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T Marcolongo, T Valk, M Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Tsogyal D Latshang, René P M Tardent, Michael Furian, Deborah Flueck, Sebastian D Segitz, Séverine Mueller-Mottet, Malcolm Kohler, Silvia Ulrich, Konrad E Bloch
Study Objectives: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired pulmonary gas exchange near sea level. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia during a stay at altitude affects nocturnal oxygen saturation, breathing pattern, and sleep in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Thirty-two patients with COPD, median age 67 years, FEV1 59% predicted, PaO2 68 mmHg, living below 800 m, underwent polysomnography and questionnaire evaluations in Zurich (490 m), and in Swiss Alpine villages at 1650 and 2590 m, for two nights each, in random order...
December 4, 2018: Sleep
Emília Carolle Azevedo de Oliveira, Thúlio José Ferreira Pimentel, João Paulo Maciel de Araujo, Luiz Claudio de Souza Oliveira, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento Fernando, Rodrigo Moraes Loyo, Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes, Rafael da Silveira Moreira, Constança Simões Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: to describe schistosomiasis cases and deaths among residents of the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2005 to 2013. METHODS: this was a descriptive epidemiological study using data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) (2005-2013) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) (2007-2013); active tracing of the relatives of the dead was undertaken and probabilistic linkage of the databases (2007-2013) was performed using the Reclink program...
November 29, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Manon Azaïs, Stéphane Blanco, Richard Bon, Richard Fournier, Marie-Hélène Pillot, Jacques Gautrais
Monitoring small groups of sheep in spontaneous evolution in the field, we decipher behavioural rules that sheep follow at the individual scale in order to sustain collective motion. Individuals alternate grazing mode at null speed and moving mode at walking speed, so cohesive motion stems from synchronising when they decide to switch between the two modes. We propose a model for the individual decision making process, based on switching rates between stopped / walking states that depend on behind / ahead locations and states of the others...
2018: PloS One
Małgorzata Konieczyńska, Piotr Bijak, Lien Desteghe, Hein Heidbuchel, Anetta Undas
INTRODUCTION Little is known about the current awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and knowledge of thromboprophylaxis among patients receiving oral anticoagulation therapy (OAC). OBJECTIVES We sought to develop and evaluate the usefulness of the Jessa AF Knowledge Questionnaire (JAKQ) modified for VTE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Consecutive patients at least one month since the VTE event (n=273, mean [SD] age 51 [17] years; 52.7% women; 55.9% unprovoked event) were enrolled at the study. RESULTS The median percentage of correct responses was 64...
December 5, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Neil P Sheth, Susan Bukata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Melissa Skein, Tristan Harrison, Deborah Clarke
The aim of the study was to examine sleep characteristics, scheduling of activities, perceived stress and coping strategies between periods of perceived high and low scheduling commitments in adolescent athletes. Twenty adolescents (10 male and 10 female) wore an Actiwatch during two 14-day testing periods, one in in January (JAN), which was deemed to be a period of low school and sport commitments, and one in March (MAR), during which there was a high volume of school and sport commitments. Actiwatches and sleep diaries assessed sleep quantity and quality, a daily schedule of all activities in 30-min increments was recorded and questionnaires related to perceived stress and coping strategies were administered...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Laurelie R Wall, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Elizabeth C Ward, Bena Cartmill, Anne J Hill, Elizabeth Isenring, Joshua Byrnes, Sandro V Porceddu
Research advocates for the use of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to help reduce the severity of dysphagia in patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) for head/neck cancer (HNC). Unfortunately, the intensity of this therapy, coupled with growing patient numbers and limited clinical resources, provides challenges to many international cancer facilities. Telepractice has been proposed as a potential method to provide patients with greater support in home-practice, whilst minimising burden to the health service...
December 4, 2018: Dysphagia
K Sunami, T Nishikawa, K Miyagawa, S Horiuchi, R Kato, T Miyamoto, H Okamoto, K Kanoda
Topological defects have been explored in different fields ranging from condensed matter physics and particle physics to cosmology. In condensed matter, strong coupling between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom brings about emergent excitations with topological characteristics at low energies. One-dimensional (1D) systems with degenerate dimerization patterns are typical stages for the generation of topological defects, dubbed "solitons"; for instance, charged solitons are responsible for high electrical conductivity in doped trans -polyacetylene...
