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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317554/alteration-of-cellular-and-immune-related-properties-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-macrophages-by-k562-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cell-derived-exosomes
#1
Nazli Jafarzadeh, Zohreh Safari, Majid Pornour, Naser Amirizadeh, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Leukemic cells can impact the bone marrow niche to create a tumor-favorable microenvironment using their secreted factors. Little knowledge is available about immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting properties of chronic myeloid leukemia derived exosomes in bone marrow stromal components. We report here that K562-derived exosomes can affect the gene expression, cytokine secretion, nitric oxide (NO) production, and redox potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and macrophages. Human BM-MSCs and mouse macrophages were treated with K562-derived exosomes...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310855/cancer-stem-cells-and-tumorigenesis
#2
REVIEW
Pingping Zhu, Zusen Fan
Cancer is one of the most serious diseases all over the world, and the cancer stem cell (CSC) model accounts for tumor initiation, metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse. The CSCs within tumor bulk have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate, and give rise to a new tumor. The self-renewal of CSCs is precisely regulated by various modulators, including Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Notch signaling, Hedgehog signaling, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and non-coding RNAs. CSCs reside in their niches that are also involved in the self-renewal maintenance of CSCs and protection of CSCs from chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and even endogenous damages...
2018: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306777/role-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-digestive-neuroendocrine-tumors
#3
Thomas Cuny, Wouter de Herder, Anne Barlier, Leo J Hofland
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) represent a group of heterogeneous tumors whose incidence increased over the past few years. Around half of patients already present with metastatic disease at the initial diagnosis. Despite extensive efforts, cytotoxic and targeted therapies have provided only limited efficacy for patients with metastatic GEP-NETs, mainly due to the development of a certain state of resistance. One factor contributing to both the failure of systemic therapies and the emergence of an aggressive tumor phenotype may be the tumor microenvironment (TME), comprising dynamic and adaptative assortment of extracellular matrix components and non-neoplastic cells, which surround the tumor niche...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293773/tumor-stroma-mechanics-coordinate-amino-acid-availability-to-sustain-tumor-growth-and-malignancy
#4
Thomas Bertero, William M Oldham, Eloise M Grasset, Isabelle Bourget, Etienne Boulter, Sabrina Pisano, Paul Hofman, Floriant Bellvert, Guerrino Meneguzzi, Dmitry V Bulavin, Soline Estrach, Chloe C Feral, Stephen Y Chan, Alexandre Bozec, Cedric Gaggioli
Dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and cellular metabolism promotes tumor aggressiveness by sustaining the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Yet mechanisms by which biophysical properties of ECM relate to metabolic processes and tumor progression remain undefined. In both cancer cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), we found that ECM stiffening mechanoactivates glycolysis and glutamine metabolism and thus coordinates non-essential amino acid flux within the tumor niche...
September 28, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285881/surgical-peritoneal-stress-creates-a-pro-metastatic-niche-promoting-resistance-to-apoptosis-via-il-8
#5
Jennifer Pasquier, Fabien Vidal, Jessica Hoarau-Véchot, Claire Bonneau, Emile Daraï, Cyril Touboul, Arash Rafii
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) involves chemotherapy, and debulking surgery. However, despite optimal surgical procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy, 60% of patients with AOC will relapse within 5 years. Most recurrences occur in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the existence of occult sanctuaries where ovarian cancer cells (OCC) are protected. In murine models, surgical stress favors tumor growth; however, it has never been established that surgery may affect OCC sensitivity to subsequent chemotherapy...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284650/perspectives-on-the-role-of-brain-cellular-players-in-cancer-associated-brain-metastasis-translational-approach-to-understand-molecular-mechanism-of-tumor-progression
#6
REVIEW
Masoom Raza, Peeyush Prasad, Pragya Gupta, Naveen Kumar, Taruna Sharma, Mandeep Rana, Aaron Goldman, Seema Sehrawat
Brain metastasis is one of the leading causes of death among cancer patients. Cancer cells migrate to various sites and harbor different niche in the body which help cancer cells in their survival. The brain is one of the safest place where cancer cells are protected from immune cells. Breast, lung, and melanoma cancer cells have high propensity to migrate towards the brain. To enter the brain, cancer cells have to cross the blood brain barrier. Survival and finding new niche in the brain are directed by several mechanisms in which different cellular players take part such as astrocytes, microglia, Schwann cells, satellite cells, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells...
October 4, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270184/autophagy-promotes-tumor-like-stem-cell-niche-occupancy
#7
Shaowei Zhao, Tina M Fortier, Eric H Baehrecke
Adult stem cells usually reside in specialized niche microenvironments. Accumulating evidence indicates that competitive niche occupancy favors stem cells with oncogenic mutations, also known as tumor-like stem cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate tumor-like stem cell niche occupancy are largely unknown. Here, we use Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells as a model and use bam mutant cells as tumor-like stem cells. Interestingly, we find that autophagy is low in wild-type stem cells but elevated in bam mutant stem cells...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269995/cells-isolated-from-residual-intracranial-tumors-after-treatment-express-ipsc-genes-and-possess-neural-lineage-differentiation-plasticity
#8
Kamalakannan Palanichamy, John R Jacob, Kevin T Litzenberg, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Arnab Chakravarti
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to identify and characterize treatment resistant tumor initiating cells (TRTICs) using orthotopic xenografts. METHODS: TRTICs were enriched from GBM cell lines using mouse xenografts treated with fractionated doses of radiation and temozolomide. TRTICs were characterized by neurosphere clonogenicity and self-renewal, serial xenotransplantation, differentiation potential, and mRNA & miRNA transcriptomic profiling. We use an unbiased approach to identify antigens encoding TRTIC and glioma stem cells (GSC) populations...
