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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458017/synergistic-and-additive-effects-of-atra-in-combination-with-different-anti-tumor-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Eduarda Schultze, Tiago Collares, Caroline Lucas, Fabiana K Seixas
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of vitamin A, has been shown to potentiate cancer chemotherapy due to its ability to induce signals for cell differentiation or death, and inhibit cell proliferation. The combination of ATRA with taxoids, kinase inhibitors, natural compounds, retinoids, ER or HER2 inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs, proteasome inhibitors and nanoformulations of tretinoin have demonstrated additive or synergistic effects in anti-cancer activities. The mechanisms by which the compounds exert their synergistic effects depend on the tumor and the cell type...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454584/fat-specific-protein-27-is-a-novel-target-gene-of-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE
#2
Daisuke Aibara, Kimihiko Matsusue, Soichi Takiguchi, Frank J Gonzalez, Shigeru Yamano
Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) is highly expressed in the fatty liver of genetically obese ob/ob mice and promotes hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. The nuclear hormone receptor liver X receptor α (LXRα) also plays a critical role in the control of TG levels in the liver. The present study demonstrated transcriptional regulation of Fsp27a and Fsp27b genes by LXRα. Treatment with the LXR ligand T0901317 markedly increased Fsp27a and Fsp27b mRNAs in wild-type C57BL/6J and ob/ob mouse livers. A reporter assay indicated that two LXR-responsive elements (LXREs) are necessary for LXRα-dependent induction of Fsp27a and Fsp27b promoter activities...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454501/postoperative-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-relation-to-body-composition-adiposity-and-carbohydrate-treatment-a-randomised-controlled-study
#3
Nilanjana Tewari, Sherif Awad, František Duška, Julian P Williams, Andrew Bennett, Ian A Macdonald, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aims of this study were to identify whether differences in distribution of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in obese and non-obese individuals contribute to the magnitude of the postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance, with and without preoperative treatment with carbohydrate drinks. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (16 obese/16 non-obese) undergoing elective major open abdominal surgery participated in this 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453250/retinal-chitosan-conjugates-effectively-deliver-active-chromophores-to-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-in-blind-mice-and-dogs
#4
Songqi Gao, Shirin Kahremany, Jianye Zhang, Beata Jastrzebska, Janice Querubin, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Krzysztof Palczewski
The retinoid (visual) cycle consists of a series of biochemical reactions needed to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal and sustain vision. Genetic or environmental factors affecting chromophore production can lead to blindness. Using animal models that mimic human retinal diseases, we previously demonstrated that mechanism-based pharmacological interventions can maintain vision in otherwise incurable genetic diseases of the retina. Here, we report that after 9-cis-retinal administration to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice, the drug was rapidly absorbed and then cleared within 1-2 h...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439915/probing-biological-activity-through-structural-modelling-of-ligand-receptor-interactions-of-2-4-disubstituted-thiazole-retinoids
#5
Hesham Haffez, David R Chisholm, Natalie J Tatum, Roy Valentine, Christopher Redfern, Ehmke Pohl, Andrew Whiting, Stefan Przyborski
Retinoids, such as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), regulate cellular differentiation and signalling pathways in chordates by binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARα/β/γ). Polar interactions between receptor and ligand are important for binding and facilitating the non-polar interactions and conformational changes necessary for RAR-mediated transcriptional regulation. The constraints on activity and RAR-type specificity with respect to the structural link between the polar and non-polar functions of synthetic retinoids are poorly understood...
February 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437960/silencing-retinoid-x-receptor-alpha-expression-enhances-early-stage-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cell-cultures
#6
Mei Song, Yinyan Sun, Ji Tian, Wenhui He, Guangwei Xu, Zhiyi Jing, Wenhui Li
Multiple steps of the life cycle of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are known to be coupled to hepatic metabolism. However the details of involvement of hepatic metabolic milieu in HBV infection remain incompletely understood. Hepatic lipid metabolism is controlled by a complicated transcription factors network centered by Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα). Here, we report that RXRα negatively regulates HBV infection at early stage in cell cultures. RXR specific agonist Bexarotene inhibits HBV in HepG2 cells expressing the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) (HepG2-NTCP), HepaRG cells and primary Tupaia hepatocytes (PTHs); Reducing RXRα expression significantly enhanced HBV infection in the cells...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436649/interleukin%C3%A2-10-promotes-primary-rat-hepatic-stellate-cell-senescence-by-upregulating-the-expression-levels-of-p53-and-p21
#7
Yue-Hong Huang, Ming-Hua Chen, Qi-Lan Guo, Yun-Xin Chen, Li-Juan Zhang, Zhi-Xin Chen, Xiao-Zhong Wang
Liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a primary source of ECM. Several studies have revealed that the induction of HSC senescence may reduce liver fibrosis. The effect of interleukin‑10 (IL‑10) on the senescence of activated HSCs is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study examined its effects and potential mechanisms in activated primary rat HSCs. Collagenase perfusion and density gradient centrifugation methods were used to isolate rat HSCs...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431552/porcine-interleukin-6-enhances-the-expression-of-cyp2c33-through-a-constitutive-androstane-receptor-retinoid-x-receptor-mediated-pathway
#8
Lixia Xie, Yucheng He, Xiaoqiao Zhou, Xiaowen Li, Xiue Jin, Xiliang Wang, Deshi Shi
1. Cytochrome P450, which is expressed in humans and other animals, is a superfamily of drug-metabolizing enzymes that plays important roles in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates via oxidation, peroxidation, and reduction. Of endogenous substrates, interleukin (IL)-6 is a crucial cytokine involved in inflammation in the liver. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanisms through which IL-6 modulates cytochrome P450 expression. 2. CYP2C33 expression was found to be increased in HepLi cells and primary porcine hepatocytes treated with IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner...
