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Arianna Zanolini, Kombatende Sikombe, Izukanji Sikazwe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Paul Somwe, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Stephanie M Topp, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K Beres, Chanda P Mwamba, Nancy Padian, Charles B Holmes, Elvin H Geng
BACKGROUND: In public health HIV treatment programs in Africa, long-term retention remains a challenge. A number of improvement strategies exist (e.g., bring services closer to home, reduce visit frequency, expand hours of clinic operation, improve provider attitude), but implementers lack data about which to prioritize when resource constraints preclude implementing all. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify preferences for a number of potential clinic improvements to enhance retention...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Danya A Fox, Nazrul Islam, Shazhan Amed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To access care, pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients living in British Columbia (BC), Canada, travel to the sole tertiary pediatric hospital (BC Children's Hospital; BCCH), or they receive community care from pediatric endocrinologists and/or pediatricians. We sought to determine whether HbA1C and patient reported outcomes were associated with (i) distance to clinic and (ii) tertiary vs. community care. METHODS: Patients were recruited from T1D clinics across BC...
August 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Arne Hegemann, Pablo Alcalde Abril, Sissel Sjöberg, Rachel Muheim, Thomas Alerstam, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Dennis Hasselquist
1.Migration usually consists of intermittent travel and stopovers, the latter being crucially important for individuals to recover and refuel to successfully complete migration. Quantifying how sickness behaviours influence stopovers is crucial for our understanding of migration ecology and how diseases spread. However, little is known about infections in songbirds, which constitute the majority of avian migrants. 2.We experimentally immune-challenged autumn migrating passerines (both short- and long-distance migrating species) with a simulated bacterial infection...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jenna Greenberg, Joshua Greenberg, Nicholas Helmstetter
We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to a generalized visceral autonomic neuropathy in an immune-competent patient infected with Strongyloides stercoralis . The patient had immigrated to the United States from Sierra Leone in childhood but had not returned for decades. His symptoms resolved with ivermectin treatment. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for strongyloidiasis in any patient with abdominal complaints and a history of travel to endemic areas, even if the travel history is remote...
2018: IDCases
Ahmed A Moustafa, Alejandro N Morris, Jean Louis Nandrino, Błażej Misiak, Monika Szewczuk-Bogusławska, Dorota Frydecka, Mohamad El Haj
Episodic future thinking refers to the ability to travel forward in time to pre-experience an event. Although future thinking has been intimately linked with self and identity, to our knowledge, no prior research has compared episodic future thinking in populations with different substance use disorders. This study investigates whether there are differences in episodic future thinking between these alcohol and opiate users. The study recruited participants who were on the opiate substitution program (n = 31) and individuals who had been diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 21) from the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Drug and Health Services...
August 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Lars Lindquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Franklin Dexter, Craig Jarvie, Richard H Epstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to quantify the extent to which the distribution of patients among payers and changes to the payers' policies has influenced the market of surgery among hospitals in a relatively rural state. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Iowa Hospital Association data analyzed were from 2007 through 2016 for the N = 121 hospitals with at least one case performed that included a major therapeutic procedure. MEASUREMENTS: We used five categories of payer (e...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Naouale Maataoui, Aurélie Mayet, Sandrine Duron, Hervé Delacour, France Mentré, Cédric Laouenan, Dimitri Desvillechabrol, Thomas Cokelaer, Jean Baptiste Meynard, Annie Ducher, Antoine Andremont, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre, Audrey Mérens
OBJECTIVES: Acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) by Europeans traveling individually in high-endemicity countries is common. However, how the different ESBL-E strains circulate in groups of travelers has not been studied. We investigated ESBL-E transmission within several groups of French military personnel serving overseas for 4-6 months. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among French military personnel assigned to Afghanistan, French Guiana, or Côte d'Ivoire for 4 to 6 months...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Laura Di Giorgio, Mercy Mvundura, Justine Tumusiime, Chloe Morozoff, Jane Cover, Jennifer Kidwell Drake
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of self-injected subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) compared to health worker-administered intramuscular DMPA (DMPA-IM) in Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: We developed a decision-tree model with a 12-month time horizon for a hypothetical cohort of approximately 1 million injectable contraceptive users in Uganda to estimate the incremental costs per pregnancy averted and per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted...
August 9, 2018: Contraception
Shiv Ram Krishn, Amrita Singh, Nicholas Bowler, Alexander N Duffy, Andrea Friedman, Carmine Fedele, Senem Kurtoglu, Sushil K Tripathi, Kerith Wang, Adam Hawkins, Aejaz Sayeed, Chirayu P Goswami, Madhukar L Thakur, Renato V Iozzo, Stephen C Peiper, William K Kelly, Lucia R Languino
The αvβ3 integrin has been shown to promote aggressive phenotypes in many types of cancers, including prostate cancer. We show that GFP-labeled αvβ3 derived from cancer cells circulates in the blood and is detected in distant lesions in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. We therefore hypothesized that αvβ3 travels through exosomes and we tested its levels in pools of vesicles, which we designate extracellular vesicles highly enriched in exosomes (ExVs), and in exosomes isolated from the plasma of prostate cancer patients...