September 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257208/retinoblastoma-intrinsically-regulates-niche-cell-quiescence-identity-and-niche-number-in-the-adult-drosophila-testis
#9
Leah J Greenspan, Erika L Matunis
Homeostasis in adult tissues depends on the precise regulation of stem cells and their surrounding microenvironments, or niches. Here, we show that the cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor Retinoblastoma (RB) is a critical regulator of niche cells in the Drosophila testis. The testis contains a single niche, composed of somatic hub cells, that signals to adjacent germline and somatic stem cells. Hub cells are normally quiescent, but knockdown of the RB homolog Rbf in these cells causes them to proliferate and convert to somatic stem cells...
September 25, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255723/commentary-on-some-recent-theses-relevant-to-combating-aging-october-2018
#10
Benjamin Zealley, Aubrey D N J de Grey
Theses reviewed in this issue include "Computational Pathology for Quantifying Spatial Heterogeneity in Digital Images of Tissue Sections from Solid Tumors," "Molecular Analysis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration Brain Tissue Identifies Disease Mechanisms Associated with Repetitive DNA Elements," "Neuroprotective Potential of the N-Terminal Beta Amyloid Peptide Fragment in the Neurodegeneration, Synaptic Dysfunction and Memory Deficits in Models of Alzheimer's Disease," "pH-triggered Self-Assembly of a PEGylated Peptide Amphiphilic Contrast Agent," "Quantitative Approaches for Profiling the T Cell Receptor Repertoire in Human Tissues," and "Regulation and Repair of Neural Stem Cells and the Neurogenic Niche...
October 9, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255300/cancer-stem-cells-in-metastasis-therapy
#11
Esra Aydemir Çoban, Fikrettin Şahin
Tumors consists of subpopulation of cells in which each subtype has contributes to tumor progression. Specifically one subtype known as cancer stem cells are associated with the initiation, progression, resistance to conventional therapies and metastasis. Metastasis is leading cause of cancer related deaths. Overall it is important to consider cancer as a whole in which a mutated cell proliferating indefinitely and forming its hierarchy consisting of subgroups with different molecular signatures. To be able to target this disease we need to evaluate every step including initiation, progression, survival, angiogenesis and finally migration and repopulation...
September 26, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254278/microenvironmental-niche-divergence-shapes-brca1-dysregulated-ovarian-cancer-morphological-plasticity
#12
Andreas Heindl, Adnan Mujahid Khan, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Katherine Eason, Anguraj Sadanandam, Cecilia Orbegoso, Marco Punta, Andrea Sottoriva, Stefano Lise, Susana Banerjee, Yinyin Yuan
How tumor microenvironmental forces shape plasticity of cancer cell morphology is poorly understood. Here, we conduct automated histology image and spatial statistical analyses in 514 high grade serous ovarian samples to define cancer morphological diversification within the spatial context of the microenvironment. Tumor spatial zones, where cancer cell nuclei diversify in shape, are mapped in each tumor. Integration of this spatially explicit analysis with omics and clinical data reveals a relationship between morphological diversification and the dysregulation of DNA repair, loss of nuclear integrity, and increased disease mortality...
September 25, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254126/formate-promotes-shigella-intercellular-spread-and-virulence-gene-expression
#13
Benjamin J Koestler, Carolyn R Fisher, Shelley M Payne
The intracellular human pathogen Shigella flexneri invades the colon epithelium, replicates to high cell density within the host cell, and then spreads to adjacent epithelial cells. When S. flexneri gains access to the host cytosol, the bacteria metabolize host cytosolic carbon using glycolysis and mixed acid fermentation, producing formate as a by-product. We show that S. flexneri infection results in the accumulation of formate within the host cell. Loss of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL; Δ pflB ), which converts pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and formate, eliminates S...
September 25, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245264/galectins-as-regulators-of-cell-survival-in-the-leukemia-niche
#14
REVIEW
Peter P Ruvolo
The microenvironment within the bone marrow (BM) contains support cells that promote leukemia cell survival and suppress host anti-tumor defenses. Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside binding proteins that are critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Galectin 1 (LGALS1) and Galectin 3 (LGALS3) as regulators of RAS signaling intracellularly and as inhibitors of immune cells extracellularly are perhaps the best studied members for their role in leukemia biology. Interest in Galectin 9 (LGALS9) is growing as this galectin has been identified as an immune checkpoint molecule...
