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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#1
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087565/perturbation-of-retinoid-homeostasis-increases-malformation-risk-in-embryos-exposed-to-pregestational-diabetes
#2
Leo M Y Lee, Maran B W Leung, Rachel C Y Kwok, Yun-Chung Leung, Chi-Chiu Wang, Peter J McCaffery, Andrew J Copp, Alisa S W Shum
Pregestational diabetes is highly associated with increased risk of birth defects. However, factors that can increase or reduce expressivity and penetrance of malformations in diabetic pregnancies remain poorly identified. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) plays crucial roles in embryogenesis. Here, we find that Cyp26a1, which encodes a key enzyme for catabolic inactivation of RA required for tight control of local RA concentrations, is significantly down-regulated in embryos of diabetic mice. Embryonic tissues expressing Cyp26a1 show reduced efficiency of RA clearance...
January 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#3
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070816/can-oral-isotretinoin-be-safely-initiated-and-monitored-in-primary-care-a-case-series
#4
D Buckley, S Yoganathan
BACKGROUND: Oral isotretinoin has traditionally been prescribed only in secondary care for severe or resistant acne. AIMS: To explore whether this drug can be safely initiated and monitored in primary care by a GP with extra training in dermatology. METHOD: One hundred consecutive patients who were started on oral isotretinoin therapy in a primary care centre were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred percent of the patients with acne who completed their course of isotretinoin were cleared at the end of treatment...
January 9, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069388/vitamin-d-receptor-deficit-induces-activation-of-renin-angiotensin-system-via-sirt1-modulation-in-podocytes
#5
Nirupama Chandel, Kamesh Ayosolla, Hongxiu Wen, Xiqian Lan, Shabirul Haque, Moin A Saleem, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficient status has been shown to be associated with the activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS). We hypothesized that lack of VDR would enhance p53 expression in podocytes through down regulation of SIRT1; the former would enhance the transcription of angiotensinogen (Agt) and angiotensinogen II type 1 receptor (AT1R) leading to the activation of RAS. Renal tissues of VDR mutant (M) mice displayed increased expression of p53, Agt, renin, and AT1R. In vitro studies, VDR knockout podocytes not only displayed up regulation p53 but also displayed enhanced expression of Agt, renin and AT1R...
January 6, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063095/the-use-of-cosmeceuticals-in-acne-help-or-hoax
#6
Brittany S Barros, Andrea L Zaenglein
The use of cosmeceuticals by patients with acne is common; however, their role is unclear and confusing, with many asking, "Do they really help acne?" Cosmeceuticals are intermediate products between prescription medications and cosmetics, available to consumers over the counter. These products are popular and may be used without the direct supervision of a dermatologist, creating a practice gap in educating patients. Herein, a variety of cosmeceuticals are discussed, including retinoids, niacinamide, and glycolic acid...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055124/interventions-for-the-management-of-oral-lichen-planus-a-review-of-the-conventional-and-novel-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Shikha Gupta, Sujoy Ghosh, Sunita Gupta
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review focuses on the rationale & role of conventional and newer therapies in the management of Oral lichen planus with emphasis on randomized controlled trials reported over 2 decades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials for management of OLP from 1/1/1995 to 31/12/2015; Medline, and Cochrane databases complemented with manual search was used. Primary outcome as resolution of pain was evaluated with analysis of clinical resolution of erythema and ulceration as secondary outcome...
