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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749570/hepatocyte-derived-exosomes-promote-t-follicular-regulatory-cell-expansion-during-hcv-infection
#1
Dustin A Cobb, Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen, Young S Hahn
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern that can cause severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Control of HCV requires vigorous T cell responses, yet CD4(+) T cells in chronic HCV patients are dysfunctional. T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a subset of regulatory T cells that suppress T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and the generation of high affinity antibody-producing B cells. In this study, we examined the accumulation of Tfr cells in the liver compartment during chronic HCV infection and defined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749559/recombinant-cccdna-of-hepatitis-b-virus-induces-long-term-viral-persistence-with-chronic-hepatitis-in-a-mouse-model
#2
Gaiyun Li, Yuanfei Zhu, Dianhui Shao, Hao Chang, Xiaoming Zhang, Dongming Zhou, Yueqiu Gao, Ke Lan, Qiang Deng
Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant (r) cccDNA of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV anigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis by which to reproduce (r)cccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#3
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748890/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibodies-with-negative-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-dialysis-and-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#4
Nauman Tarif, Muhammad Mohsin Riaz, Omer Sabir, Rizwan Akhter, Kashif Rafique, Nabiha Rizvi
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a potential cause of infection transmission in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependant patients. It is liable to be missed since the marker for OBI, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), is not done routinely. We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of OBI in CKD Stage II-V or requiring renal replacement therapy. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from May 2104 to May 2015. A total of 188 patients were included in this study, 124 were dialysis dependent and 64 had acute or CKD Stage II-V...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748889/spectrum-of-kidney-diseases-in-patients-presented-for-acute-hemodialysis-in-kasr-al-aini-school-of-medicine
#5
Khaled M Sadek, Bahaa M Zayed, Manal M Eldeeb, Dinna H Ahmed, Ahmed A Aly, Dawlat M Belal
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients with mortality varying from 10% to 80%. It is crucial to know the incidence and etiology of AKI to promote prevention strategies. Our study aimed at obtaining a comprehensive review of the pattern and spectrum of patients who presented for emergency hemodialysis to Kasr Al-Aini Hospital between October 2012 and October 2014. We analyzed clinical and laboratory factors in all such patients. Two thousand twenty three patients were included of which patients with AKI were 728 patients (36%)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748882/superiority-of-peginterferon-%C3%AE-2a-and-ribavirin-combination-over-peginterferon-%C3%AE-2a-monotherapy-in-the-management-of-hemodialysis-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
Saeed M G Al-Ghamdi, Nasser Alaulaqi, Abdullah A Al-Amoudi, Amenah Alghamdi, Abbas Zagnoon, Bakr Ben Sadiq
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common infection affecting 15% of hemodialysis population in Saudi Arabia resulting in delay in transplantation and long-term complications. The use of peginterferon resulted in sustained virologic response (SVR) in 40%-85% of patients, especially if combined with ribavirin. The treatment is hampered by the high dropout due to anemia and requirement of blood transfusion resulting from this therapy. Some studies have shown that the addition of increasing dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and reduced dose of ribavirin results in reduced dropout rate with high SVR...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748878/assessment-of-hepatic-fibrosis-by-fibroscan-in-egyptian-chronic-hemodialysis-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-a-single-center-study
#7
Bahaa El-Din Moustafa Zayed, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mahmoud Abdou, Dina Sabry Abd Al Fatah, Tarek Hussein El-Shabony
Assessing hepatic fibrosis in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) can help to evaluate the long-term prognosis, complications of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as well as eligibility for renal transplantation,. Our aim was to assess liver fibrosis in Egyptian hemodialysis (HD) patients infected with CHC genotype 4 using a fibroscan. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over two years on a cohort of 134 Egyptian patients on prevalent HD at Kasr Al Ainy Hospital. All patients were subjected to routine laboratory evaluation including, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis Be antigen, hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) and human immunodeficiency virus antibody, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), serum hyaluronic acid level, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748854/ratios-of-t-helper-2-cells-to-t-helper-1-cells-and-cytokine-levels-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b
