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Clinical disease

Hema Sree Gns, Saraswathy Gr, Manikanta Murahari, Mamatha Krishnamurthy
Drug repurposing is an unconventional drug discovery approach to explore new therapeutic benefits of existing, shelved and the drugs in clinical trials. This approach is currently emerging to overcome the bottleneck constraints faced during traditional drug discovery in grounds of financial support, timeline and resources. In this direction, several efforts were made for the construction of stratagems based on bioinformatics and computational tools to intensify the repurposing process off-late. Further, advanced research has succeeded in widening its boundaries in identification of gene targets and subsequent molecular interactions of the drugs depending on available omics data...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yuanyue Zhang, Lingyun Li, Chang Qi, Shuyao Hua, Xiaoyuan Fei, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid compound, has been reported to be an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases including hepatitis. However, the mechanism by which glycyrrhizin inhibits inflammation is unclear. Using a Con A-induced hepatitis model in mice, we found that administration of glycyrrhizin ameliorates Con A-induced liver injury, which manifests as reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17, as well as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Qinran Sun, Fangming Liu, Min Gao, Wenqing Wu, Weiju Liu, Cong Yin, Zhongshu Zhu, Lijin Zhang, Xiufang Ding, Yanping Guo, Hui Gong, Xuguo Sun, Daoping Zhang
Cervical spondylosis (CS), which is resulted from degeneration of cervical intervertebral disc, is a common disease seriously threatening human health and quality of life. However, there is still no effective clinic strategies for the treatment of this disease. The acupoint stimulation with needle-scalpel is a widely used approach to treat orthopedic diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of acupoint stimulation around neck with needle-scalpel on delaying the degeneration of cervical intervertebral discs and hopefully provided an approach for the precaution and early intervention of CS...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
C E Leurs, M A Lopes Pinheiro, L Wierts, S den Hoedt, M T Mulder, A J C Eijlers, M M Schoonheim, L J Balk, B M J Uitdehaag, J Killestein, H E de Vries
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) lacks reliable biomarkers that reflect disease activity. Recent evidence suggests that an altered sphingolipid metabolism is associated with MS pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To explore acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity and altered sphingolipid metabolism as potential biomarkers in serum of MS patients, to predict active and progressive disease, and response to disease modifying therapy (DMT). METHODS: Levels of serum ASM activity were longitudinally analyzed in 40 clinically isolated syndrome, 64 relapsing remitting (RR) and 10 primary progressive MS patients, and 22 healthy controls (HC)...
November 30, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Ruturaj Masvekar, Tianxia Wu, Peter Kosa, Christopher Barbour, Valentina Fossati, Bibiana Bielekova
BACKGROUND: Once multiple sclerosis (MS) reaches the progressive stage, immunomodulatory treatments have limited efficacy. This suggests that processes other than activation of innate immunity may at least partially underlie disability progression during late stages of MS. Pathology identified these alternative processes as aberrant activation of astrocytes and microglia, and subsequent degeneration of oligodendrocytes and neurons. However, we mostly lack biomarkers that could measure central nervous system (CNS) cell-specific intrathecal processes in living subjects...
December 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Zhengjia Dai, Qixiang Lin, Tao Li, Xiao Wang, Huishu Yuan, Xin Yu, Yong He, Huali Wang
Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs)...
November 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
So Yeon Jeon, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Kang Ko, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hyo Jung Choi, Jun-Young Lee, Dong Young Lee
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of hypertension with beta-amyloid (Aβ) and neurodegeneration biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the modulating effect of apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE4). In total, 259 cognitively normal (CN) and 79 AD dementia older adults received clinical assessments including the evaluation for the presence of hypertension, [11 C]-Pittsburgh-compound-B-positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and APOE genotyping. We used a clinical stage-specific approach, separately focusing on CN and AD dementia stages...
November 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Bahare Salehi, Zorica Stojanović-Radić, Jelena Matejić, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Nanjangud V Anil Kumar, Natália Martins, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Curcuma longa L., its derived extracts and even its major compound curcumin has a long history of use and doubtless effectiveness, reported through increasingly detailed in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and even clinical trials. Regarding its biological effects, multiple health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment attributes has been remarkably highlighted. Clinical trials, although have increased in a progressive manner, significant disproportionalities have been stated in terms of biological effects assessment...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hai-Fang Chen, Chen Zhang, Yun Yao, Jun-Mao Li, Wen-di Du, Mu-Lan Li, Bei Wu, Shi-Lin Yang, Yu-Lin Feng, Wu-Gang Zhang
TongFengTangSan (TFTS), a traditional Tibetan medicine comprising of Tinospora sinensis (TS), Terminalia chebula Retz (TC) and Trogopterori faeces (TF), is used to treat joint diseases like gout, gout arthritis, swelling, pain etc. Despite the significant therapeutic effects of TFTS, its pharmacological components have not been analyzed so far. Therefore, the chemical composition of the effective part of TFTS was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nelson Leung-Sang Tang, Xingyan Wang, Kwok Chiu Chang, Chiu-Yeung Chan, Natalie Wing-Sum Szeto, Dan Huang, Junyi Wu, Grace C Y Lui, Chi Chiu Leung, Mamie Hui
Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to Tuberculosis (TB). However, many of them were not replicated across ethnic groups. The cause of this phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity is uncertain. Here, we attempted to replicate and evaluate the mechanism that causes genetic heterogeneity in several putative TB predisposition loci found by previous GWAS, including chromosome 18q, ASAP1, DUSP14, and HLA-DQA1. A Chinese cohort of 1200 TB patients and 1280 population controls were genotyped...
