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Lipid and chronic hepatitis C

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#1
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903618/hypolipidemic-effect-of-oleanolic-acid-is-mediated-by-the-mir-98-5p-pgc-1%C3%AE-axis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-mice
#3
Siyu Chen, Xiaoan Wen, Wenxiang Zhang, Chen Wang, Jun Liu, Chang Liu
Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active component of the traditional Chinese herb olea europaea l. and has been found to exhibit a significant lipid-lowering effect; however, its direct molecular target is still unknown, which limits its clinical application and the possible structure modification to improve its beneficial functions. In this regard, we carried out the present study to identify potential hepatic targets of OA to mediate its lipid-lowering effect. We found that both acute and chronic OA treatments reduced serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and decreased hepatic expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β (PGC-1β), which is an important regulator in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis, and its downstream target genes...
November 30, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888600/-darunavir-cobicistat-monotherapy-experience-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#4
L Yunquera-Romero, R Asensi-Díez, J C Del Rio-Valencia, I Muñoz-Castillo, M A Castaño-Carracedo
OBJECTIVE: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (IP/r) monotherapy: darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is only provided in the major treatment guidelines in pretreated patients to prevent toxicity associated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), reduce costs and simplify antiretroviral treatment. To start IP/r monotherapy, according to GESIDA guidelines 2016, patients need to meet the following criteria: absence of chronic hepatitis B, plasma viral load <50 copies/ mL for at least 6 months and absence of protease inhibitors mutations or previous virologic failures to IP/r...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830380/recovery-of-pan-genotypic-and-genotype-specific-amino-acid-alterations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance-transition-at-the-crossroad-of-metabolism-and-immunity
#5
Ming-Ling Chang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Su-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yu Tang, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Ming-Shi Shiao
Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients...
November 10, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788588/identification-of-circulating-protein-biomarkers-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-concomitantly-infected-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus
#6
Abdel-Hady Ali Abdel-Wahab, Medhat S El-Halawany, Ahmad A Emam, Ammar Elfiky, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed
CONTEXT: The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in developing countries, and most cases are associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the circulating proteins as liver biomarkers for identification of HCC associated with HCV infection in Egyptian patients using LC-MS/MS analysis. METHODS: Blood sera were collected from 31 HCC patients and the fractionated proteins were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 28, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776194/rna-seq-based-analysis-of-differential-gene-expression-associated-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-cell-culture
#7
Anna Hojka-Osinska, Lucyna Budzko, Agnieszka Zmienko, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Patrick Maillard, Agata Budkowska, Marek Figlerowicz, Paulina Jackowiak
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of HCV infection-induced liver injury and host-virus interactions are still not well recognized. To better understand these processes we determined the changes in the host gene expression that occur during HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells. As a result, we identified genes that may contribute to the immune and metabolic cellular responses to infection. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HCV induced an increased expression of genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, adipocytokine signaling, cell cycle and nitrogen metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688688/incidence-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes-in-patients-with-portosystemic-shunts-without-liver-dysfunction
#8
Ying Li, Gao Yang, Jinwei Qiang, Songqi Cai, Hao Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes in patients with chronic hepatic schistosomiasis japonica (HSJ) and portosystemic shunts (PSS). METHODS: Pre- and post-contrasted computed tomography images obtained from patients with HSJ and control subjects were reviewed by two radiologists who identified and graded any shunting vessels. Anthropometric measurements, hepatic enzymes, lipid profile, blood levels of albumin, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-2) index of all participants were also assessed...
September 29, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685337/effect-of-antiviral-therapy-for-hcv-on-lipid-levels
#9
Stefan Mauss, Florian Berger, Malte H Wehmeyer, Patrick Ingiliz, Dietrich Hueppe, Thomas Lutz, Karl G Simon, Knud Schewe, Juergen K Rockstroh, Axel Baumgarten, Stefan Christensen
HCV has complex interactions with human lipid metabolism leading to down regulation of cholesterol levels. Interferon therapy has been shown to decrease cholesterol even further. With the availability of second generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAA) the effect of suppressing and eliminating HCV on lipid metabolism warrants reevaluation. 
Methods: Prospective German multicenter cohort on HCV- and HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (GECCO). Lipids were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy...
September 29, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680885/rapid-increase-in-serum-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-concentration-during-hepatitis-c-interferon-free-treatment
#10
Satoru Hashimoto, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Seigo Abiru, Kazumi Yamasaki, Atsumasa Komori, Shinya Nagaoka, Akira Saeki, Shinjiro Uchida, Shigemune Bekki, Yuki Kugiyama, Kazuyoshi Nagata, Minoru Nakamura, Kiyoshi Migita, Kazuhiko Nakao
BACKGROUND & AIM: We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients' serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy (DCV/ASV) for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF) for 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677955/role-of-oxidative-stress-in-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Na Fu, Hui Yao, Yuemin Nan, Liang Qiao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the predominant cause of chronic liver diseases and HCC, particularly in Western countries. Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of HCV-related HCC, of which oxidative stress plays a pivotal role. HCV infection induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairs the function of endogenous antioxidants. Excessive amount of ROS directly damages DNA, lipids and proteins...
