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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729405/super-enhancer-analysis-defines-novel-epigenomic-subtypes-of-non-apl-aml-including-an-rar%C3%AE-dependency-targetable-by-sy-1425-a-potent-and-selective-rar%C3%AE-agonist
#2
Michael R McKeown, M Ryan Corces, Matthew L Eaton, Chris Fiore, Emily Lee, Jeremy T Lopez, Mei Wei Chen, Darren Smith, Steven M Chan, Julie L Koenig, Kathryn Austgen, Matt G Guenther, David A Orlando, Jakob Lovén, Christian C Fritz, Ravindra Majeti
We characterized the enhancer landscape of 66 AML patients, identifying 6 novel subgroups and their associated regulatory loci. These subgroups are defined by their super-enhancer (SE) maps, orthogonal to somatic mutations, and are associated with distinct leukemic cell states. Examination of transcriptional drivers for these epigenomic subtypes uncovers a subset of patients with a particularly strong super-enhancer at the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) gene locus. Presence of a RARA SE and concomitant high levels of RARA mRNA predisposes cell lines and ex vivo models to exquisite sensitivity to a selective agonist of RARα, SY-1425 (tamibarotene)...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727051/carotenoid-intake-and-scd-genotype-exert-complementary-effects-over-fat-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-duroc-pigs
#3
E Henriquez-Rodriguez, R N Pena, A R Seradj, L Fraile, P Christou, M Tor, J Estany
Nutritional and genetic strategies are needed to enhance intramuscular fat (IMF) and MUFA content without altering carcass leanness. Dietary vitamin A restriction has been suggested to specifically promote IMF, whereas a polymorphism of the () gene has shown to specifically increase MUFA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid intake and genotype (>) on hepatic retinoid content and on the liver, muscle (LM and gluteus medius [GM]), and subcutaneous fat (SF) content and fatty acid composition...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726093/the-fluorescence-lifetime-of-lipofuscin-granule-fluorophores-contained-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-human-cadaver-eyes-in-normal-state-and-in-the-case-of-visualized-pathology
#4
M A Yakovleva, T B Feldman, P M Arbukhanova, S A Borzenok, V A Kuzmin, M A Ostrovsky
A comparative analysis of fluorescence lifetime of lipofuscin granule fluorophores contained in the retinal pigment epithelium cells from human cadaver eyes in normal state and in the case of visualized pathology was carried out. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes of bis-retinoids and their photooxidation and photodegradation products were carried out using the method of counting time-correlated photons. Comparative analysis showed that, in the case of visualized pathology, the contribution of photooxidation and photodegradation products of bis-retinoids to the total fluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelium cell suspension increases in comparison with the norm...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720593/vitamin-a-endocrine-tissues-and-hormones-interplay-and-interactions
#5
Julie Brossaud, Veronique Pallet, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids targets the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas...
