monoculture. The results showed R. glutinosa monoculture significantly decreased the relative abundances of Pseudomonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae , but significantly increased the relative abundances of Sphingomonadaceae and Streptomycetaceae ...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aline F O Ramos, Stephanie A Terry, Devin B Holman, Gerhard Breves, Luiz G R Pereira, André G M Silva, Alexandre V Chaves
Tucumã oil is sourced from the fruit pulp of the tucumã tree and contains high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Due to these properties it may have the potential to decrease enteric methane (CH4 ) from ruminants when included in the diet. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oil mechanically extracted from the fruit pulp of tucumã on fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and the microbial community using the rumen stimulation technique. Treatments consisted of a control diet (forage:concentrate; 70:30), and tucumã oil included at 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Imran Sulaiman, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Adrienne S Scott, Patrick Malecha, Benjamin Scaglione, Jing Wang, Ashwin Basavaraj, Samuel Chung, Katrina Bantis, Joseph Carpenito, Jose C Clemente, Nan Shen, Jamie Bessich, Samaan Rafeq, Gaetene Michaud, Jessica Donington, Charissa Naidoo, Grant Theron, Gail Schattner, Suzette Garofano, Rany Condos, David Kamelhar, Doreen Addrizzo-Harris, Leopoldo N Segal
Background: Aspiration is associated with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease and airway dysbiosis is associated with increased inflammation. We examined whether NTM disease was associated with a distinct airway microbiota and immune profile. Methods: 297 oral wash and induced sputum samples were collected from 106 participants with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with NTM. Lower airway samples were obtained in 20 participants undergoing bronchoscopy. 16S rRNA gene and a nested mycobacteriome sequencing approaches characterised microbiota composition...
August 9, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Peter Maenhout, Jan Van den Bulcke, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Veerle Cnudde, Stefaan De Neve, Steven Sleutel
Mineral nitrogen (N) availability to heterotrophic micro-organisms is known to impact organic matter (OM) decomposition. Different pathways determining the N accessibility depend to a large extent on soil structure. Contact between soil mineral and OM substrate particles can facilitate N transport toward decomposition hot spots. However, the impact of soil structure on N availability to microbes and thus heterotrophic microbial activity and community structure is not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that carbon mineralization (Cmin) from low-N substrate would be stimulated by increased N availability caused by closer contact with soil particles or by a higher moisture level, enhancing potential for N-diffusion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noopur Singh, Bijan Choudhury
Hypersaline environment is inhabited by array of microbes which have the potential to produce industrially important products. This study explored biomass and lipid production potential of the halophilic bacterium, strain NS12IITR which was isolated from Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacterium belonged to genus Lentibacillus. The salient feature of the isolate is its ability to accumulate total cellular lipid up to 18.9 ± 0.45% of dry cell weight. In addition, trans-esterification of extracted lipid yielded 77...
