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Bassem Refaat, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Fadi Fayez Kamfar, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Faizah Ahmed Malibary
This is a prospective observational study that measures the expression of vitamin D (VD) metabolising and signalling molecules and Ca(2+) sensing receptor (CaSR) in human Fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and ectopic pregnancy (EP). Fresh FTs were obtained during total abdominal hysterectomy at the follicular (n = 16) and midluteal (n = 16) phases. Specimens from remote and implantation sites as well as trophoblastic tissues were also freshly collected from each FT with EP (n = 10)...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Gro H Mathisen, Else Marit Løberg, Ragnhild E Paulsen
Immediate early gene nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B), a nuclear receptor important for differentiation and apoptosis, is expressed in mice and rat cerebellum from an early stage of postnatal development. Following apoptotic stimuli NGFI-B translocates to mitochondria to initiate cell death processes. Controlled cell death is critical for correct cerebellar development. Immunohistochemical analysis of NGFI-B in sections of mice cerebella showed NGFI-B to be expressed in granule neurons in vivo at a time (P8-11) when apoptosis is known to occur...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Shlomo Sasson
Activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes that metabolize fatty acids and carbohydrate. Attempts to identify cellular activators of PPARδ produced large lists of various fatty acids and their metabolic derivatives; however, there is no consensus on specific and selective binding interactions of natural ligands with PPARδ. Most models on binding interactions within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARδ have been derived from analyses of PPARδ-LBD crystals formed with synthetic low molecular weight ligands...
October 18, 2016: Biochimie
Zijian Wu, Xuemin Zheng, Min Gong, Ying Li
Foot ulceration is a major cause of morbidity in patients with diabetes, and abnormal peripheral neuropathy often results in hospitalization. Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are noted to be distinctive biological functions of diabetic dermal fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of modified retinoids on diabetic fibroblasts. Myricetin, a natural compound, balances the TIMP1/MMP ratio and oxidative stress in diabetic fibroblasts...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
M Molina-Calle, F Priego-Capote, M D Luque de Castro
Stevia is currently a well-known plant thanks to its sweeting power. Numerous studies that elucidate its composition were exclusively focused on determination of steviol and its glycosides. Untargeted analysis was applied to obtain a profile of main compounds present in extracts from Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves using LC-MS in high resolution mode with a quadrupole-time of flight analyzer. Eighty-nine compounds were tentatively identified and classified into different families: flavonoids; quinic and caffeic acids and derivatives; diterpenoids (including steviol and glycosides); sesquiterpenoids; amino acids and derivatives; fatty amides and derivatives; fatty acids and derivatives; oligosaccharides; glycerolipids; purines; and retinoids...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tian-Hao Dai, Ali Sserwadda, Kun Song, Ya-Nan Zang, Huai-Shun Shen
Ecdysone receptor and retinoid X receptor are key regulators in molting. Here, full length ecdysone receptor (PcEcR) and retinoid X receptor (PcRXR) cDNAs from Procambarus clarkii were cloned. Full length cDNA of PcEcR has 2500 bp, encoding 576 amino acid proteins, and full length cDNA of PcRXR has 2593 bp, in which a 15 bp and a 204 bp insert/deletion splice variant regions in DNA binding domain and hinge domain were identified. The two splice variant regions in PcRXR result four isoforms: PcRXR1-4, encoding 525, 520, 457 and 452 amino acids respectively...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
O Lidický, M Šírová, T Etrych
In this paper, we describe the synthesis, physicochemical characterization, drug release kinetics and preliminary biological evaluation of several N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer-retinoid conjugates designed for solid tumor immunotherapy. The conjugates are supposed to inhibit the immunosuppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulated in the solid tumor microenvironment. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was derivatized to hydrazide (AtrHy) and then attached to the polymer backbone via a spacer that is stable at the normal pH of blood (7...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat, Iffat Hassan, Peerzada Sajad, Atiya Yaseen, Syed Mubashir, Saniya Akhter, Roohi Wani
BACKGROUND: Epidermal naevi are benign hamartomatous growths of the skin which are generally asymptomatic with a benign course but are cosmetically disagreeable. Topical treatments such as steroids, calcipotriol, 5 fluorouracil, podophyllin, retinoids and cryotherapy are ineffective and surgical excision results in scar formation. Therapy is often challenging. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the response of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in the management of epidermal naevi...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Patrick J Buchanan, Robert H Gilman
Vitamin A-containing products have been used topically since the early 1940s to treat various skin conditions. To date, there are four generations of retinoids, a family of Vitamin A-containing compounds. Tretinoin, all-trans-retinoic acid, is a first-generation, naturally occurring, retinoid. It is available, commercially, as a gel or cream. The authors conducted a complete review of all studies, clinical- and basic science-based studies, within the literature involving tretinoin treatment recommendations for impending facial procedures...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Yusuke Endo, Koutaro Yokote, Toshinori Nakayama
Chronic inflammation associated with obesity plays a major role in the development of metabolic diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Among Th subsets, Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, steroid-resistant asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Accumulating data suggest that reciprocal interactions between the metabolic systems and immune system play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases...