#8
Ming-Hui Li, Dan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Jing Qu, Yao Lu, Ge Shen, Shu-Ling Wu, Min Chang, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Hong-Xiao Hao, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Gang Wan, Shun-Ai Liu, Yao Xie
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is an immune response-mediated disease. The aim of this study was to explore the differences of ratios of T-helper (Th) 2 cells to Th1 cells and cytokine levels in acute hepatitis B (AHB) patients and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients in immune-tolerance and immune-active phases. METHODS: Thirty chronic HBV-infected patients in the immune-tolerant phase (IT group) and 50 chronic hepatitis B patients in the immune-active (clearance) phase (IC group), 32 AHB patients (AHB group), and 13 healthy individuals (HI group) were enrolled in the study...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747775/curcumin-and-curcuma-longa-l-extract-ameliorate-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-redox-and-er-stress
#9
Hwa-Young Lee, Seung-Wook Kim, Geum-Hwa Lee, Min-Kyung Choi, Han-Wool Chung, Yong-Chul Lee, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Ho Jeong Kwon, Han-Jung Chae
For this study, we examined the effects of curcumin against acute and chronic stress, paying specific attention to ROS. We also aimed to clarify the differences between acute and chronic stress conditions. We investigated the effects of curcumin against acute stress (once/1 day CCl4 treatment) and chronic-stress (every other day/4week CCl4 treatment). Compared with acute stress, in which the antioxidant system functioned properly and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ROS production increased, chronic stress increased AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatic enzymes, and ROS more significantly, and the antioxidant system became impaired...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747369/serum-hbv-dna-rna-and-hbsag-which-correlated-better-to-intrahepatic-covalently-closed-circular-dna-before-and-after-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment
#10
Yuhua Gao, Yutang Li, Qinghua Meng, Zhanqing Zhang, Ping Zhao, Qinghua Shang, Yue Li, Mingze Su, Tong Li, Xueen Liu, Hui Zhuang
The study was to investigate whether serum HBV RNA is a strong surrogate marker for intrahepatic HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) when compared with serum HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Serum HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg and intrahepatic cccDNA were quantitatively detected at baseline (n=82) and 96 weeks (n=62) after nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatment in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. Then the correlations between serum HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg and intrahepatic cccDNA were statistically analyzed...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746448/fatal-toxoplasmosis-in-an-immunosuppressed-domestic-cat-from-brazil-caused-by-toxoplasma-gondii-clonal-type-i
#11
Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Camila Mariellen Evangelista, Renata Assis Casagrande, Giovana Biezus, Claudia Salete Wisser, Paulo Eduardo Ferian, Anderson Barbosa de Moura, Veronica Machado Rolim, David Driemeier, Solange Oliveira, Bruna Farias Alves, Solange Maria Gennari, Sandra Davi Traverso
The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746204/direct-acting-antiviral-agent-efficacy-and-safety-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-prisma-compliant-study
#12
Keliang Chen, Pei Lu, Rijin Song, Jiexiu Zhang, Rongzhen Tao, Zijie Wang, Wei Zhang, Min Gu
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected renal transplant recipients (RTRs) has not been determined. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and assessed the quality of eligible studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. DAA efficacy and safety were assessed using standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746158/lactate-serum-concentrations-during-treatment-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-in-hepatitis-b-with-or-without-cirrhosis
#13
Christos Triantos, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Martha Mandellou, Stelios Assimakopoulos, Paraskevi Tselekouni, Dimitra Taprantzi, Giorgos Tsiaoussis, Georgia Vourli, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Charalambos Gogos, Chrisoula Labropoulou-Karatza, Konstantinos Thomopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical implications of lactate concentrations in patients with hepatitis B with or without cirrhosis during treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B and median age 57 (24-85) years were prospectively included. Lactate concentrations were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months following the baseline measurements...
