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Clinical disease

Susan J Curry, Alex H Krist, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, David C Grossman, Alex R Kemper, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng, John B Wong
Importance: More than 35% of men and 40% of women in the United States are obese. Obesity is associated with health problems such as increased risk for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, gallstones, and disability. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk for death, particularly among adults younger than 65 years. Objective: To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2012 recommendation on screening for obesity in adults...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Erin S LeBlanc, Carrie D Patnode, Elizabeth M Webber, Nadia Redmond, Megan Rushkin, Elizabeth A O'Connor
Importance: Overweight and obesity have been associated with adverse health effects. Objective: To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions in adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed Publisher-Supplied Records, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published through June 6, 2017; ClinicalTrials...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Rik Ossenkoppele, Gil D Rabinovici, Ruben Smith, Hanna Cho, Michael Schöll, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Niklas Mattsson, Shorena Janelidze, Alexander Santillo, Tomas Ohlsson, Jonas Jögi, Richard Tsai, Renaud La Joie, Joel Kramer, Adam L Boxer, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L Miller, Jae Y Choi, Young H Ryu, Chul H Lyoo, Oskar Hansson
Importance: The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]flortaucipir allows in vivo quantification of paired helical filament tau, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but its diagnostic utility is unclear. Objective: To examine the discriminative accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir for AD vs non-AD neurodegenerative disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 719 participants were recruited from 3 dementia centers in South Korea, Sweden, and the United States between June 2014 and November 2017 (160 cognitively normal controls, 126 patients with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], of whom 65...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Malcolm Pyles Chelliah, Huy M Do, Zachary Zinn, Viraat Patel, Michael Jeng, Rohit K Khosla, Mai-Thy Truong, Ann Marqueling, Joyce M C Teng
Importance: Current therapeutic options for patients with extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations are limited. Surgical intervention, such as sclerotherapy or resection, often result in rapid recurrence and progression of disease. Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of sirolimus as an adjuvant therapy for endovascular embolization in the management of complicated extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series examined 6 patients with extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations treated from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, at a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic within Stanford Hospital and Clinics...
September 19, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Adil Jadoon, Anna V Mathew, Jaeman Byun, Crystal A Gadegbeku, Debbie S Gipson, Farsad Afshinnia, Subramaniam Pennathur
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular risk increases with progressive CKD. This study examined the potential link between short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced by the gut microbiota, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD. METHODS: SCFAs were measured using a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform in baseline plasma samples from 214 patients with CKD enrolled in the Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core; 81 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 133 without CAD were randomly assigned to training and validation subsets...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Yasuhide Miyoshi, Mari Ohtaka, Takashi Kawahara, Shinji Ohtake, Masato Yasui, Koichi Uemura, Shuko Yoneyama, Yumiko Yokomizo, Hiroji Uemura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Masahiro Yao
INTRODUCTION: Low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) expression affects carcinogenesis in various cancers and has been associated with determining the overall survival among men with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC). In this study, we analyzed the value of LMWPTP for prediction of time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) for men with mHNPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 45 men with mHNPC who were diagnosed from 2003 to 2009...
October 16, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Meiying Song, Seung Bae Yoon, In Seok Lee, Tae Ho Hong, Ho Joong Choi, Moon Hyung Choi, Myung Ah Lee, Eun Sun Jung, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND: There have been several proposed changes for the 8th edition of the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the new staging system for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially in stage III patients. METHODS: We analysed the data of patients newly diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2016 at our hospital. Patients were staged according to 7th edition AJCC criteria, as well as the new 8th edition staging system...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Antonios Danelakis, Theoharis Theoharis, Dimitrios A Verganelakis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease. It affects the central nervous system and its clinical manifestation can variate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used to detect, characterize and quantify MS lesions in the brain, due to the detailed structural information that it can provide. Manual detection and measurement of MS lesions in MRI data is time-consuming, subjective and prone to errors. Therefore, multiple automated methodologies for MRI-based MS lesion segmentation have been proposed. Here, a review of the state-of-the-art of automatic methods available in the literature is presented...
October 5, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Xiaojuan Han, Zhentao Man, Shenghao Xu, Lin Cong, Yongxiang Wang, Xiang Wang, Yifeng Du, Qinghua Zhang, Shi Tang, Zengfa Liu, Wei Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in elderly people, and is associated with a heavy financial burden on our society. The use of serologic biomarkers is an attractive method to diagnose AD. Although the determination of blood-based biomarkers for AD has been explored in many studies, few practical diagnosis methods have been used in the clinic. In this work, we constructed a "chemical tongue" sensor array that is easy to use and based on four kinds of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) for discriminating between multiple proteins at nanomolar concentrations...
October 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Gabriel Pokorny, Luís Marchi, Rodrigo Amaral, Rubens Jensen, Luiz Pimenta
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze radiological and clinical results with a minimum 5-year follow-up (FUP) of lateral lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease. METHODS: Prospective, single-center, clinical and radiological study. Patients treated with lumbar total disc replacement (XL-TDR) done by a lateral transpsoas approach. From 2005 to 2012, 60 cases were enrolled (31 male, 29 female; total 66 levels; average age 42...