September 12, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243984/regulation-of-tumor-cell-microenvironment-interaction-by-the-autotaxin-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-axis
#15
REVIEW
Gabor J Tigyi, Junming Yue, Derek D Norman, Erzsebet Szabo, Andrea Balogh, Louisa Balazs, Guannan Zhao, Sue Chin Lee
The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids is primarily produced by cleavage of lysophospholipids by the lysophospholipase D enzyme Autotaxin (ATX). LPA has been identified and abundantly detected in the culture medium of various cancer cell types, tumor effusates, and ascites fluid of cancer patients. Our current understanding of the physiological role of LPA established its role in fundamental biological responses that include cell proliferation, metabolism, neuronal differentiation, angiogenesis, cell migration, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, wound healing, regulation of cell excitability, and the promotion of cell survival by protecting against apoptotic death...
September 16, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239705/uterine-stem-cells-from-basic-research-to-advanced-cell-therapies
#16
Xavier Santamaria, Aymara Mas, Irene Cervelló, Hugh Taylor, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Stem cell research in the endometrium and myometrium from animal models and humans has led to the identification of endometrial/myometrial stem cells and their niches. This basic knowledge is beginning to be translated to clinical use for incurable uterine pathologies. Additionally, the implication of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) in uterine physiology has opened the field for the exploration of an exogenous and autologous source of stem cells. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we outline the progress of endometrial and myometrial stem/progenitor cells in both human and mouse models from their characterization to their clinical application, indicating roles in Asherman syndrome, atrophic endometrium and tissue engineering, among others...
September 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238476/the-role-of-protein-disulphide-isomerase-agr2-in-the-tumor-niche
#17
F Delom, A Nazaraliyev, D Fessart
In recent years, the discovery of "tumor niche", a microenvironment that favors tumor development has changed our perspective of cancer. This microenvironment generated by the tumor cells itself and surrounding cells, is capable of providing essential elements for its growth. Consequently, the homeostasis of the Secretory Pathway (SP) has become an essential player in cancer development. The SP not only promotes cellular adaptation to protein misfolding due to oncogenic transformation or challenging tumor niche but also allows tumor cells to produce specific secretomes...
September 21, 2018: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237484/melatonin-attenuates-detrimental-effects-of-diabetes-on-the-niche-of-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-by-maintaining-leydig-cells
#18
Zhaoyu Du, Shuanshuan Xu, Shuxian Hu, Hong Yang, Zhe Zhou, Kuldip Sidhu, Yiliang Miao, Zhonghua Liu, Wei Shen, Russel J Reiter, Jinlian Hua, Sha Peng
Diabetes mellitus affects a large number of men of reproductive age and it usually leads to serious reproductive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms and specific therapies still remain largely unknown. We observed Leydig cell loss in the testes of diabetic mice. Continuous high glycemic status of testes stimulated expression of Caspase12, Grp78, and Chop, the three ERS response factors; this might induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Leydig cells in response to ERS. In these diabetic mouse models, melatonin alleviated apoptosis of testicular stromal cell induced by ERS, and promoted SSCs self-renewal by recovering Leydig cells secretion of CSF1 after 8 weeks of treatment...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227608/factors-secreted-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-that-sustain-cancer-stem-properties-in-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinoma-cells-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#19
Saúl Álvarez-Teijeiro, Cristina García-Inclán, M Ángeles Villaronga, Pedro Casado, Francisco Hermida-Prado, Rocío Granda-Díaz, Juan P Rodrigo, Fernando Calvo, Nagore Del-Río-Ibisate, Alberto Gandarillas, Francisco Morís, Mario Hermsen, Pedro Cutillas, Juana M García-Pedrero
This study investigates for the first time the crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and cancer stem cell (CSC) biology in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), with the ultimate goal of identifying effective therapeutic targets. The effects of conditioned media from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and normal fibroblasts (NFs) on the CSC phenotype were assessed by combining functional and expression analyses in HNSCC-derived cell lines. Further characterization of CAFs and NFs secretomes by mass spectrometry was followed by pharmacologic target inhibition...
September 17, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221054/microvesicles-released-from-multiple-myeloma-cells-are-equipped-with-ectoenzymes-belonging-to-canonical-and-non-canonical-adenosinergic-pathways-and-produce-adenosine-from-atp-and-nad
#20
F Morandi, D Marimpietri, A L Horenstein, M Bolzoni, D Toscani, F Costa, B Castella, A C Faini, M Massaia, V Pistoia, N Giuliani, F Malavasi
Multiple myeloma (MM) derives from malignant transformation of plasma cells (PC), which accumulate in the bone marrow (BM), where microenvironment supports tumor growth and inhibits anti-tumor immune responses. Adenosine (ADO), an immunosuppressive molecule, is produced within MM patients' BM by adenosinergic ectoenzymes, starting from ATP (CD39/CD73) or NAD+ [CD38/CD203a(PC-1)/CD73]. These ectoenzymes form a discontinuous network expressed by different BM cells. We investigated the expression and function of ectoenzymes on microvesicles (MVs) isolated from BM plasma samples of patients with MM, using asymptomatic forms of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering MM (SMM) as controls...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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