February 12, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428660/differential-expression-of-the-receptors-for-thyroid-hormone-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-vitamin-d-and-retinoic-acid-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-uterus-of-rats-under-influence-of-sex-steroids
#9
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Nelli Giribabu, Kamarulzaman Karim, Lay Khiang Si, Sekaran Muniandy, Naguib Salleh
Sex-steroids play important role in modulating uterine functions. We hypothesized that these hormones affect expression of proteins in the uterus related to thyroid hormone action. Therefore, changes in expression levels of receptors for thyroid hormone (TRα-1 and TRβ-1), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSHR), vitamin D (VDR) and retinoid acid (RAR) as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in uterus were investigated under sex-steroid influence. METHODS: Two rat models were used: (i) ovariectomised, sex-steroid replaced and (ii) intact, at different phases of oestrous cycle...
February 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425825/molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-patterns-of-retinoid-receptors-in-normal-and-regenerating-tissues-of-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#10
Jorge Viera-Vera, José E García-Arrarás
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood...
February 6, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425495/highroad-is-a-carboxypetidase-induced-by-retinoids-to-clear-mutant-rhodopsin-1-in-drosophila-retinitis-pigmentosa-models
#11
Huai-Wei Huang, Brian Brown, Jaehoon Chung, Pedro M Domingos, Hyung Don Ryoo
Rhodopsins require retinoid chromophores for their function. In vertebrates, retinoids also serve as signaling molecules, but whether these molecules similarly regulate gene expression in Drosophila remains unclear. Here, we report the identification of a retinoid-inducible gene in Drosophila, highroad, which is required for photoreceptors to clear folding-defective mutant Rhodopsin-1 proteins. Specifically, knockdown or genetic deletion of highroad blocks the degradation of folding-defective Rhodopsin-1 mutant, ninaEG69D...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424354/stability-studies-of-endocrine-disrupting-tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-compounds-in-an-artificial-sea-water-model
#12
Ladislav Novotny, Leyla Sharaf, Mohammed E Abdel-Hamid, Julius Brtko
Triorganotins belong to toxic components present predominantly in antifouling paints for marine vessels. Tributyltin/triphenyltin at pico- or nanomolar concentrations in sea water are known to induce an irreversible sexual abnormality in females of over 190 marine species, an "imposex" phenomenon - the superimposition of male genitalia on a female. Moreover, trialkyltins and triaryltins function as potent nuclear retinoid X receptors (RXR) agonists. In mammals, triorganotin compounds induce immunosuppressive, metabolic, reproductive or developmental effects...