November 2018: Science Advances
Chance Taylor Pistoll, Steven Cummins
This study aims to explore changes in uptake and cessation of walking, cycling and public transport use across the lifespan in a representative sample of UK adults aged 16 and older. A longitudinal analysis of 11,559 individuals in waves two (2010-2012) and six (2014-2016) of the General Population Sample (GPS) of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey (UKHLS) was performed. The outcome variables were self-reported and categorised as changes to and from 1) walking or cycling and 2) public transport. In adjusted models compared to younger adults (aged 16-34), middle-aged adults (aged 45-55: OR 0...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Pooja Bansil, Asnakew K Yeshiwondim, Caterina Guinovart, Belendia Serda, Callie Scott, Berhane H Tesfay, Adem Agmas, Belay Bezabih, Melkamu T Zeleke, Girma S Guesses, Asmamaw L Ayenew, Worku M Workie, Duncan Earle, Rick W Steketee, Asefaw Getachew
BACKGROUND: When malaria transmission is very low, investigation of passively detected malaria cases and reactive focal testing and treatment (FTAT) in the case and neighbouring households can identify and contain the source and spread of infections. METHODS: Case investigation with reactive FTAT for malaria was implemented in 10 villages in Amhara Region, Ethiopia during the 2014/2015 malaria transmission season. Intervention villages were purposively selected based on the incidence of passively detected Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections (P...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Lara Goscé, Anders Johansson
BACKGROUND: The transmission of infectious diseases is dependent on the amount and nature of contacts between infectious and healthy individuals. Confined and crowded environments that people visit in their day-to-day life (such as town squares, business districts, transport hubs, etc) can act as hot-spots for spreading disease. In this study we explore the link between the use of public transport and the spread of airborne infections in urban environments. METHODS: We study a large number of journeys on the London Underground, which is known to be particularly crowded at certain times...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Milan Hodošček, Nadia Elghobashi-Meinhardt
A combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and computational analyses uncovers structural features that may influence substrate passage and exposure to the active sites within the proteolytic chamber of the 20S proteasome core particle (CP). MD simulations of the CP reveal relaxation dynamics in which the CP slowly contracts over the 54 ns sampling period. MD simulations of the SyringolinA (SylA) inhibitor within the proteolytic B 1 ring chamber of the CP indicate that favorable van der Waals and electrostatic interactions account for the predominant association of the inhibitor with the walls of the proteolytic chamber...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Athena Mavridou, Olga Pappa, Olga Papatzitze, Chrysa Dioli, Anastasia Maria Kefala, Panagiotis Drossos, Apostolos Beloukas
A growing number of people undertake international travel, and yet faster growth of such travel is expected in the tropics. Information on the hazards presented by pool and hot spring waters in tropical countries is very limited. This review aims to collate available information on pool water quality, alongside data on cases and outbreaks associated with swimming in pools in tropical regions affecting both local populations and travellers. Bacteria species commonly causing cases and outbreaks in the tropics as well as elsewhere in the world were excluded, and the review focuses on studies related to pathogens that, with the exception of Cryptosporidium, are unusual in more temperate climates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Owen Puls, Qiong Yang
Traditionally, biochemical traveling waves are thought to propagate due to a coupling of bistable reactions with diffusion. Recent work proposes mechanisms by which cells achieve fast signaling without necessarily resorting to pure bistability or diffusion-mediated coupling.
December 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
Emine Karagöz, Songül Fiat Varol, Serkan Sayın, Ziya Merdan
The aim of this study was to analyze the interface states (Nss) in pure Al//p-Si/Al, Al/N-F Nft/p-Si/Al and Al/N-T Nft/p-Si/Al Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). N-Substituted 1,8-naphthalimide thin films were deposited on a p-Si substrate by spin coating and annealed at ∼200 °C for 60 s under an air atmosphere. Al contacts were obtained via reactive magnetron sputtering. The current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the SBDs were measured at room temperature. From the I-V characteristics, the SBDs ideality factor (n) and zero-bias barrier height values (Φb) of 1...
December 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jayaseelan Benjamin Franklin, Thadikamala Sathish, Nambali Valsalan Vinithkumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Perumal Madeswaran
Andaman and Nicobar islands is one of the major tourism hubs of the World. Most travelers visit these islands for historical attractions, beaches, snorkeling, scuba diving, coral reefs, adventure and recreation. Port Blair is the capital and sole entry/exit point of these islands. The coasts of Port Blair Bay (PBB) and Wandoor Creek (WC) are largely populated due to its services offered to different public/private sectors and for the economic significance. Nevertheless, the global recognition of these islands relies on its healthy ecosystem...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mingyu Kang, Anne V Moudon, Philip M Hurvitz, Brian E Saelens
BACKGROUND: Device-collected data from GPS and accelerometers for identifying active travel behaviors have dramatically changed research methods in transportation planning and public health. Automated algorithms have helped researchers to process large datasets with likely fewer errors than found in other collection methods (e.g., self-report travel diary). In this study, we compared travel modes identified by a commonly used automated algorithm (PALMS) that integrates GPS and accelerometer data with those obtained from travel diary estimates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Nyasule Neke, Antonius Reifferscheid, Barbara Buchberger, Jürgen Wasem
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is provided for free in Tanzania in all public health facilities. Yet surveys suggested that long distances to the facilities limit women from accessing these services. Mobile health clinics (MHC) were introduced to address this problem; however, little is known about the client cost and time associated with utilizing ANC at MHC and whether these costs deter women from using the provided services. METHODS: Client-exit interviews were conducted by interviewing 293 pregnant women who visited the MHC in rural Tanzania...
December 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Lisa Lindsay, Herbert L DuPont, Christine L Moe, Martin Alberer, Christoph Hatz, Amy E Kirby, Henry M Wu, Thomas Verstraeten, Robert Steffen
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is the leading cause of illness among returning travelers seeking medical care. Multiple types of enteric pathogens can cause travel-acquired AGE and, while bacterial pathogens have a predominant role, the importance of viruses, such as norovirus, is increasingly recognized. There is a lack of information on travel-acquired norovirus incidence among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals irrespective of healthcare-seeking behavior. Our aim is to estimate the incidence of travel-acquired AGE due to norovirus and to characterize the burden of disease among international travelers from the United States and Europe...
December 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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