November 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Jessica L Sanchez, Joel C Trexler
Herbivory is thought to be an inefficient diet, but it independently evolved from carnivorous ancestors in many metazoan groups, suggesting that plant-eating is adaptive in some circumstances. In this study, we tested two hypotheses to explain the adaptive evolution of herbivory: (i) the Heterotroph Facilitation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because herbivores supplement their diets with heterotrophic microbes); and (ii) the Lipid Allocation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because algae, which have high lipid concentrations, are nutritionally similar to carnivory)...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has for the first time reported Prunus cerasifera leaf extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in a green and one-pot synthetic mode without utilization of any chemical reducing agents. Synthesized nanoparticles were analysed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis peak was detected at 380 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. A variety of biomolecules were revealed by FTIR involved in reduction cum stabilization of ZnO NPs...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Xia Zhang, Jingping Zhang, Yuan Shen, Changhao Zhou, Xiaoping Huang
Previous studies conducted on Daya Bay implied that the bay had been undergoing potential phosphorus limitation. In this context, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and the associated microbes were investigated in three different seasons in Daya Bay, South China Sea. Both bulk-community (fractioned into dissolved and particulate) and single-cell assays of APA were used to estimate the P status of phytoplankton at the community and species level. Unexpected high potential APA (Vmax ) was observed in Daya Bay...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yonghua Wang, Min Rui, Yang Nie, Guanghua Lu
Oral exposure is a major route of human bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. However, influence of gastrointestinal tract on BPA metabolism is unavailable. In this study, in vitro simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) was applied to investigate the changes in bioaccessibility and metabolism of BPA in different parts of gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small intestine and colon). Then the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was employed to compare toxic effects of BPA itself and effluents of SHIME system on hepatic gene expression profiles...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yujiao Sun, Shangwei Xu, Danyang Zheng, Jie Li, Hezhong Tian, Yong Wang
In this study, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10 , respectively), which was found at different concentrations in spring, was collected in Beijing. The chemical composition and bacterial community diversity of PM were determined, and the relationship between them was studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and mathematical statistics. Chemical composition analysis revealed greater relative percentages of total organic compounds (TOC) and secondary ions (NO3 - , SO4 2- , and NH4 + )...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mohanapriya Jayapal, Hema Jagadeesan, Manojkumar Shanmugam, Perinba Danisha J, Shobana Murugesan
The presence of unused dyes and dye degradation intermediates in the textile industry wastewaters is the major challenge in its treatment. A wide range of treatments including various physicochemical processes are used for this wastewater. Incomplete dye degradation results in hazardous colorless aromatic amine intermediates that are teratogenic in nature. A synergistic plant-microbe system operated in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic mode was evaluated for the complete degradation of a model azo dye methyl red under laboratory conditions...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Manoj Kamalanathan, Chen Xu, Kathy Schwehr, Laura Bretherton, Morgan Beaver, Shawn M Doyle, Jennifer Genzer, Jessica Hillhouse, Jason B Sylvan, Peter Santschi, Antonietta Quigg
Extracellular enzymes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a key role in overall microbial activity, growth and survival in the ocean. EPS, being amphiphilic in nature, can act as biological surfactant in an oil spill situation. Extracellular enzymes help microbes to digest and utilize fractions of organic matter, including EPS, which can stimulate growth and enhance microbial activity. These natural processes might have been altered during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill due to the presence of hydrocarbon and dispersant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kornelis S M van der Geest, Bart-Jan Kroesen, Gerda Horst, Wayel H Abdulahad, Elisabeth Brouwer, Annemieke M H Boots
Immune-aging is associated with perturbed immune responses in the elderly. CD161-expressing T cells, i.e., the previously described subsets of CD161+ CD4+ T cells, CD161high CD8+ T cells, and CD161int CD8+ T cells, are highly functional, pro-inflammatory T cells. These CD161-expressing T cells are critical in immunity against microbes, while possibly contributing to autoimmune diseases. So far, little is known about the impact of aging on the frequency, phenotype, and function of these CD161-expressing T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Hagenfeld, Raphael Koch, Sebastian Jünemann, Karola Prior, Inga Harks, Peter Eickholz, Thomas Hoffmann, Ti-Sun Kim, Thomas Kocher, Jörg Meyle, Doğan Kaner, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Benjamin Ehmke, Dag Harmsen
Empiric antibiotics are often used in combination with mechanical debridement to treat patients suffering from periodontitis and to eliminate disease-associated pathogens. Until now, only a few next generation sequencing 16S rDNA amplicon based publications with rather small sample sizes studied the effect of those interventions on the subgingival microbiome. Therefore, we studied subgingival samples of 89 patients with chronic periodontitis (solely non-smokers) before and two months after therapy. Forty-seven patients received mechanical periodontal therapy only, whereas 42 patients additionally received oral administered amoxicillin plus metronidazole (500 and 400 mg, respectively; 3x/day for 7 days)...
2018: PloS One
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