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Abigail R A Aiken, Elisa Padron, Kathleen Broussard, Dana Johnson
BACKGROUND: In Northern Ireland, abortion is illegal except in very limited circumstances to preserve a woman's life or to prevent permanent or long-term injury to her physical or mental health. Abortions conducted outside the law are a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment. We assessed the impacts of Northern Ireland's abortion laws on women's decision-making and experiences in accessing abortion. METHODS: Between April 2017 and February 2018 we interviewed 30 women living in Northern Ireland who had sought abortion by travelling to a clinic in Great Britain or by using online telemedicine to self-manage a medication abortion at home...
October 19, 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Michelle M Porter, Andrew W Cull
OBJECTIVE: Cataract surgery can have many benefits for older adults, including enabling continued ability to drive. However, it is not known how objectively measured driving patterns change after cataract surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine how participants drove before and after cataract surgery. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from the Winnipeg site of Candrive (a longitudinal study of older drivers in Canada)...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Elaine O'Connell Francischetto, Sarah Damery, James Ferguson, Gill Combes
BACKGROUND: Video clinics, where patients can have a hospital appointment with their clinician from home, are emerging in practice, but their effectiveness is unclear. This study will evaluate whether a video clinic implemented at the University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust improves patient satisfaction compared to standard face-to-face appointments for liver transplant patients. METHODS: This will be a parallel, two-arm, statistician-blinded, randomised evaluation...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Olivier Blanchard, Séverine Deguen, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite, Romain François, Denis Zmirou-Navier
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution has been shown to have health effects in many studies; low birth weight, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, and stillbirth are the most often cited. However, exposure of pregnant women is difficult to quantify, especially with regard to their mobility, which is rarely taken into account in epidemiological studies. This study aimed to assess the impact of mobility of pregnant women living in Paris, France, on their exposure estimates to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 )...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
M Fressard, E Cossart
In agricultural lands, assessing how the spatial patterns of landscapes affect sediment connectivity is a key factor in understanding the nonlinear behavior of sediment transfer to the outlet. Important questions remain regarding this relationship. For example, to what extent is sediment travel disconnected from the flows that transport sediments? What connections exist between the components of the sediment cascade? The answers to this methodological problem are particularly important to land managers and farmers...
October 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
João Pires, Julia G Kraemer, Esther Kuenzli, Sara Kasraian, Regula Tinguely, Christoph Hatz, Andrea Endimiani, Markus Hilty
BACKGROUND: Intestinal colonization by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R-Ent) has been attributed to travel to high prevalence countries. However, the dynamics of the microbiota changes during ESC-R-Ent colonization and whether there is a particular bacterial composition which is associated with subsequent colonization is unknown. METHODS: Forty healthy volunteers living in Switzerland underwent screening before and after a trip to India, and also 3, 6 and 12 months after traveling...
October 16, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
A B de Castro, Natalia Dyba, Elizabeth D Cortez, Genecar G Pe Benito
BACKGROUND: Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) is a pedagogical approach using digital technology to provide experiential international learning without travel abroad. Through web-based, cross-country intellectual exchange, COIL helps prepare nursing students for increasingly diverse and multicultural health care work environments globally. PROBLEM: Opportunities to engage in multicultural learning experiences have traditionally relied on intensive study abroad trips, which can be prohibitive for students with limited fiscal resources or who are place-bound...
October 18, 2018: Nurse Educator
J Verschueren, B Gurrutxaga-Lerma, D S Balint, A P Sutton, D Dini
Despite numerous theoretical models and simulation results, a clear physical picture of dislocations traveling at velocities comparable to the speed of sound in the medium remains elusive. Using two complementary atomistic methods to model uniformly moving screw dislocations, lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics, the existence of mechanical instabilities in the system is shown. These instabilities are found at material-dependent velocities far below the speed of sound. We show that these are the onset of an atomistic kinematic generation mechanism, which ultimately results in an avalanche of further dislocations...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Benjamin Marent, Flis Henwood, Mary Darking
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in testing and treatment, HIV incidence rates within European countries are at best stable or else increasing. mHealth technology has been advocated to increase quality and cost-effectiveness of health services while dealing with growing patient numbers. However, studies suggested that mHealth apps are rarely adopted and often considered to be of low quality by users. Only a few studies (conducted in the United States) have involved people living with HIV (PLWH) in the design of mHealth...
October 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sonia S Kupfer, Sam Lubner, Emmanuel Coronel, Perry J Pickhardt, Matthew Tipping, Peter Graffy, Eileen Keenan, Eric Ross, Tianyu Li, David S Weinberg
Guidelines recommend surveillance after resection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but rates of adherence to surveillance are variable and have not been studied at National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. The aim of this study was to determine rates of adherence to standard postresection CRC surveillance recommendations including physician visits, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), computed tomography (CT), and colonoscopy after CRC resection at three NCI-designated centers. Data on patients with resected CRC from 2010 to 2017 were reviewed...
October 18, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Ruben Kuzniecky, Carmen Baez, Guzmán Aranda, Eveline Teresa Hidalgo, Ameeta Grover, Cordelia Orillac, Yvonne Zelenka, Howard L Weiner
OBJECTIVE: The majority of the 65 million people worldwide with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries. Many of these countries have inadequate resources to serve the large patient population affected by epilepsy. Panama is a middle-income country that currently has only 2 facilities that can provide basic epilepsy services and no epilepsy surgery services. To address this need, a group of Panamanian physicians partnered with U.S. epilepsy health care providers to test a hybrid epilepsy surgery program, combining resources and expertise...
