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metabolism pathway

Lin Lin, Xuefang Mao, Yanhui Sun, Govindan Rajivgandhi, Haiying Cui
This study was aimed to develop novel antibacterial packaging materials in order to reduce the microbial contamination of food surface. Chrysanthemum essential oil (CHEO) was successfully incorporated into chitosan nanofibers (CS/NF) through electrospinning which was demonstrated by SEM and AFM analysis. The antibacterial mechanism of CHEO against Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) was explored as well. The cell membrane permeability of L. monocytogenes appeared to be increased by CHEO. In addition, respiratory metabolism of L...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ashif Iqubal, Mohammad Kashif Iqubal, Sumit Sharma, Mohd Asif Ansari, Abul Kalam Najmi, Syed Mansoor Ali, Javed Ali, Syed Ehtaishamul Haque
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an important anticancer drug which belongs to the class of alkylating agent. Cyclophosphamide is mostly used in bone marrow transplantation, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, neuroblastoma and other types of cancer. Dose-related cardiotoxicity is a limiting factor for its use. CP-induced cardiotoxicity ranges from 7 to 28% and mortality ranges from 11 to 43% at the therapeutic dose of 170-180 mg/kg, i.v. CP undergoes hepatic metabolism that results in the production of aldophosphamide...
December 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Yun-Shan Wang, Lutao Du, Xingsi Liang, Peng Meng, Lei Bi, Yu-Li Wang, Chuanxin Wang, Bo Tang
Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) has been reported to play a vital role in the maintenance of glutamine catabolism and ATP homeostasis, but its character in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) remains obscure. In this study, we observed low expression of SIRT4 in both HCC cell lines and HCCs from patients. Decreased disease-free survival time is associated with low tumor levels of SIRT4 in patients. Deficiency of SIRT4 facilitated liver tumor development and lung metastasis in xenografts and KO mice by promoting the colony formation and migration of hepatoma cells and enhancing the sphere formation of HCCs...
December 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Noa Sadigurschi, Hava M Golan
Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. The frequency of the MTHFR677TT homozygote is markedly higher among autism patients and their mothers than in the general population...
December 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Martin J Lai, Ethan I Lan
Direct conversion of carbon dioxide into chemicals using engineered autotrophic microorganisms offers a potential solution for both sustainability and carbon mitigation. Butyrate is an important chemical used in various industries, including fragrance, food, and plastics. A model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was engineered for the direct photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to butyrate. An engineered Clostridium Coenzyme A (CoA) dependent pathway leading to the synthesis of butyryl-CoA, the precursor to butyrate, was introduced into S...
December 14, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Anjali M Prabhat, M Lakshmi Kuppusamy, Balázs Bognár, Tamás Kálai, Kálmán Hideg, Periannan Kuppusamy
The synthesis and antiproliferative effect of a novel curcumin analog, 4,4'-disulfonyldiarylidenyl piperidone, are reported. The design of the molecule is based on the fusion of an antiproliferative segment, namely diarylidenyl piperidone (DAP), with N-hyroxypyrroline, which is known to metabolically convert to nitroxide and protect healthy cells. Cellular uptake, metabolic conversion, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effect of the DAP derivative against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells have been determined...
December 14, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Volker Behrends, Guro F Giskeødegård, Natalia Bravo-Santano, Michal Letek, Hector C Keun
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Natalia Colás-Algora, Jaime Millán
The vasculature is the paradigm of a compartment generated by parallel cellular barriers that aims to transport oxygen, nutrients and immune cells in complex organisms. Vascular barrier dysfunction leads to fatal acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The endothelial barrier lines the inner side of vessels and is the main regulator of vascular permeability. Cadherins comprise a superfamily of 114 calcium-dependent adhesion proteins that contain conserved cadherin motifs and form cell-cell junctions in metazoans...
December 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
S R Rosario, M D Long, H C Affronti, A M Rowsam, K H Eng, D J Smiraglia
Understanding metabolic dysregulation in different disease settings is vital for the safe and effective incorporation of metabolism-targeted therapeutics in the clinic. Here, using transcriptomic data for 10,704 tumor and normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, across 26 disease sites, we present a novel bioinformatics pipeline that distinguishes tumor from normal tissues, based on differential gene expression for 114 metabolic pathways. We confirm pathway dysregulation in separate patient populations, demonstrating the robustness of our approach...