December 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
G Ducarme, A C Pizzoferrato, R de Tayrac, C Schantz, T Thubert, C Le Ray, D Riethmuller, E Verspyck, B Gachon, F Pierre, F Artzner, B Jacquetin, X Fritel
INTRODUCTION: The objective of these clinical practice guidelines was to analyse all of the interventions during pregnancy and childbirth that might prevent obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and postnatal pelvic floor symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: These guidelines were developed in accordance with the methods prescribed by the French Health Authority (HAS). RESULTS: A prenatal clinical examination of the perineum is recommended for women with a history of Crohn's disease, OASIS, genital mutilation, or perianal lesions (professional consensus)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Ann-Kathrin Vlacil, Jutta Schuett, Bernhard Schieffer, Karsten Grote
Monocytes are important mediators of the innate immunity by recognizing and attacking especially bacterial pathogens but also play crucial roles in various inflammatory diseases, including vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Maturation, differentiation and function of monocytes have been intensively explored for a long time in innumerable experimental and clinical studies. Monocytes do not represent a uniform cell type but could be further subdivided into subpopulations with distinct features and functions...
December 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Lanxiang Liu, Juan Du, Tao Zheng, Shuo Hu, Yanchao Dong, Dan Du, Shuo Wu, Xuemei Wang, Qinglei Shi
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a clinically common disease requiring early treatment in the acute period of stroke onset. Such early treatment reduces the level of brain injury, promotes functional recovery, and improves long-term prognosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in the event of an acute ischemic stroke, low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (LITUS) can provide neuroprotection. However, from existing studies, the protective effect of LITUS with differing delay after an acute ischemic stroke remains unclear...
December 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Danmin Cao, Zequan Xu, Shuyan Gu, Kai Li, Xianyi Bao, Yanli Zhou, Dan Yin, Jianjun Chen, Yong Wang
AIMS: To diagnose a Chinese family with inherited ectopia lentis in a genetic method and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: The phenotype of each family member was identified by detailed clinical examination. We used targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify mutations in FBN1 in an efficient and accurate way. The mutation in FBN1 was confirmed in all affected family members by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A novel mutation c...
December 12, 2018: Gene
Ashok Chockalingam, Lin Xu, Sharron Stewart, Maxime LeMerdy, Eleftheria Tsakalozou, Jianghong Fan, Vikram Patel, Rodney Rouse
Topical ophthalmic drugs are the most commonly used dosage form to treat diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Although this dosage form has the advantages of ease of application, small volume dose, and rapid action and is largely devoid of systemic adverse effects, the bioavailability is low due to pre-corneal anatomical barriers and the nature of the drug formulation itself. Some complex generic formulations (suspensions, ointments, gels) for topical ophthalmic products face impediments to rapid regulatory approval because of the complex nature of the formulations and difficulties in determining bioequivalence with the innovator product...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Rafieh Alizadeh, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Zohreh Bagher, Mohammad Farhadi, Masoumeh Falah, Fatemeh Moradi, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Maryam Soleimani, Ahmadreza Kamyab, Ali Komeili
The production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their immense plasticity. In addition to reduced ethical concerns, OE-MSCs could be transplanted across allogeneic barriers, making them desirable stem cells for clinical applications...
December 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jodi L Karnell, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Rachel Ettinger, Roland Kolbeck
CD40 is a TNF receptor superfamily member expressed on both immune and non-immune cells. Interactions between B cell-expressed CD40 and its binding partner, CD40L, predominantly expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, play a critical role in promoting germinal center formation and the production of class-switched antibodies. Non-hematopoietic cells expressing CD40 can also engage CD40L and trigger a pro-inflammatory response. This article will highlight what is known about the biology of the CD40-CD40L axis in humans and describe the potential contribution of CD40 signaling on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to autoimmune disease pathogenesis...
December 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Daniel Saucier, Gabriel Wajnberg, Jeremy Roy, Annie-Pier Beauregard, Simi Chacko, Nicolas Crapoulet, Sébastien Fournier, Anirban Ghosh, Stephen M Lewis, Alier Marrero, Colleen O'Connell, Rodney J Ouellette, Pier Jr Morin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression that have received interest as disease biomarkers...
December 12, 2018: Brain Research
Rongjun Liu, Baikai Ma, Yufei Gao, Boping Ma, Yiyun Liu, Hong Qi
PURPOSE: To enhance the understanding of dry eye (DE) in diabetes by evaluating the ocular surface characteristics and the levels of tear inflammatory cytokines. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Subjects were divided into four groups: 32 patients in diabetes with DE group; 24 patients in diabetes without DE group; 28 patients in non-diabetes with DE group and 29 volunteers in normal group. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) was self-answered and ocular surface characteristics including tear-film breakup time (BUT), Schirmer I test, cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) and corneal sensitivity were evaluated...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Alexandra Santoni, Juliette Thariat, Célia Maschi, Joel Herault, Stéphanie Baillif, Sandra Lassalle, Marie Laure Peyrichon, Julia Salleron, Jean-Pierre Caujolle
PURPOSE: Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia includes a spectrum of diseases from dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Whether the degree of invasion influences outcomes is debated. We evaluated the outcomes and management of conjunctival carcinomas defined as ≤0.2mm invasion of the chorion (miSCC) or over (SCC). DESIGN: this is a retrospective case series. METHODS: Clinical, tumor and therapeutic characteristics and outcomes were collected for consecutive patients with histology-proven invasive conjunctival miSCC/SCC treated between 2002 and 2017...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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