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metabolism pathway

Habib Yaribeygi, Farin Rashid Farrokhi, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Most human cells utilize glucose as the primary substrate, cellular uptake requiring insulin. Insulin signaling is therefore critical for these tissues. However, decrease in insulin sensitivity due to the disruption of various molecular pathways causes insulin resistance (IR). IR underpins many metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, impairments in insulin signaling disrupting entry of glucose into the adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. Although the exact underlying cause of IR has not been fully elucidated, a number of major mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin receptor mutations, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suggested...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yang Yang, Meng Wang, Bao Liu
Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant tumors and the main reason for cancer-related death around the world, whereas nonsmall cell lung cancer that consists two subtypes: lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is responsible for an estimated 85% of all lung cancers. The current study aimed to explore gene expression and methylation differences between LUAD and LUSC. EdgeR was used to identify differentially regulated genes between normal and cancer in the LUAD and LUSC extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), respectively, whereas SAM was used to find genes with differential methylation between normal and cancer in the LUAD and LUSC, respectively...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nirmaljeet Kaur, Prachi Gupta, Vikram Saini, Sandeep Sherawat, Sanjeev Gupta, Anita Dua, Vinod Kumar, Elisha Injeti, Ashwani Mittal
Skeletal muscle atrophy/wasting is associated with impaired protein metabolism in diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disturbed redox status, and weakened antioxidant defense system are the major contributing factors toward atrophy. Regulation of protein metabolism by controlling ROS levels and its associated catabolic pathways may help in treating atrophy and related clinical conditions. Although cinnamaldehyde (CNA) enjoys the established status of antioxidant and its role in ROS management is reported, impact of CNA on skeletal muscle atrophy and related pathways is still unexplored...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kaitlin Murtha, Munok Hwang, Megan C Peccarelli, Taylor D Scott, Bessie W Kebaara
The differential regulation of COX17, COX19 and COX23 mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway was investigated. The NMD pathway regulates mRNAs that aberrantly terminate translation. This includes mRNAs harboring premature translation termination codons and natural mRNAs. Most natural mRNAs regulated by NMD encode fully functional proteins involved in various cellular processes. However, the cause and targeting of most of these mRNAs by the pathway is not understood. Analysis of a set of mRNAs involved in copper homeostasis showed that a subset of these mRNAs function in mitochondrial copper homeostasis...
October 13, 2018: Current Genetics
Dolly Al Koborssy, Brigitte Palouzier-Paulignan, Vincent Canova, Marc Thevenet, Debra Ann Fadool, Andrée Karyn Julliard
Olfaction is one of the major sensory modalities that regulates food consumption and is in turn regulated by the feeding state. Given that the olfactory bulb has been shown to be a metabolic sensor, we explored whether the anterior piriform cortex (aPCtx)-a higher olfactory cortical processing area-had the same capacity. Using immunocytochemical approaches, we report the localization of Kv1.3 channel, glucose transporter type 4, and the insulin receptor in the lateral olfactory tract and Layers II and III of the aPCtx...
October 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Aaditi B Deshmukh, Sagar S Datir, Yogesh Bhonde, Natasha Kelkar, Pawan Samdani, Vaijayanti A Tamhane
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz is a medicinally important and rare tree species of the family Bignoniaceae. It is rich in flavonoid content and its mature roots are extensively used in Ayurvedic formulations. O. indicum specific flavonoids like oroxylin B, prunetin and oroxindin possess antibacterial, antiproliferative, antioxidant and anticancerous properties, signifying its importance in modern medicine. In the present study, de novo transcriptome analysis of O. indicum root was performed to elucidate the genes involved in flavonoid metabolism...