December 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Guang Yang, Sean J Humphrey, Danielle S Murashige, Deanne Francis, Qiao-Ping Wang, Kristen C Cooke, Greg Neely, David E James
The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in response to diverse stimuli. Two major parallel pathways are implicated in mTORC1 regulation including a growth factor-responsive pathway mediated via TSC2/Rheb and an amino acid-responsive pathway mediated via the Rag GTPases. Here, we identify and characterize three highly conserved growth factor-responsive phosphorylation sites on RagC, a component of the Rag heterodimer, implicating cross talk between amino acid and growth factor-mediated regulation of mTORC1...
December 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
John I Hendry, Saratram Gopalakrishnan, Justin Ungerer, Himadri B Pakrasi, Yinjie Tang, Costas D Maranas
Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (Synechococcus 2973) has the shortest reported doubling time (2.1 h) among cyanobacteria, making it a promising platform for the solar-based production of biochemicals. In this meta-analysis, its intracellular flux distribution was re-computed using genome-scale Isotopic Non-Stationary-13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (INST-MFA) given the labeling dynamics of 13 metabolites reported in an earlier study. To achieve this, a genome-scale mapping model, namely imSyu593, was constructed using the imSyn617 mapping model for Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 as the starting point encompassing 593 reactions...
December 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Valérie Turcotte-Cardin, Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Christine Luckhart, Mireille Daigle, Sean D Geddes, Kenji F Tanaka, René Hen, Jonathan James, Zul Merali, Jean-Claude Béïque, Paul R Albert
Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line antidepressants, but require several weeks to elicit their actions. Chronic SSRI treatment induces desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors to enhance 5-HT neurotransmission. Mice (both sexes) with gene deletion of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in adult 5-HT neurons (1AcKO) were tested for response to SSRIs. Tamoxifen-induced recombination in adult 1AcKO mice specifically reduced 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels. The 1AcKO mice showed a loss of 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated hypothermia and electrophysiological responses, but no changes in anxiety- or depression-like behavior...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Adrià Aterido, Juan D Cañete, Jesús Tornero, Carlos Ferrándiz, José Antonio Pinto, Jordi Gratacós, Rubén Queiró, Carlos Montilla, Juan Carlos Torre-Alonso, José J Pérez-Venegas, Antonio Fernández Nebro, Santiago Muñoz-Fernández, Carlos M González, Daniel Roig, Pedro Zarco, Alba Erra, Jesús Rodríguez, Santos Castañeda, Esteban Rubio, Georgina Salvador, Cesar Díaz-Torné, Ricardo Blanco, Alfredo Willisch Domínguez, José Antonio Mosquera, Paloma Vela, Simon Angel Sánchez-Fernández, Héctor Corominas, Julio Ramírez, Pablo de la Cueva, Eduardo Fonseca, Emilia Fernández, Lluis Puig, Esteban Dauden, José Luís Sánchez-Carazo, José Luís López-Estebaranz, David Moreno, Francisco Vanaclocha, Enrique Herrera, Francisco Blanco, Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez, Antonio González, Carolina Pérez-García, Mercedes Alperi-López, Alejandro Olivé Marques, Víctor Martínez-Taboada, Isidoro González-Álvaro, Raimon Sanmartí, Carlos Tomás Roura, Andrés C García-Montero, Sílvia Bonàs-Guarch, Josep Maria Mercader, David Torrents, Laia Codó, Josep Lluís Gelpí, Mireia López-Corbeto, Andrea Pluma, Maria López-Lasanta, Raül Tortosa, Nuria Palau, Devin Absher, Richard Myers, Sara Marsal, Antonio Julià
OBJECTIVE: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting up to 30% of patients with psoriasis (Ps). To date, most of the known risk loci for PsA are shared with Ps, and identifying disease-specific variation has proven very challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic variation specific for PsA. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 835 patients with PsA and 1558 controls from Spain...