October 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chengliang Mao, Feili Chen, Yanwen Li, Xinmiao Jiang, Sichu Liu, Hanguo Guo, Ling Huang, Xiaojuan Wei, Zhanli Liang, Wenyu Li, Kai Tang
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease affecting the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid, or vitreoretinal compartment, without evidence of systemic disease. Prognosis is still poor after intensive methotrexate-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Clinical data of 91 cases treated in a tertiary referral center during a 13-year period were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The estimated median PFS and OS for all cohort was 39...
October 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Salvatore Oliva, Marina Aloi, Franca Viola, Saverio Mallardo, Fortunata Civitelli, Francesca Maccioni, Cesare Hassan, Paola Papoff, Salvatore Cucchiara, Stanley A Cohen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pan-enteric capsule endoscopy (PCE) is effective for assessment of small intestinal and colonic Crohn's disease (CD) in pediatric patients. We aimed to determine whether PCE can be used to monitor mucosal healing and deep remission, in a treat to target strategy for pediatric patients with CD. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 48 children with a diagnosis of CD at a tertiary care pediatric gastroenterology unit; 46 patients were included in the final analysis...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alexandru V Avram, Joelle E Sarlls, Peter J Basser
We measure spectra of water mobilities (i.e., mean diffusivities) from intravoxel pools in brain tissues of healthy subjects with a non-parametric approach. Using a single-shot isotropic diffusion encoding (IDE) preparation, we eliminate signal confounds caused by anisotropic diffusion, including microscopic anisotropy, and acquire in vivo diffusion weighted images (DWIs) over a wide range of diffusion sensitizations. We analyze the measured IDE signal decays using a regularized inverse Laplace transform (ILT) to derive a probability distribution of mean diffusivities of tissue water in each voxel...
October 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Florian Dubost, Pinar Yilmaz, Hieab Adams, Gerda Bortsova, M Arfan Ikram, Wiro Niessen, Meike Vernooij, Marleen de Bruijne
Enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) are structural brain changes visible in MRI, are common in aging, and are considered a reflection of cerebral small vessel disease. As such, assessing the burden of PVS has promise as a brain imaging marker. Visual and manual scoring of PVS is a tedious and observer-dependent task. Automated methods would advance research into the etiology of PVS, could aid to assess what a "normal" burden is in aging, and could evaluate the potential of PVS as a biomarker of cerebral small vessel disease...
October 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Qian Chen, Weimin Zheng, Xin Chen, Xuejing Li, Ling Wang, Wen Qin, Kuncheng Li, Nan Chen
Visual-related cortex plays an important role in the process of movement. It is great of importance to clarify whether traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which is a typical disease resulted in sensorimotor dysfunction, leads to the alteration of visual-related brain structure and function area. To address this issue, multimodality MRI was applied on eleven patients with acute incomplete cervical cord injury (ICCI) and eleven healthy controls (HCs) to explore possible structural and functional changes of the brain...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Alfred Andama, Akos Somoskovi, Brinnon Mandel, David Bell, Cristina Gutierrez
Tuberculosis (TB) recently surpassed HIV/AIDS as the deadliest infectious disease. Despite some advancements in technologies and programs, TB remains a global health epidemic that, without significant gains in better diagnostic and management, will not abate. This review describes the molecular diagnostic gaps, needs, and potential solutions for improving access to diagnosis and management of patients with drug susceptible and drug resistant TB. The ultimate goal is to improve laboratory diagnostics and better individualized managementof detected TB, and make an important contribution toward eliminating this global epidemic...
October 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Joseane Elza Tonussi Mendes, Kjell Nikus
We conducted a review of the literature regarding epidemiology, clinical, electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic aspects, classification, and differential diagnosis of left posterior fascicular block. Isolated left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) is an extremely rare finding both in the general population and in specific patient groups. In isolated LPFB 20% of the vectorcardiographic (VCG) QRS loop is located in the right inferior quadrant and when associated with right bundle branch block (RBBB) ≥40%...
October 13, 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Michael Olson, Sabari Radhakrishnan, Tim Luetkens, Djordje Atanackovic
The outcome of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients has dramatically improved, however, most patients will still succumb to their disease. Additional therapeutic options are urgently needed and novel immunotherapies are enormously promising in the therapeutic armamentarium against MM. The first step in the development of any immunotherapy needs to be the identification of an appropriate target structure. In this review we present the current knowledge on surface molecule CD229, a member of the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation (SLAM) family of immune receptors...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
John K Brooks, Gary Warburton, Brian C Clark
PURPOSE: Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute and potentially serious cardiac disorder that is often attributed to an exuberant catecholaminergic response to a severely physical or emotional event. The dental literature contains a paucity of information on TS; therefore, this article will provide an overview of this uncommon syndrome, including clinical presentation, demographic characteristics, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and recovery, particularly emphasizing its occurrence with oral and maxillofacial procedures...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Dong-Ho Bak, Mi Ji Choi, Esther Lee, Tae-Rin Kwon, Jong Hwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Nam, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Seung Won Ahn, Seog-Kyun Mun, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is used clinically for various muscle disorders and acts by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synapse space. Here, we compared the efficacy of prabotulinumtoxinA (PRA) and onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) for the reduction of hypertrophy in myostatin-deficiency (Mstn-/- ) mice. Two different BoNT-A products (2.5, 10, and 25 U/kg) were injected to paralyze the hind limb for 2 months, after which sciatic nerve conduction study (NCS), 3D micro-CT, Haematoxylin &Eosin (H&E) and dystrophin staining were conducted...
October 16, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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