October 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Xiaoji Liu, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Elizabeth H Jeffery, Harold E Seifried, Sharon A Ross, Michael J Miller, Kelly S Swanson, Hannah D Holscher
The human gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to health outcomes; however, our understanding of how specific foods alter the microbiota is limited. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli are a good source of dietary fiber and phytonutrients, including glucosinolates, which can be metabolized by gastrointestinal microbes. This study aimed to determine the impact of broccoli consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota of healthy adults. A controlled feeding, randomized, crossover study consisting of two 18-day treatment periods separated by a 24-day washout was conducted in healthy adults (n=18)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yanwei Wang, Xingqi Ji, Shuya Dai, Haitao Liu, Dandan Yan, Yang Zhou, Jie Gu, Haifeng Shi
Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) could lead to alterations in lipid metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the data revealed that Cd exposure induced cholesterol redistribution both in vivo from mouse liver tissue into the serum, and in vitro from the HepG2 cells to the cultured medium, which were associated with modulating the expressions of cholesterol efflux proteins, including upregulating cholesterol exporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and downregulating oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Fernanda Alves de Freitas Guedes, Priscilla de Barros Rossetto, Fábia Guimarães, Maurício Wolf Wilwerth, Jorge Eduardo Santos Paes, Marisa Fabiana Nicolás, Fernanda Reinert, Raquel Soares Peixoto, Márcio Alves-Ferreira
Mangroves are ecosystems of economic and ecological importance. Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae), popularly known as white mangrove, is a species that greatly contributes to the community structure of neotropical and West African mangrove forests. Despite the significance of these ecosystems, they have been destroyed by oil spills that can cause yellowing of leaves, increased sensitivity to other stresses and death of trees. However, the molecular response of plants to oil stress is poorly known. In this work, Illumina reads were de novo assembled into 46,944 transcripts of L...
September 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Camila Pereira Braga, Ryan Albert Grove, Felipe Azevedo Ribeiro, Chris Richard Calkins, Jiri Adamec, Luis Artur Loyola Chardulo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between oxidative damage to proteins (represented by protein carbonylation) and beef tenderness. Three experimental groups were selected by shear force (SF): tender (38.2 ± 2.9 N), intermediate (51.9 ± 6.8 N), and tough meat (74.5 ± 7.8 N). Two-dimensional electrophoresis with hydrazide fluorophore derivatization was used. The structural proteins actin (ACTA1), myosin (MYL1 and MYL3), desmin (DES) and troponin T (TNNT1 and TNNT3), antioxidant proteins (PRDX1, PRDX2 and PARK7) and heat shock proteins (HSPB1, CRYAB and HSPB6) showed an increase in the oxidative damage in tender meat when compared to the intermediate and tough meat (P < ...
August 23, 2018: Meat Science
Yuanyuan Liu, Mengying Wei, Kexin Yue, Mingxin Hu, Shizhe Li, Lihui Men, Zifeng Pi, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhongying Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with no effective method for its treatment so far. The pathogenesis of AD has been reported, but the endogenous metabolic profile and disease-related biomarkers are still not clear. To better understand AD, an AD model induced by injecting β-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ 25-35) solution into bilateral hippocampus was developed on Sprague-Dawley rats. After 8 weeks of modeling, the impairment of spatial learning and memory ability in AD rats were assessed by Morris water maze task...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience
İpek Ergal, Werner Fuchs, Benedikt Hasibar, Barbara Thallinger, Günther Bochmann, Simon K-M R Rittmann
A CO2 -neutral energy production alternative compared to conventional fossil fuel utilization is biohydrogen (H2 ) production. Three basic mechanisms for microbial H2 production exist: photosynthetic H2 production, photo-fermentative H2 production, and dark fermentative H2 production (DFHP). Despite surmounting reports in literature on the characterization and optimization of DFHP systems, H2 production has not yet reached an industrial scale. Here, DFHP characteristics of pure culture of microorganisms from more than one century were reviewed and analysed...
October 11, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Bijun Cheng, Jing Lu, Tianjiao Li, Zhuoqun Meng, Meitong Liu, Maocheng Sun, Shuang Guan
As a common food processing pollutant, 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol can be found in foodstuffs, especially in soup spices and instant soups. Mounting researchers have unfolded the relation between 1,3-DCP and various diseases. Autophagy is a process of self-regulation and defects in autophagy have been bound up with multifarious human pathologies and metabolic diseases. Here, we explored the effects of 1,3-DCP on autophagy and traced the molecular mechanism. Our results demonstrated that 1,3-DCP dose-dependently inhibited autophagy...