September 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665576/lipoprotein-lipase-liberates-free-fatty-acids-to-inhibit-hcv-infection-and-prevent-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#12
Hung-Yu Sun, Chun-Chieh Lin, Pei-Ju Tsai, Wei-Jen Tsai, Jin-Ching Lee, Chiung-Wen Tsao, Pin-Nan Cheng, I-Chin Wu, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Ting-Tsung Chang, Kung-Chia Young
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has been identified as an anti-HCV host factor, but the cellular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanism of LPL involving in anti-HCV. The functional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α signal by LPL transducing into hepatocytes were investigated in HCV-infected cells, primary human heaptocytes (PHHs), and in HCV-core transgenic mice. The result showed that the levels of transcriptional transactivity and nuclear translocation of PPARα in Huh7 cells and PHHs were elevated by physiologically ranged LPL treatment of either very-low-density lipoprotein or HCV particles...
September 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664407/anti-adipogenic-and-antiviral-effects-of-l-carnitine-on-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
Yoko Tsukuda, Goki Suda, Seiji Tsunematsu, Jun Ito, Fumiyuki Sato, Katsumi Terashita, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Osamu Maehara, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Kenichi Morikawa, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Koji Ogawa, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Makoto Chuma, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660673/cd36-genetic-variation-fat-intake-and-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Sonia Roman, Erika Martinez-Lopez, Nora A Fierro, Karina Gonzalez-Aldaco, Alexis Jose-Abrego, Arturo Panduro
AIM: To analyze the association of the CD36 polymorphism (rs1761667) with dietary intake and liver fibrosis (LF) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: In this study, 73 patients with CHC were recruited. The CD36 genotype (G > A) was determined by a TaqMan real-time PCR system. Dietary assessment was carried out using a three-day food record to register the daily intake of macronutrients. Serum lipids and liver enzymes were measured by a dry chemistry assay...
September 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613897/protective-effect-of-nicotine-on-sepsis-induced-oxidative-multi-organ-damage-role-of-neutrophils
#15
Zarife Nigâr Özdemir-Kumral, Dilek Özbeyli, Ahmet Faruk Özdemir, M Buğra Karaaslan, Kübra Kaytaz, Mustafa F Kara, Olgu Enis Tok, Feriha Ercan, Berrak Ç Yeğen
INTRODUCTION: Despite its adverse health consequences, tobacco smoking is associated with lower incidence of several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. The present study is aimed to show the effects of nicotine, major tobacco constituent, on five organs targeted by sepsis. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats received tap water with (5 mg/kg) or without nicotine for 14 days. Under ketamine anesthesia, sepsis (n=50) was induced by ligation and punction of the cecum, while sham group (n=8) had only laparotomy...
August 3, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608780/identification-and-stratification-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-using-serum-cystatin-c-and-serum-creatinine-based-estimating-equations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-comparative-analysis
#16
S Avinash, V P Singh, A K Agarwal, S Chatterjee, V Arya
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein produced by all nucleated human cells, with a stable production rate. Its levels are not influenced by inflammation, infections, hepatic or renal diseases, or by dietary or constitutional factors. We compared serum cystatin C and serum creatinine based predicting equations to estimate glomerular filteration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus, using the staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined by the National Kidney Foundation...
November 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600823/aerobic-capacity-and-hepatic-mitochondrial-lipid-oxidation-alters-susceptibility-for-chronic-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#17
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592562/chronic-psychological-stress-and-high-fat-high-fructose-diet-disrupt-metabolic-and-inflammatory-gene-networks-in-the-brain-liver-and-gut-and-promote-behavioral-deficits-in-mice
#18
Maria Elizabeth de Sousa Rodrigues, Mandakh Bekhbat, Madelyn C Houser, Jianjun Chang, Douglas I Walker, Dean P Jones, Claudia M P Oller do Nascimento, Christopher J Barnum, Malú G Tansey
The mechanisms underlying the association between chronic psychological stress, development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and behavioral impairment in obesity are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of mild chronic psychological stress on metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral profiles in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that (1) high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF) and psychological stress would synergize to mediate the impact of inflammation on the central nervous system in the presence of behavioral dysfunction, and that (2) HFHF and stress interactions would impact insulin and lipid metabolism...
September 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548822/extrahepatic-diseases-and-nafld-the-triangular-relationship-between-nafld-type-2-diabetes-and-dysbiosis
#19
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases from simple steatosis with hepatic lipid accumulation to end-stage liver disease with decompensated cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data from the USA showed that in 2013, NAFLD was the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation behind hepatitis C. Since there are now effective treatments for hepatitis C and there is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD, it has been predicted that over the next 10-15 years, NAFLD will replace hepatitis C as the most frequent indication for liver transplantation...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535051/neglected-but-important-role-of-apolipoprotein-e-exchange-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Zaili Yang, Xiaoning Wang, Xiumei Chi, Fanfan Zhao, Jinxu Guo, Pengjuan Ma, Jin Zhong, Junqi Niu, Xiaoyu Pan, Gang Long
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, infecting approximately 170 million people worldwide. HCV assembly is tightly associated with the lipoprotein pathway. Exchangeable apolipoprotein E (apoE) is incorporated on infectious HCV virions and is important for infectious HCV virion morphogenesis and entry. Moreover, the virion apoE level is positively correlated with its ability to escape E2 antibody neutralization. However, the role of apoE exchange in the HCV life cycle is unclear...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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