December 14, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Shuo Tian, Ienglam Lei, Wenbin Gao, Liu Liu, Yijing Guo, Jeffery Creech, Todd J Herron, Shaoxiang Xian, Peter X Ma, Y Eugene Chen, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam, Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic histone acetylation is a major event controlling cell functions, such as metabolism, differentiation and repair. Here, we aim to determine whether Valproic acid (VPA), a FDA approved inhibitor of histone deacetylation for bipolar disease, could protect heart against myocardial infarction (MI) injury and elucidate key molecular pathways. METHODS: VPA was administrated to MI rats at different time points, onset and after MI injury. Echocardiography, histology, serum biology assays, and gene expression, inhibition, and over-expression were performed to characterize the systolic function, infarct size, gene and signaling pathways...
December 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
Walter R Terra, Renata O Dias, Pedro L Oliveira, Clélia Ferreira, Thiago M Venancio
The study of insect midgut features has been made possible by the recent availability of transcriptome datasets. These data uncovered the preferential expression of mucus-forming mucins at midgut regions that require protection (e.g. the acidic middle midgut of Musca domestica) or at sites of enzyme immobilization, particularly around the peritrophic membrane of Spodoptera frugiperda. Coleoptera lysosomal peptidases are directed to midgut lumen when over-expressed and targeted to lysosomes by a mechanism other than the mannose 6-phosphate-dependent pathway...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Kyung-Ah Lee, Won-Jae Lee
Immune-metabolic interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena observed in all metazoans, from invertebrates to vertebrates. Although it is believed that immune activation drives chronic metabolic diseases, clear conclusions about the reasons and mechanisms of cross-talk between immune and metabolic signaling cannot be drawn. The Drosophila insect model equipped with genetically well-defined immune and metabolic signaling pathways is suitable in understanding the molecular codes underlying immune-metabolic interactions...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Ekaterina Shor, Raya Potavskaya, Ayelet Kurtz, Inyup Paik, Enamul Huq, Rachel Green
Studies are increasingly showing that metabolic and circadian (~24 h) pathways are strongly interconnected, with the circadian system regulating the metabolic state of the cell, and metabolic products feeding back to entrain the oscillator. In plants, probably the most significant impact of the circadian system on metabolism is in its reciprocal regulation of photosynthesis; however, the pathways by which this occurs are still poorly understood. We have previously shown that members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family are involved in the photosynthate entrainment of the circadian oscillator...
December 13, 2018: Genes
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Maria Maisto, Giulia de Alteriis, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
There is a mechanistic link between the gut-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and obesity-related diseases, suggesting that the TMAO pathway may also be linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), a gender-specific indicator of adipose dysfunction, and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), a predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are early predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigated TMAO levels in adults stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and the association of TMAO with VAI and FLI...
December 13, 2018: Nutrients
Qi Wang, Xueyan Wu, Fulin Shi, Yang Liu
Saponins as small organic molecules and polysaccharides as biomacromolecules are the main bioactive substances of Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia) with anti-hyperglycemic activities. This study was aimed to fully compare the antidiabetic effects and the potential mechanism of saponins (SMC) and polysaccharides (PMC) from M. charantia in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice with high-fat diet. Three dosages of SMC (L-SMC: 20 mg/kg, M-SMC: 40 mg/kg, H-SMC: 80 mg/kg) have a certain of therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetic mice, and M-SMC (40 mg/kg) is the optimal dosage for the prevention and treatment of diabetes...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Keciany Alves de Oliveira, Maria Diana Moreira Gomes, Renata Prado Vasconcelos, Ewerton Sousa de Abreu, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Adriano César Carneiro Loureiro, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, Raquel Sombra Basílio de Oliveira, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira de Freitas, Márcio Viana Ramos, Ariclecio Cunha de Oliveira
Phytomodulatory proteins from the latex of the medicinal plant Calotropis procera has been shown to be implicated in many pharmacological properties. However there is no current information about their activity on glucose metabolism, although the latex is used in folk medicine for treating diabetes. In this study the phytomodulatory proteins (LP) from C. procera latex were assessed on glycemic homeostasis. Control animals received a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg) of LP or saline solution (CTL). Four hours after treatment, the animals were euthanized and their livers were excised for analysis by western blot and RT-PCR AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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