January 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422993/mesenteric-injection-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-relieves-experimentally-induced-colitis-in-rats-by-regulating-th17-treg-cell-balance
#13
Zheng-Wei Fu, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Hai-Yan Ge
Efficient delivery routes are critical for the effectiveness of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Conventional ADMSC delivery routes include local, intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. Whether mesenteric injection has potential in IBD treatment remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of mesenteric injection of ADMSCs in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat IBD model and explored whether this treatment affected T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cell ratio...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416919/mechanism-of-action-of-the-atypical-retinoid-st1926-in-colorectal-cancer-dna-damage-and-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE
#14
Rana Abdel-Samad, Patrick Aouad, Hala Gali-Muhtasib, Zeinab Sweidan, Raed Hmadi, Humam Kadara, Egildo Luca D'Andrea, Alessandra Fucci, Claudio Pisano, Nadine Darwiche
Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third cause of cancer-related deaths with a relatively low survival rate. Resistance to standard chemotherapy represents a major hurdle in disease management; therefore, developing new therapeutic agents demands a thorough understanding of their mechanisms of action. One of these compounds is ST1926, an adamantyl retinoid that has shown potent antitumor activities in several human cancer models. Here, we show that ST1926 selectively suppressed the proliferation of CRC cells while sparing normal counterparts, and significantly reduced tumor volume in a xenograft cancer mouse model...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410257/plasticizers-used-in-food-contact-materials-affect-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#15
Valentina Pomatto, Erika Cottone, Paolo Cocci, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Gilberto Mosconi, Erik Russel Nelson, Francesco Alessandro Palermo, Patrizia Bovolin
Recent studies suggest that exposure to some plasticizers, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), play a role in endocrine/metabolic dispruption and can affect lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Here, we investigated the adipogenic activity and nuclear receptor interactions of four plasticizers approved for the manufacturing of food-contact materials (FCMs) and currently considered safer alternatives. Differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes were exposed to scalar concentrations (0.01-25 μM) of DiNP (Di-iso-nonyl-phthalate), DiDP (Di-iso-decyl-phthalate), DEGDB (Diethylene glycol dibenzoate), or TMCP (Tri-m-cresyl phosphate)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410064/icam-1-upregulation-is-not-required-for-retinoic-acid-induced-human-eosinophil-survival
#16
Shigeharu Ueki, Junko Nishikawa, Mineyo Fukuchi, Yasunori Konno, Masahide Takeda, Yuki Moritoki, Junichi Chihara, Ayumi Omokawa, Tomoo Saga, Makoto Hirokawa
Active metabolites of vitamin A, retinoic acids (RAs), are known to play critical roles in mucosal immune responses and dramatically inhibit human eosinophil apoptosis, but the detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. We previously screened for ICAM-1 (CD54) upregulation in RA-stimulated human eosinophils by gene microarray analysis. As ICAM-1 induction and activation were observed to have a role in maintenance of eosinophil survival, we tested the hypothesis that RAs prolong eosinophil survival through ICAM-1 outside-in signaling...
January 31, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409107/indications-and-use-of-isotretinoin-in-facial-plastic-surgery
#17
Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Thomas Ruzicka, Carola Berking, Werner J Heppt
Isotretinoin is a first generation retinoid with pleiotropic effects on keratinocyte differentiation, proliferation, and activity of sebaceous glands. For years, there has been intense debate on whether the use of isotretinoin combined with cosmetic or surgical procedures is safe and potentially more efficient than either therapy alone. Due to delays in wound healing and keloid formation, conservative recommendations were not to combine isotretinoin with any plastic surgery or local treatment at 6 to 12 months after discontinuation of the drug...
February 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407779/bisphenol-a-bpa-modulates-the-expression-of-endocrine-and-stress-response-genes-in-the-freshwater-snail-physa-acuta
#18
Mónica Morales, Pedro Martínez-Paz, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can mimic the action of oestrogens by interacting with hormone receptors, is potentially able to influence reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. The freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics appropriate for aquatic toxicity testing in environmental studies. This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P...
January 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404511/exenatide-induces-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-to-prevent-hepatic-steatosis
#19
Hilda E Ghadieh, Harrison T Muturi, Lucia Russo, Christopher C Marino, Simona S Ghanem, Saja S Khuder, Julie C Hanna, Sukanta Jash, Vishwajeet Puri, Garrett Heinrich, Cara Gatto-Weis, Kevin Y Lee, Sonia M Najjar
Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, induces insulin secretion. Its role in insulin clearance has not been adequately examined. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance to maintain insulin sensitivity. Feeding C57BL/6J mice a high-fat diet down-regulates hepatic Ceacam1 transcription to cause hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, as in Ceacam1 null mice (Cc1-/- ). Thus, we tested whether exenatide regulates Ceacam1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice and whether this contributes to its insulin sensitizing effect...
January 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404478/ribavirin-suppresses-hepatic-lipogenesis-through-inosine-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-inhibition-involvement-of-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-related-kinases-and-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE
#20
Shinya Satoh, Kyoko Mori, Daichi Onomura, Youki Ueda, Hiromichi Dansako, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato
Ribavirin (RBV) has been widely used as an antiviral reagent, specifically for patients with chronic hepatitis C. We previously demonstrated that adenosine kinase, which monophosphorylates RBV into the metabolically active form, is a key determinant for RBV sensitivity against hepatitis C virus RNA replication. However, the precise mechanism of RBV action and whether RBV affects cellular metabolism remain unclear. Analysis of liver gene expression profiles obtained from patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C treated with the combination of pegylated interferon and RBV showed that the adenosine kinase expression level tends to be lower in patients who are overweight and significantly decreases with progression to advanced fibrosis stages...
August 2017: Hepatology Communications
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