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Sodium glucose transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091169/cardiovascular-protection-in-type-2-diabetes-insights-from-recent-outcome-trials
#1
REVIEW
Clifford J Bailey, Nikolaus Marx
This review examines recent randomised controlled cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials with glucose-lowering therapies in type 2 diabetes and their impact on the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The trials were designed to comply with regulatory requirements to confirm that major adverse cardiac events (MACE) are not detrimrntally affected by such therapies. Trials involving dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors did not alter a composite MACE comprising CV deaths, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and non-fatal stroke...
August 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090949/empagliflozin-sglt-2-inhibitor-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-in-rats-exposed-to-unilateral-ureteric-obstruction-potential-role-of-klotho-expression
#2
Noha A T Abbas, Amal El Salem, Mohammed M Awad
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global healthcare problem; however until now, there is no effective treatment that can stop its progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2 I) in a model of unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) in rats, as a model of progressive renal interstitial fibrosis in vivo and the possibility of inclusion of klotho protein. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: group 1: control group, group 2: UUO untreated group, group 3: prophylactic SGLT2 I treatment before UUO, group 4: immediate SGLT2 I treatment after UUO, and group 5: delayed SGLT2 I treatment (this group received distilled water 1 week after UUO then empagliflozin for 2 weeks)...
August 8, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090549/effect-of-deoxynivalenol-on-apoptosis-barrier-function-and-expression-levels-of-genes-involved-in-nutrient-transport-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-in-ipec-j2-cells
#3
Peng Liao, Meifang Liao, Ling Li, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to determine the effect of 200 ng mL-1 and 2000 ng mL-1 deoxynivalenol (DON) on apoptosis, barrier function, nutrient transporter gene expression, and free amino acid variation as well as on mitochondrial biogenesis and function-related gene expression in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) for 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Exposure to 200 ng mL-1 DON inhibited the cell viability and promoted cell cycle progression from the G2/M phase to the S phase ( P < 0.05). The data showed that the IPEC-J2 cell content of free amino acids, such as valine, methionine, leucine, and phenylalanine, was increased ( P < 0...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086405/effects-of-antidiabetic-drugs-on-nlrp3-inflammasome-activity-with-a-focus-on-diabetic-kidneys
#4
REVIEW
Habib Yaribeygi, Niki Katsiki, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Inflammatory responses have a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a newly recognized and potent inflammatory mediator that induces inflammatory responses in several disorders, including DN. The suppression of procytokine release and inflammatory response is integral to the prevention of complications arising from the inflammatory process. In this review, we discuss the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of DN, focusing on its effects on interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18...
August 4, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081813/-chronic-heart-failure-and-diabetes-mellitus-pathogenesis-and-possibilities-of-treatment
#5
A G Obrezan, N V Kulikov
In this article we present data of scientific studies of prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), pathogenetic and risk factors of CHF development patients with DM (hyperglycemia, elevated body mass index, age, ischemic heart disease, nephropathy, proteinuria, DM duration, etc.). The article also contains results of analysis of mortality of patients with and without DM in dependence of ejection fraction value. After characterization of drugs for treatment of CHF in general and specifically in patients with DM we make focus on perspective directions in treatment of this group of patients...
July 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075873/cardiac-and-renal-effects-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-in-diabetes-jacc-state-of-the-art-review
#6
REVIEW
Thomas A Zelniker, Eugene Braunwald
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk for the development of cardiac and other vascular events, heart failure (HF), and decline in renal function. After several large cardiovascular outcome trials with mostly neutral results, 2 studies of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), empagliflozin and canagliflozin, reported favorable effects on the primary endpoint, a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. In addition, reductions of hospitalizations for HF were observed; in the case of empagliflozin, reductions in both cardiovascular mortality and total mortality occurred...