October 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jay Prakash, Sunita Yadav, Gundappa Saha, Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Suresh Kumar, Santanu Sasidharan, Prakash Saudagar, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Trypanothione based redox metabolism is unique to the Trypanosomatida family. Despite extensive studies on redox metabolism of Leishmania parasites, a prominent question of why Leishmania adopt this unique redox pathway remains elusive. We have episomally expressed human glutathione reductase (HuGR) in Leishmania donovani (LdGR+) and investigated its effect. LdGR+ strain has slower growth compared to the wild type (Ld) indicating decreased survival ability of the strain. Further, LdGR+ strain showed enhanced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more sensitivity to the anti-leishmanial drug, Miltefosine, inferring increased stress level...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
I Brandts, M Teles, A Tvarijonaviciute, M L Pereira, M A Martins, L Tort, M Oliveira
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ~45 nm nanoplastics (NPs) on the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax after a short-term exposure. Animals were exposed to a concentration range of NPs for 96 h and liver, plasma and skin mucus sampled. Assessed endpoints included biochemical biomarkers and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, immune system and general cell stress. Molecular signaling pathways related to lipid metabolism, pparα and pparγ were significantly increased after exposure to NPs...
October 11, 2018: Genomics
Cuili Zou, Qiaoqin Zhang, Shenghong Zhang
As one kind of complications of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can influence the health of maternal-child in clinical practice. The C57 BL/KsJdb/+ (db/+) mice, genetic GDM model, and C57 BL/KsJ+/+ (wild-type) mice were purchased and classified into three groups: normal pregnancy (C57 BL/KsJ+/+ ), GDM (C57 BL/KsJdb/+ ), and GDM plus Mogroside IIIE (20.0 mg/kg) group. GDM symptoms (maternal body weight, serum glucose, and insulin levels), glucose and insulin tolerance, and reproductive outcome (body weight at birth and litter size of offspring) were investigated...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Luke Taylor, Nick Krueger, Olga Malysheva, Jeffrey Atkinson, Robert S Parker
α-Tocopherol (α-TOH) is the primary lipophilic radical trapping antioxidant in human tissues. Oxidative catabolism of α-tocopherol (αTOH) is initiated by ω-hydroxylation of the terminal carbon (C-13) of the isoprenoid sidechain followed by oxidative transformations that sequentially truncate the chain to yield the 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl(3'carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC). After conjugation to glucuronic acid, 3'-carboxyethyl-6-hydroxychroman glucuronide is excreted in urine. We report here that the same enzyme that accomplishes this task, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP-4F2, can also ω-hydroxylate the terminal carbon of α-tocopheryl quinone...
October 5, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Y F Zhou, Z Zhou, F Batistel, I Martinez-Cortés, R T Pate, D L Luchini, J J Loor
Insufficient supply of Met and choline (Chol) around parturition could compromise hepatic metabolism and milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Mechanistic responses associated with supply of Met or Chol in primary liver cells enriched with hepatocytes (PHEP) from cows have not been thoroughly ascertained. Objectives were to isolate and culture PHEP to examine abundance of genes and proteins related to transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathways in response to Met or Chol...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ki Hong Nam, Sang Ah Yi, Jaecheol Lee, Min Gyu Lee, Jee Hun Park, Hwamok Oh, Jieun Lee, Jong Woo Park, Jeung-Whan Han
Eudesmin has been reported to possess diverse therapeutic effects, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities. However, its molecular action has not been implicated in metabolic disease. In this study, we show that treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with eudesmin disturbs adipogenesis via suppression of S6K1 signaling pathway. Eudesmin treatment inhibited activation and nuclear translocation of S6K1. Consequently, S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of H2B at serine 36 (H2BS36p) was reduced upon eudesmin treatment, further inducing the expression of Wnt6, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, which disturbed adipogenic differentiation...
October 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J-H Liou, Y-M Liu, C-H Chen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Taiwan. Despite the use of steroids and/or calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in renal transplantation (RTx), additional challenges occur when a patient displays persisting metabolic disease, carries on an unhealthy lifestyle, or experiences genetic effects. Although RTx recipients could get better glycemic control by oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) or several insulin agents, they still need more than two kinds of medication...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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