August 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
M H Kabir, M Mimura, J C Tsai
The Neolithic transition began the spread of early agriculture throughout Europe through interactions between farmers and hunter-gatherers about 10,000 years ago. Archeological evidence produced by radiocarbon dating indicates that the expanding velocity of farming is roughly constant all over Europe. Theoretical understanding of such evidence has been performed from mathematical modeling viewpoint. However, the expanding velocity determined by existing modeling approaches is faster than the observed velocity...
August 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Natalie L Davis, Nina Shah
Discharging neonates in a proper car safety seat is standard of care in the United States and many other countries. However, not every neonate can be safely positioned in a standard semi-upright car seat. In these cases, providers may opt for a travel device that allows the infant to lie flat, either supine or prone, known as a car bed. Minimal evidence exists to guide providers on car bed safety and help determine which infants would benefit from discharge in a car bed. In this article, we provide a comprehensive summary of existing literature on the safety of car beds for motor vehicle travel, car bed use in specific patient populations, and car beds vs...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jennifer E Rawlinson, Luke Bass, Luis Campoy, Craig Lesser, Benjamin Prytherch
OBJECTIVE: To describe injectate diffusion for two equine mental foramen block techniques. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive anatomic study. ANIMALS: A total of 12 equine heads and three live horses. METHODS: Equine heads were longitudinally sectioned to create 24 hemi-heads for testing two mental foramen block techniques (T1 and T2) and two injectate volumes (3 and 5 mL) of mixed dye and contrast medium. T1 needles were directed rostrocaudally into the mental foramen for 3 cm, and T2 needles were directed dorsolaterally to ventromedially into the foramen for 1 cm...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Alice Teich, Albert B Lowenfels, Lori Solomon, Gary P Wormser
Zika virus is an emerging infection transmitted in multiple ways. In 2016 we assessed the level of knowledge about Zika virus transmission in an underserved, predominantly Hispanic, mixed gender population living in suburban New York City, many of whom potentially travel to affected regions. Based on a convenience sample of 147 participants, 134 (91%) were aware of Zika virus transmission by mosquitoes; 116 (79%) knew about transmission from a pregnant female to the fetus; and 89 (61%) were aware of sexual transmission...
July 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Asmamaw Malede, Kassahun Alemu, Mulugeta Aemero, Sirak Robele, Helmut Kloos
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria has declined in the last decade; only a small number of cases have been reported, primarily from hotspots. The contribution of house proximity to water bodies and the role of migration in malaria transmission has not yet been examined in detail in northwest Ethiopia. Individual and household-level environmental and socio-demographic drivers of malaria heterogeneity were explored contextually in meso-endemic villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia...
August 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Abrar Ahmed, Ahmed Jawad Qureshi, Brian A Fleck, Prashant R Waghmare
This paper presents a comprehensive experimental study of the effects of vertically and horizontally applied magnetic fields on the dynamics of magnetowetting and the formation of satellite droplet. Besides explaining the physics of the transient variation of different drop shape parameters, the role of a magnetic field on controlling the dynamics of spreading is also presented. Ultimately the magnetic field maneuvers the droplet spreading without altering the surface chemistry. The morphological evolution and dynamics of an impacting ferrofluid droplet has also been studied...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Paul Schimek
For decades it has been the conventional wisdom that crashes involving bicyclists and opening car doors are rare. This belief is based on motor vehicle crash reports, but these reports generally exclude this crash type by definition. More complete sources show that dooring crashes are one of the most common causes of urban bicycle-motor vehicle collisions, accounting for 12%-27% of the total. This paper reviews all available studies of bicyclist position in bike lanes adjacent to on-street parking. With bike lanes meeting current minimum standards, almost all bicyclists were observed riding within range of opening doors...
August 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Taryn M Kay, Paul R Ohmann
We examine the role that randomness or noise in individual motion may play in forming effective grazing strategies for herd members as they collectively move toward a destination. Through a model where animals are attracted to Voronoi neighbors as well as a destination endpoint, we show that including a significant random motion component can speed up the movement of a herd toward this destination, increase the efficiency that food is acquired during the travel, and facilitate a natural herd shape that mitigates predation risk...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Tricia Scott
Ultrasound sonography, in which a high-pitched sound wave travels at different speeds through objects of variable density, offers effective clinical diagnostic applications to identify problems, such as free abdominal fluid following blunt trauma, cardiac effusion and long bone fractures.
July 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Xiaomei Wang, Hong Chen, Rong Li, Weiling Fu, Chunyan Yao
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common in high-altitude travelers, and may lead to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). The inhaled drugs have a much lower peak serum concentrations and a shorter half-life period than oral drugs, which give them a special character, greater local effects in the lung. Meanwhile, short-term administration of inhaled drugs results in almost no adverse reactions. METHODS: We chose inhaled ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulfate (combivent, COM), budesonide (pulmicortrespules, BUD), and salbutamol sulfate (ventolin, VEN) in our study to investigate their prophylactic efficacy against AMS...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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