July 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072956/combining-sglt2-inhibition-with-a-thiazolidinedione-additively-attenuate-the-very-early-phase-of-diabetic-nephropathy-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Eugene Han, Eugene Shin, Gyuri Kim, Ji-Yeon Lee, Yong-Ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha
Although both sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition by dapagliflozin and thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone have glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects, the therapeutic efficacy of their combination on diabetic nephropathy has not been investigated. 9-week-old male db/db mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups and administrated with (1) vehicle, (2) dapagliflozin, (3) pioglitazone, or (4) dapagliflozin and pioglitazone combination. Human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells were treated with glucose or palmitate acid in the presence of medium, dapagliflozin, pioglitazone, or both...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060748/glycemic-control-by-the-sglt2-inhibitor-empagliflozin-decreases-aortic-stiffness-renal-resistivity-index-and-kidney-injury
#8
Annayya R Aroor, Nitin A Das, Andrea J Carpenter, Javad Habibi, Guanghong Jia, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Luis Martinez-Lemus, Camila M Manrique-Acevedo, Melvin R Hayden, Cornel Duta, Ravi Nistala, Eric Mayoux, Jaume Padilla, Bysani Chandrasekar, Vincent G DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is emerging as an independent risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which lower serum glucose by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated glucose reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, have shown promise in reducing arterial stiffness and the risk of cardiovascular and kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since hyperglycemia contributes to arterial stiffness, we hypothesized that the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (EMPA) would improve endothelial function, reduce aortic stiffness, and attenuate kidney disease by lowering hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic female mice (db/db)...
July 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060280/-acute-kidney-injury-aki-update-2018
#9
Daniel Patschan, Gerhard Anton Müller
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) remains a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized individuals worldwide. The current article will focus on three AKI-related aspects: prevention of contrast-Induced Nephropathy with sodium chloride vs. sodium bicarbonate (PRESERVE trial), kidney-related unwanted side effects of Sodium-Glucose co-Transporter-2-antagonists (SGLT-2-inhibitors), and the utilization of certain types of stem/progenitor cells for AKI therapy.
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051943/effect-of-luseogliflozin-on-hepatic-fat-content-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-nafld-a-prospective-single-arm-trial
#10
Yoshio Sumida, Kenta Murotani, Miyoko Saito, Atsuko Tamasawa, Yusuke Osonoi, Masashi Yoneda, Takeshi Osonoi
AIMS: No pharmacological therapies are approved for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Luseogliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been developed for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this prospective, single arm study is to evaluate the efficacy of luseogliflozin on hepatic fat content and HbA1c in T2DM patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Forty T2DM patients with NAFLD were treated with luseogliflozin 2...
July 27, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047511/the-effectiveness-of-dapagliflozin-for-sleep-disordered-breathing-among-japanese-patients-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Shinya Furukawa, Teruki Miyake, Hidenori Senba, Takenori Sakai, Eri Furukawa, Shin Yamamoto, Tetsuji Niiya, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa
Weight reduction is important in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In Japanese patients, slight weight reduction is effective for improving the severity of SDB. However, the effect of weight reduction after administration of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for SDB remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement of SDB from baseline after administration of dapagliflozin (5 mg) once daily for 24 weeks among Japanese patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
July 26, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047217/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-fractures-of-the-upper-or-lower-limbs-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-nested-case-control-study
#12
Niklas Schmedt, Frank Andersohn, Jochen Walker, Edeltraut Garbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045814/a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-renal-capillary-injury-and-fibrosis-by-a-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-dependent-pathway-after-renal-injury-in-mice
#13
Yifan Zhang, Daisuke Nakano, Yu Guan, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akiyoshi Uemura, Tsutomu Masaki, Hideki Kobara, Takeshi Sugaya, Akira Nishiyama
Multiple large clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of renal events. However, the mechanism responsible for this outcome remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on the development of renal fibrosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in non-diabetic mice. Luseogliflozin significantly suppressed development of renal fibrosis, prevented peritubular capillary congestion/hemorrhage, attenuated CD31-positive cell loss, suppressed hypoxia, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in the kidney after ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 23, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016311/renal-tubular-solute-transport-and-oxygen-consumption-insights-from-computational-models
#14
Anita T Layton, Volker Vallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To maintain electrolyte homeostasis, the kidneys reabsorb more than 99% of the filtered Na under physiological conditions, resulting in less than 1% of the filtered Na excreted in urine. In contrast, due to distal tubular secretion, urinary K output may exceed filtered load. This review focuses on a relatively new methodology for investigating renal epithelial transport, computational modelling and highlights recent insights regarding renal Na and K transport and O2 consumption under pathophysiological conditions, with a focus on nephrectomy...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009694/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-2-inhibitors-the-miraculous-route-from-hypoglycemic-to-cardiovascular-drugs
#15
EDITORIAL
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008760/insulin-monotherapy-versus-insulin-combined-with-other-glucose-lowering-agents-in-type-2-diabetes-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Hengameh Abdi, Fereidoun Azizi, Atieh Amouzegar
Context: Insulin can be prescribed as a monotherapy or a combined therapy with other anti-diabetic medications. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to gather data related to comparison of insulin monotherapy versus combination of insulin and other anti-diabetic treatments with regards to different outcome measures in type 2 diabetes. Evidence Acquisition: This study searched and focused on the most recently published systematic reviews and their references investigating issues related to the primary aim...