July 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#6
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714476/modulation-of-nongenomic-activation-of-pi3k-signalling-by-tetramerization-of-n-terminally-cleaved-rxr%C3%AE
#7
Liqun Chen, Alexander E Aleshin, Gulimiran Alitongbieke, Yuqi Zhou, Xindao Zhang, Xiaohong Ye, Mengjie Hu, Gaoang Ren, Ziwen Chen, Yue Ma, Duo Zhang, Shuai Liu, Weiwei Gao, Lijun Cai, Lingjuan Wu, Zhiping Zeng, Fuquan Jiang, Jie Liu, Hu Zhou, Gregory Cadwell, Robert C Liddington, Ying Su, Xiao-Kun Zhang
Retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRα) binds to DNA either as homodimers or heterodimers, but it also forms homotetramers whose function is poorly defined. We previously discovered that an N-terminally-cleaved form of RXRα (tRXRα), produced in tumour cells, activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling by binding to the p85α subunit of PI3K and that K-80003, an anti-cancer agent, inhibits this process. Here, we report through crystallographic and biochemical studies that K-80003 binds to and stabilizes tRXRα tetramers via a 'three-pronged' combination of canonical and non-canonical mechanisms...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713287/vitamin-a-affects-flatfish-development-in-a-thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-metamorphic-stage-dependent-manner
#8
Ignacio Fernández, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Maria J Darias, Francisco Hontoria, Karl B Andree, Manuel Manchado, Carmen Sarasquete, Enric Gisbert
Vitamin A (VA) and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs) remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709983/sn-and-ge-triorganometallics-exert-different-cytotoxicity-and-modulation-of-migration-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231
#9
Luba Hunakova, Julius Brtko
Among a variety of metal containing organic compounds, tin derivatives are enjoying an increasing interest and appear to be very promising as potential drug candidates. We studied eight organometallic derivatives, nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands and two germanium containing derivates that do not serve as RXR ligands. Tributylgermanium chloride (TBGe) and triphenylgermanium chloride (TPGe) did not inhibit growth of human triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. On the other hand, the tributyltin derivatives were highly, the triphenyltin derivatives less cytotoxic, both groups with IC50 values of nanomolar range...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708516/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-isoforms-are-differentially-expressed-in-peri-implantation-porcine-conceptuses
#10
Agnieszka Blitek, Magdalena Szymanska
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PPARs are critical regulators of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and affect cell proliferation and differentiation. In the current study, we examined (1) the profiles of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG mRNA expression and DNA binding activity in porcine conceptuses collected on Days 10-11 (spherical and tubular conceptuses), 11-12 (filamentous conceptuses), 13-14, and 15-16 (elongated conceptuses) of pregnancy, (2) the presence of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG proteins in Days 10, 12, and 15 conceptuses...
June 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#11
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701464/human-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-27c1-is-localized-in-skin-and-preferentially-desaturates-trans-retinol-to-3-4-dehydroretinol
#12
Kevin M Johnson, Thanh T N Phan, Matthew E Albertolle, F Peter Guengerich
Recently zebrafish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 27C1 enzymes have been shown to be retinoid 3,4-desaturases. The enzyme is unusual among mammalian P450s in that the predominant oxidation is a desaturation and that hydroxylation represents only a minor pathway. We show by proteomic analysis that P450 27C1 is localized to human skin, with two proteins of different sizes present, one being a cleavage product of the full-length form. P450 27C1 oxidized alltrans-retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697223/treatment-of-annular-elastolytic-giant-cell-granuloma-with-topical-tretinoin
#13
Aubrey Wagenseller, Cecilia Larocca, Neelam A Vashi
<p>Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, also known as actinic granuloma, is a rare skin condition with a chronic course that is often resistant to treatment. Literature is sparse, and only a handful of case reports are available to guide treatment decisions. Typical first line treatment options include topical and intralesional steroids, topical pimecrolimus, and cryotherapy. Resistant cases have been treated with cyclosporine, systemic steroids, antimalarials, and oral retinoids. In particular, acitretin and isotretinoin have shown success in three cases...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697219/the-role-of-a-natural-mollusk-egg-derived-ingredient-in-facial-appearance
#14
Zoe Diana Draelos
<p>New cosmeceutical ingredients that improve skin appearance are of interest to the dermatologist. Cryptomphalus aspersa is a snail raised on farms in Spain for its mucinous secretions and eggs. These natural products have been demonstrated in vitro to trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, promote dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, prevent keratinocyte aging, prevent oxidative damage, stimulate the extracellular matrix, and regulate MMPs. This 12-week study enrolled 40 male and female subjects age 40-70 years of Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV with moderate to severe facial aging and Rao-Goldman scores of 4-5 who applied an eye and face anti-aging cream twice daily containing a mollusk egg extract...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696354/a-case-of-aml-characterized-by-a-novel-t-4-15-q31-q22-translocation-that-confers-a-growth-stimulatory-response-to-retinoid-based-therapy