October 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hye-Jin Tak, Tae-Jin Park, Piao Zhengguo, Sang-Hwy Lee
BACKGROUND: Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We thus wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes...
October 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Alberto García-Mariscal, Karine Peyrollier, Astrid Basse, Esben Pedersen, Ralph Rühl, Jolanda van Hengel, Cord Brakebusch
The ubiquitously expressed small GTPase RhoA is essential for embryonic development and mutated in different cancers. Functionally, it is well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, but its role in gene regulation is less understood. Using primary mouse keratinocytes with a deletion of the RhoA gene, we have now been exploring how the loss of RhoA affects gene expression. Performing transcription factor reporter assays, we found a significantly decreased activity of a RAR luciferase reporter in RhoA-null keratinocytes...
October 18, 2016: Small GTPases
Amanda L Mansouri, Laura N Grese, Erica L Rowe, James C Pino, S Chakra Chennubhotla, Arvind Ramanathan, Hugh M O'Neill, Valerie Berthelier, Christopher B Stanley
Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR) separate from their mutual binding. Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Conversely, purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yoo-Sun Kim, Eunju Kim, Yoon Jung Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) is childhood malignancy that retains characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Targeting the CSCs is one of the therapeutic strategies proposed to achieve complete remission of NB. β-carotene (BC), an active precursor of retinoids, is a well-known antioxidant reported to possess anti-CSCs effects. Here, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the anti-CSCs effects of BC. Treatment with BC or retinoic acid (RA) upregulated RARβ mRNA expression in two NB cell lines...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jie Li, Yanli Zhang, Xianhui Cai, Qingqing Xia, Jingmeng Chen, Yi Liao, Zuguo Liu, Yalin Wu
Effective clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is important for avoiding its cytotoxicity. However, the metabolism of atRAL in RPE cells is poorly clarified. The present study was designed to analyze metabolic products of atRAL and to compare the cytotoxicity of atRAL versus its derivative all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL-dimer) in human RPE cells. We found that all-trans-retinol (atROL) and a mixture of atRAL condensation metabolites including atRAL-dimer and A2E were generated after incubating RPE cells with atRAL for 6h, and the amount of atRAL-dimer was significantly higher than that of A2E...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology
Leonor Rodríguez-Sánchez, Eduardo Rial
The uncoupling protein UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is a mitochondrial carrier which allows dissipation of metabolic energy as heat. We have characterized the human UCP1 (HsUCP1) recombinantly expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and we demonstrate that HsUCP1 is activated by fatty acids and retinoids in a nucleotide sensitive manner just as its rodent orthologs. However, in the absence of regulators, rodent UCP1 presents a high ohmic proton conductance that cannot be detected in HsUCP1. Since the human protein can be activated in a nucleotide sensitive manner, we conclude that it must have lost selectively the basal proton conductance...
October 14, 2016: Biochimie
Beata Bergler-Czop, Monika Bilewicz-Stebel, Anna Stańkowska, Teresa Bilewicz-Wyrozumska
Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1). They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2). A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Shu-Jing Yu, Rong Jiang, Ying Z Mazzu, Cai-Bing Wei, Zong-Liang Sun, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure. Disruption of the Th17/Treg balance can lead to hepatic inflammation, which causes the main symptoms of DILI. Here we investigate the protective mechanisms of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triptolide (TP)-induced DILI that shows the Th17/Treg imbalance. Pretreatment with EGCG (5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for 10 days before TP (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) administration in mice significantly reduced the increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ([Formula: see text]) induced by TP treatment...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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