April 2018: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008607/susceptibility-to-serious-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue-disorders-and-skin-tissue-distribution-of-sodium-dependent-glucose-co-transporter-type-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#17
Toshiyuki Sakaeda, Shinji Kobuchi, Ryosuke Yoshioka, Mariko Haruna, Noriko Takahata, Yukako Ito, Aki Sugano, Kazuki Fukuzawa, Toshiki Hayase, Taro Hayakawa, Hideo Nakayama, Yutaka Takaoka, Masahiro Tohkin
Objectives: In Japan, sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to be associated with serious skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. A post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study suggested that the association was specific for ipragliflozin and, to a lesser extent for dapagliflozin. These studies were performed to confirm the association of 6 SGLT2 inhibitors with serious skin disorders in a clinical setting, to elucidate the role of melanin in serious skin disorders and to understand the underlying mechanisms...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003655/observational-research-on-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-a-real-breakthrough
#18
REVIEW
Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Gian Paolo Fadini, Giulio Marchesini, Fabrizio De Ponti
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) have attracted the interest of the scientific community following the results from dedicated cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), which demonstrated remarkable reduction in all-cause mortality and other cardiovascular (CV) endpoints with empagliflozin and canagliflozin. These impressive results raised further expectations on real world data from large observational cohort studies. They were designed to address the possible existence of a class effect, and the uncertainty on whether this benefit can be extended from secondary to primary CV prevention of patients with type 2 diabetes...
July 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998370/characteristics-of-dapagliflozin-responders-a-longitudinal-prospective-nationwide-dapagliflozin-surveillance-study-in-korea
#19
Eugene Han, Ari Kim, Sung Jae Lee, Je-Yon Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, have demonstrated favorable effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there are limited reports in the literature regarding the glucose-lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in actual clinical settings. METHODS: The post-marketing surveillance data from a longitudinal prospective study of 2007 patients with T2D who were prescribed dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) were analyzed (ClinicalTrials...
July 11, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998111/characterization-of-a-novel-mitochondrial-ascorbate-transporter-from-rat-liver-and-potato-mitochondria
#20
Vito Scalera, Nicola Giangregorio, Silvana De Leonardis, Lara Console, Emanuele Salvatore Carulli, Annamaria Tonazzi
The Mitochondrial Ascorbic Acid Transporter (MAT) from both rat liver and potato mitochondria has been reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The protein has a molecular mass in the range of 28-35 kDa and catalyzes saturable, temperature and pH dependent, unidirectional ascorbic acid transport. The transport activity is sodium independent and it is optimal at acidic pH values. It is stimulated by proton gradient, thus supporting that ascorbate is symported with H+ . It is efficiently inhibited by the lysine reagent pyridoxal phosphate and it is not affected by inhibitors of other recognized plasma and mitochondrial membranes ascorbate transporters GLUT1(glucose transporter-1) or SVCT2 (sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-2)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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