January 5, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055107/results-of-a-phase-i-ii-study-of-fenretinide-and-rituximab-for-patients-with-indolent-b-cell-lymphoma-and-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#8
Andrew J Cowan, Phillip A Stevenson, Ted A Gooley, Shani L Frayo, George R Oliveira, Stephen D Smith, Damian J Green, Jennifer E Roden, John M Pagel, Brent L Wood, Oliver W Press, Ajay K Gopal
Fenretinide, a synthetic retinoid, induces apoptotic cell death in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and acts synergistically with rituximab in preclinical models. We report results from a phase I-II study of fenretinide with rituximab for B-NHLs. Eligible diagnoses included indolent B-NHL or mantle cell lymphoma. The phase I design de-escalated from fenretinide at 900 mg/m(2) PO BID for days 1-5 of a 7-day cycle. The phase II portion added 375 mg/m(2) IV rituximab weekly on weeks 5-9 then every 3 months...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054069/challenge-and-perspective-the-relevance-of-ultraviolet-uv-radiation-and-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-psoriasis-and-other-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#9
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
January 5, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052368/synthesis-and-activity-of-the-salicylic-acid-ester-of-bakuchiol-in-psoriasis-surrogate-keratinocytes-and-skin-substitutes
#10
S Ma, K Gobis, W R Swindell, R Chaudhuri, R Bojanowski, K Bojanowski
BACKGROUND: Topical retinoids are effective in retarding skin ageing and restoring homeostasis in skin conditions such as psoriasis. However their adverse effects (AEs), which include irritation (retinoid dermatitis), photosensitivity and teratogenicity, limit their use and patient compliance. Development of retinoid analogues with minimal AEs would allow a broader and more compliant use. AIM: To synthesise a novel molecule, bakuchiol salicylate (bakusylan), with a modulatory gene expression profile similar to retinoids, using as reference three prescription retinoids: tretinoin, tazarotene and adapalene...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052040/nuclear-receptor-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-alpha-promotes-apoptosis-but-is-reduced-in-human-gastric-cancer
#11
Zhengguang Wang, Fangyuan Xiong, Xiaoshan Wang, Yijun Qi, Haoyuan Yu, Yong Zhu, Huaqing Zhu
Retinoid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is a nuclear receptor, which regulates inflammation and immune responses, lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm. Although RORα suppresses breast tumor invasion, it is unknown whether RORα is dysregulated in gastric cancer leading to cellular survival. Therefore, we hypothesize that RORα is dysfunctional in gastric carcinoma and this causes decreased apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we employed human gastric cancer tissues with different stages to determine RORα expression, as well as in vitro human gastric cancer cells to determine how RORα is reduced during apoptosis...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051153/the-metastasis-suppressor-rarres3-as-an-endogenous-inhibitor-of-the-immunoproteasome-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Alison M Anderson, Murugan Kalimutho, Sarah Harten, Devathri M Nanayakkara, Kum Kum Khanna, Mark A Ragan
In breast cancer metastasis, the dynamic continuum involving pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators can become compromised. Over 600 genes have been implicated in metastasis to bone, lung or brain but how these genes might contribute to perturbation of immune function is poorly understood. To gain insight, we adopted a gene co-expression network approach that draws on the functional parallels between naturally occurring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our network analyses indicate a key role for metastasis suppressor RARRES3, including potential to regulate the immunoproteasome (IP), a specialized proteasome induced under inflammatory conditions...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042431/vulvovaginal-gingival-lichen-planus-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
A Lucchese, A Dolci, G Minervini, C Salerno, D DI Stasio, G Minervini, L Laino, F Silvestre, R Serpico
PURPOSE: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucous membranes. Approximately 20% of women with oral lichen planus develops lesions in the genital mucosa. In 1982, Pelisse described a special form of lichen planus (LP), which consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival (VVG)-LP lesions. Aim of the present report is to report two new cases and review the international literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two cases of VVG-LP are reported and a review of recent literature is performed...