October 19, 2018: Epilepsia
Sofia Ny, Roman Kozlov, Uga Dumpis, Petra Edquist, Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Anna-Maria Kling, Danuta O Lis, Christoph Lübbert, Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Ivan Palagin, Aija Vilde, Jaana Vuopio, Jan Walter, Karin Tegmark Wisell
We investigated the faecal carriage prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Escherichia coli (EP-EC) and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae (EP-KP) and risk factors associated with carriage among adult study subjects in Finland, Germany, Latvia, Poland, Russia and Sweden (partner countries). The aim was to get indicative data on the prevalence of ESBL-carriage in specific populations in the region. Faecal samples were collected from four study populations and screened on ChromID-ESBL and ChromID-OXA-48 plates...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Rahul Goel
In 2011, for the first time, Census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for the workers. The distance reported is in the form of aggregate counts for each mode of travel in 7 distance bins (0-1 km, 2-5 km, 6-10 km, 11-20 km, 21-30 km, 31-50 km, and >50 km). In this data article, methods are described to model categorical count data as distance-decay functions using continuous probability distributions. The distributions have been developed for 8 categories of modes-walk, cycle, motorised two-wheelers, car, tempo/auto rickshaw/taxi, bus, train, and all modes combined, for the 33 mainland states of India and all states combined...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Joe Iwanaga, Paul J Choi, Marc Vetter, Mayank Patel, Shogo Kikuta, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) procedure delivers anesthetics to the pterygomandibular space through which the lingual nerve (LN) and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) travel. Injury to the LN has been reported more often than injury to the IAN. However, the number of anatomical studies of LN injury is limited. We aimed to establish evidence by investigating LN and IAN anatomy at the level of the mandibular foramen (MF). Forty-four sides from 22 Caucasian cadaveric heads (16 fresh-frozen and six formalin-fixed cadavers) were used in this study...
August 6, 2018: Curēus
Brian T Nguyen, Robyn Schickler
Background: Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viral illnesses commonly occur after storms. As storms are predicted to worsen in intensity and frequency, mosquito-borne viruses, including the Zika virus are expected to spread, and with devastating consequences. While the disease is self-limited, pregnant women who contract Zika can transmit the virus to their fetuses, causing neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly. An overlooked vector of the Zika virus, however, is men whose semen can transmit the virus at the time of sexual intercourse...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
Matteo Rosati, Andrea Mari, Vittorio Giovannetti
Thermal attenuator channels model the decoherence of quantum systems interacting with a thermal bath, e.g., a two-level system subject to thermal noise and an electromagnetic signal traveling through a fiber or in free-space. Hence determining the quantum capacity of these channels is an outstanding open problem for quantum computation and communication. Here we derive several upper bounds on the quantum capacity of qubit and bosonic thermal attenuators. We introduce an extended version of such channels which is degradable and hence has a single-letter quantum capacity, bounding that of the original thermal attenuators...
October 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Wolfgang Winnicki, Michael Eder, Peter Mazal, Florian J Mayer, Gürkan Sengölge, Ludwig Wagner
Strongyloides stercoralis is not hyperendemic in European countries but has been increasing in prevalence due to migration and travel. The infection is characterized by a mostly asymptomatic course or nonspecific symptoms in healthy subjects. However, immunosuppression or chemotherapy have been described as leading triggers for Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome and may have a fatal course. A post hoc analysis was performed among renal transplant patients during a 5-year period. Plasma samples of two hundred kidney allograft recipients were retrospectively analyzed for Strongyloides stercoralis seropositivity by established ELISA testing...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hannah J Williams, Olivier Duriez, Mark D Holton, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Rory P Wilson, Emily L C Shepard
Many large birds rely on thermal soaring flight to travel cross-country. As such, they are under selective pressure to minimise the time spent gaining altitude in thermal updrafts. Birds should be able to maximise their climb rates by maintaining a position close to the thermal core through careful selection of bank angle and airspeed, however, there have been few direct measurements of either parameter. Here we apply a novel methodology to quantify the bank angles selected by soaring birds using on-board magnetometers...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mark P Nelder, Curtis B Russell, Katie M Clow, Steven Johnson, J Scott Weese, Kirby Cronin, Filip Ralevski, Claire M Jardine, Samir N Patel
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is spreading northward from its historical stronghold in the southeastern United States. As a vector and biting pest, public and veterinary health officials must remain vigilant of the lone star tick's expanding range. We use ticks submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (1999-2016) to describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of A. americanum in Ontario, Canada, as well as submitter demographics. We identified 847 A. americanum submissions during the surveillance period, with 773 (91...
October 9, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Kai Ruggeri, Nevena Ivanović, Josip Razum, Ondřej Kácha, Igor G Menezes, Zafar Zafari, Eduardo Garcia-Garzon
Global medical travel has had an increasing trend without a comprehensive, evidence-driven policy to ensure safe and effective practice. To identify key factors that influence medical travel, we conducted a series of studies culminating with a preference and decision-making component of over 500 prospective medical travelers from a number of countries. Results indicated that quality of care was the most critical factor in the decision, followed by lower costs of procedure and shorter waiting times. Lower costs were less of a factor if the procedure was more invasive, which also increased the importance of waiting time in the decision...
October 3, 2018: Health Policy
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