#15
Justin M Watts, Aymee Perez, Lutecia Pereira, Yao-Shan Fan, Geoffrey Brown, Francisco Vega, Kevin Petrie, Ronan T Swords, Arthur Zelent
Here we report the case of a 30-year-old woman with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who was treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as part of investigational therapy (NCT02273102). The patient died from rapid disease progression following eight days of continuous treatment with ATRA. Karyotype analysis and RNA-Seq revealed the presence of a novel t(4;15)(q31;q22) reciprocal translocation involving the TMEM154 and RASGRF1 genes. Analysis of primary cells from the patient revealed the expression of TMEM154-RASGRF1 mRNA and the resulting fusion protein, but no expression of the reciprocal RASGRF1-TMEM154 fusion...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696319/combined-epigenetic-and-differentiation-based-treatment-inhibits-neuroblastoma-tumor-growth-and-links-hif2%C3%AE-to-tumor-suppression
#16
Isabelle Westerlund, Yao Shi, Konstantinos Toskas, Stuart M Fell, Shuijie Li, Olga Surova, Erik Södersten, Per Kogner, Ulrika Nyman, Susanne Schlisio, Johan Holmberg
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer characterized by variable outcomes ranging from spontaneous regression to life-threatening progression. High-risk neuroblastoma patients receive myeloablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell transplant followed by adjuvant retinoid differentiation treatment. However, the overall survival remains low; hence, there is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic approaches. One feature of high-risk neuroblastoma is the high level of DNA methylation of putative tumor suppressors...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692353/fractional-carbon-dioxide-co2-laser-combined-with-topical-tretinoin-for-the-treatment-of-different-forms-of-cystic-acne
#17
Carmela Pestoni Porvén, Vanessa Vieira Dos Santos, Jesus Del Pozo Losada
Nodulocystic acne is prone to scarring and difficult to treat with treatments other than oral isotretinoin. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of a single session of a fractional CO2 laser combined with a topical treatment with a tretinoin and antibiotic gel for a month as a successful treatment to improve nodulocystic acne and chronic microcystic acne. Two cases were involved: the first with nodulocystic acne lesions that persisted after oral retinoids and the second with chronic microcystic acne resistant to topical treatments...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692043/cross-talk-between-progesterone-receptors-and-retinoic-acid-receptors-in-regulation-of-cytokeratin-5-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#18
L M Fettig, O McGinn, J Finlay-Schultz, D V LaBarbera, S K Nordeen, C A Sartorius
Half of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers contain a subpopulation of cytokeratin 5 (CK5)-expressing cells that are therapy resistant and exhibit increased cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. We and others have demonstrated that progesterone (P4) increases CK5+ breast cancer cells. We previously discovered that retinoids block P4 induction of CK5+ cells. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which progesterone receptors (PR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR) regulate CK5 expression and breast CSC activity...
July 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691794/ligand-dependent-switch-from-rxr-homo-to-rxr-nurr1-heterodimerization
#19
Marcel Scheepstra, Sebastian A Andrei, Rens M J M de Vries, Femke A Meijer, Jian-Nong Ma, Ethan S Burstein, Roger Olsson, Christian Ottmann, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Luc Brunsveld
Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs) play key roles in many physiological processes in both the periphery and central nervous system. In addition, RXRs form heterodimers with other nuclear receptors to exert their physiological effects. The Nuclear Receptor Related 1 protein (NURR1) is particularly interesting because of its role in promoting differentiation and survival of dopamine neurons. However only a small number of RXR-heterodimer selective modulators are available, with limited chemical diversity. This work describes the synthesis, biochemical evaluation and structural elucidation of a novel series of RXR ligands with strongly biased interactions with RXRα-NURR1 heterodimers...
July 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690889/imbalances-in-t-cell-related-transcription-factors-among-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#20
Vahid Safdari, Ebrahim Alijani, Maryam Nemati, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Imbalances in effector T cell functioning have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Differentiation of effector T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lymphocytes is regulated by transcription factors, including Th1-specific T box (T-bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA3), retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-α and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). This study aimed to investigate Th1/Th2, Th1/Treg, Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg balances at the level of these transcription factors...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
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