September 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745536/reply-re-cost-effectiveness-of-combination-daclatasvir-sofosbuvir-for-treatment-of-genotype-3-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-the-united-states
#14
Catherine Saint-Laurent Thibault, Divya Moorjaney, Michael L Ganz, Bruce Sill, Shalini Hede, Yong Yuan, Boris Gorsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745535/re-cost-effectiveness-of-combination-daclatasvir-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-genotype-3-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-the-united-states
#15
Jayeshkumar Patel, Xiaohui Zhao, Drishti Shah, Khalid Alhussain, Khalid Kamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745392/-standard-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-guidelines
#16
Petr Urbánek, Petr Husa, J Šperl, S Fraňková, Stanislav Plíšek, Luděk RoŽnovský, P Kümpel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745218/ventricular-extrasystoles-after-first-dose-of-sofosbuvir-in-a-patient-treated-with-propranolol-but-not-with-amiodarone-a-case-report
#17
Samir Rouabhia, Sabah Baghazza, Hamza Sadouki, Sihem Djezzar, Rafik Bencherif, Rofia Guehimeche, Mourad Sadelaoud, Djamel Mallem, Karima Chaabna
BACKGROUND: Sofosbuvir is a direct-acting antiviral drug used to treat chronic hepatitis C infection. In 2015, Gilead Sciences, the manufacturer of sofosbuvir, warned that bradycardia could occur when sofosbuvir is administered in combination with amiodarone. Interestingly, among reported cases of patients with sofosbuvir and amiodarone related bradycardia, some of them were also treated with propranolol. OBJECTIVE: We herein report a case of ventricular extrasystoles within three hours after the coadministration of sofosbuvir-containing regimen with propranolol...
July 25, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743900/long-term-hepatitis-b-infection-in-a-scalable-hepatic-co-culture-system
#18
Benjamin Y Winer, Tiffany S Huang, Eitan Pludwinski, Brigitte Heller, Felix Wojcik, Gabriel E Lipkowitz, Amit Parekh, Cheul Cho, Anil Shrirao, Tom W Muir, Eric Novik, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis B virus causes chronic infections in 250 million people worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus carriers are at risk of developing fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A prophylactic vaccine exists and currently available antivirals can suppress but rarely cure chronic infections. The study of hepatitis B virus and development of curative antivirals are hampered by a scarcity of models that mimic infection in a physiologically relevant, cellular context. Here, we show that cell-culture and patient-derived hepatitis B virus can establish persistent infection for over 30 days in a self-assembling, primary hepatocyte co-culture system...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743803/the-glucocorticoid-angptl4-ceramide-axis-induces-insulin-resistance-through-pp2a-and-pkc%C3%AE
#19
Tzu-Chieh Chen, Daniel I Benjamin, Taiyi Kuo, Rebecca A Lee, Mei-Lan Li, Darryl J Mar, Damian E Costello, Daniel K Nomura, Jen-Chywan Wang
Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is associated with the development of insulin resistance. We showed that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance was attenuated upon ablation of Angptl4, a glucocorticoid target gene encoding the secreted protein angiopoietin-like 4, which mediates glucocorticoid-induced lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Through metabolomic profiling, we revealed that glucocorticoid treatment increased hepatic ceramide concentrations by inducing enzymes in the ceramide synthetic pathway in an Angptl4-dependent manner...
July 25, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743159/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-neurocognitive-function-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer
#20
Adrienne Studaway, Rohit P Ojha, Tara M Brinkman, Nan Zhang, Malek Baassiri, Pia Banerjee, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Deokumar Srivastava, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors transfused with blood products before reliable screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at risk for infection. This study examined the impact of HCV on neurocognitive function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Neurocognitive testing was conducted for 836 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 35 years [standard deviation, 7.4 years]; time since diagnosis, 29 years [standard deviation, 6...
July 25, 2017: Cancer
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