April 2016: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041994/a-dominant-mutation-in-rpe65-d477g-delays-dark-adaptation-and-disturbs-the-visual-cycle-in-the-mutant-knock-in-mice
#14
Younghwa Shin, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Dibyendu Chakraborty, Jian-Xing Ma
RPE65 is an indispensable component of the retinoid visual cycle in vertebrates, through which the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal (11-cis-RAL) is generated to maintain normal vision. Various blinding conditions in humans, such as Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are attributed to either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in RPE65. Herein, we investigated the D477G missense mutation, an unprecedented dominant-acting mutation of RPE65 identified in patients with autosomal dominant RP...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041731/analysis-of-bull-bos-taurus-seminal-vesicle-fluid-proteome-in-relation-to-seminal-plasma-proteome
#15
B Westfalewicz, M A Dietrich, A Mostek, A Partyka, W Bielas, W Niżański, A Ciereszko
The existing knowledge on the bull seminal vesicle proteome, a major seminal plasma constituent, and its relationship with seminal plasma is limited. This knowledge is prerequisite for a better understanding of seminal plasma variability, which is linked to semen quality. The objective of this study was to characterize the proteomes of seminal vesicle fluid and seminal plasma and to compare them to better understand the origin of seminal plasma proteins. We collected ejaculates and seminal vesicle fluid postmortem from 6 mature Holstein Friesian bulls...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035529/hereditary-retinal-dystrophy
#16
Thomas C Hohman
As our understanding of the genetic basis for inherited retinal disease has expanded, gene therapy has advanced into clinical development. When the gene mutations associated with inherited retinal dystrophies were identified, it became possible to create animal models in which individual gene were altered to match the human mutations. The retina of these animals were then characterized to assess whether the mutated genes produced retinal phenotypes characteristic of disease-affected patients. Following the identification of a subpopulation of patients with the affected gene and the development of techniques for the viral gene transduction of retinal cells, it has become possible to deliver a copy of the normal gene into the retinal sites of the mutated genes...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028826/identification-of-the-potential-biomarkers-for-the-metastasis-of-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Yang Hua, Xiukun Ma, Xianglong Liu, Xiangfei Yuan, Hai Qin, Xipeng Zhang
Rectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, with a high incidence and high mortality. This study aimed to identify the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC) metastasis. The expression profiling of RAC patients with metastasis and RAC patients without metastasis was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The datasets were used to identify the genes associated with RAC metastasis. Fifty up-regulated genes and seventeen down-regulated genes were identified in the primary tumor loci of RAC metastasis compared with non-metastasis...
December 28, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024481/-effect-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-leukemia-cells
#18
Xiao-Huan Ma, Xin Xu, Chang-Yong Zou, Yao Zhao, Zhan-Ju Wang, Hai-Ying Wang, Yu-Fen Wang, Zhen-Bo Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells(HUC-MSC) on the proliferation and differentiation of NB4 treated with all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) and its underlining mechanisms . METHODS: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord of newborns. Co-culture system was established by HUC-MSC and NB4 in vitro. The experiment was divided into 4 groups: NB4 group (NB4 cells alone) , NM group (NB4 cells co-cultured with HUC-MSC) , NA group (NB4 cells treated with ATRA) , NMA group (NB4 cells co-cultured with HUC-MSC and treated with ATRA) ...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024127/combined-therapy-in-vulvar-lichen-sclerosus-does-topical-tretinoin-improve-the-efficacy-of-mometasone-furoate
#19
Alessandro Borghi, Sara Minghetti, Giulia Toni, Annarosa Virgili, Monica Corazza
Purpose To assess efficacy and safety profile of combining a potent corticosteroid with a retinoid in in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS). Methods We retrospectively compared 21 VLS patients treated with tretinoin (T) in short contact therapy and mometasone furoate (MMF) (group A) and 20 treated with cold cream (CC) and MMF (group B) for 5 consecutive days/week for 12 weeks. The efficacy parameters were the response rate, the percentage of patients achieving an improvement from baseline of ≥75% in subjective and objective scores, and the mean reduction in subjective and objective scores...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017254/role-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-iih-results-from-the-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-treatment-trial
#20
J Libien, M J Kupersmith, W Blaner, M P McDermott, S Gao, Y Liu, J Corbett, M Wall
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin A and its metabolites (called retinoids) have been thought to play a role in the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed the efficacy of acetazolamide (ACZ) in improving visual field function, papilledema grade, quality of life and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We postulated that IIH patients would demonstrate elevated measures of vitamin A metabolites in the serum and CSF. METHODS: Comprehensive measures of serum vitamin A and its metabolites were obtained from 96 IIHTT subjects, randomly assigned to treatment with ACZ or placebo, and 25 controls with similar gender, age and body mass index (BMI)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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