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Chronic hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156808/serum-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-levels-predict-insignificant-fibrosis-and-non-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-positive-patients-with-normal-or-mildly-elevated-alanine-transaminase-levels
#1
Qiang Li, Weixia Li, Chuan Lu, Yuxian Huang, Liang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels for liver fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive [HBeAg (+)] chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with alanine transaminase (ALT)≤twice upper limit of normal (ULN). METHODS: 505 patients who underwent liver biopsies and HBsAg quantitative detections were included. Liver histology was scored using METAVIR scoring system. The area under the receiver-operator curve (AUROC) was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156773/association-of-acyp2-and-mphosph6-genetic-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-carriers
#2
Yingai Zhang, Shunlan Wang, Xiaohong Wen, Shufang Zhang, Yijun Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the dominant histologic type of primary liver cancer, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of HCC in the chronic HBV. Our study was investigated the association between the polymorphisms of ACYP2 and MPHOSPH6 genes and the risk of HCC induced by HBV infection. A total of 490 subjects were divided into two groups: 248 HBV patients with HCC (Case group), and 242 HBV patients without HCC (Control group). Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156655/the-role-of-glyoxalase-i-glo-i-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-and-their-receptor-rage-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#3
REVIEW
Marcus Hollenbach
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase-II (Glo-II) comprise the glyoxalase system and are responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO is formed non-enzymatically as a by-product, mainly in glycolysis, and leads to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs bind to their receptor, RAGE, and activate intracellular transcription factors, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review will focus on the implication of the Glo-I/AGE/RAGE system in liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156567/the-role-of-infected-cell-proliferation-in-the-clearance-of-acute-hbv-infection-in-humans
#4
Ashish Goyal, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan S Perelson
Around 90-95% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected adults do not progress to the chronic phase and, instead, recover naturally. The strengths of the cytolytic and non-cytolytic immune responses are key players that decide the fate of acute HBV infection. In addition, it has been hypothesized that proliferation of infected cells resulting in uninfected progeny and/or cytokine-mediated degradation of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) leading to the cure of infected cells are two major mechanisms assisting the adaptive immune response in the clearance of acute HBV infection in humans...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156529/alpinetin-improved-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-through-improving-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Yong Zhou, Yin-Lu Ding, Jian-Liang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Zhao-Hua Li
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious medical problem and an increasing threat to public health. It is characterized by the abnormal fat accumulation in liver without excessive alcohol intake. The concurrent NAFLD might up-regulate the risk of chronic kidney disease as well as the mortality rate. Though various drugs have been investigated to attenuate NAFLD, further study is still necessary to find new therapeutic strategy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, NAFLD animal models were induced by feeding with high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156050/viral-factors-affecting-the-clinical-outcomes-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Hung-Chih Yang, Yi-Fen Shih, Chun-Jen Liu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exhibits a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from spontaneous resolution of hepatitis B to severe adverse consequences, including the development of cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The heterogeneous clinical courses of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reflect the complex host-virus interactions, and point to the difficulty and necessity of identifying the patients at risk. With the advance of HBV virology, several viral factors have been found to be associated with the long-term clinical outcomes of CHB patients...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#7
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156048/unmet-needs-in-clinical-and-basic-hepatitis-b-virus-research
#8
Tung-Hung Su, Jia-Horng Kao
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become a treatable and controllable disease. The current nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) and pegylated interferon therapies effectively help slow disease progression and reduce the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and CHB-associated mortality. Long-term viral suppression is easily achievable by NUC therapy, with limited adverse reactions. However, several unmet requirements still exist, including safety and risk-stratified HCC surveillance among patients who received long-term NUC therapy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156047/immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#9
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156046/toward-a-cure-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-combination-therapy-involving-viral-suppression-and-immune-modulation-and-long-term-outcome
#10
Di Wu, Qin Ning
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health burden. Currently, the approved therapeutic regimens include nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and either interferon or pegylated interferon. NA therapy is generally safe and well tolerated, but the rate of posttreatment virologic relapse is high, making NA treatment a lifetime commitment. The benefits of pegylated interferon treatment include a finite duration, more-durable response and absence of viral resistance. However, sustained response to interferon alone is achieved only in a minority of patients, and side effects are common, which limit its clinical use...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156043/tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-a-new-tenofovir-prodrug-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#11
Maria Buti, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rafael Esteban
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir and a potential successor of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), has been approved in the United States and Europe for treating adolescents and adults with chronic hepatitis B infection. TAF is formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than TDF at lower doses, thereby reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, TAF appears to be as effective as TDF, with lower bone and renal toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155718/the-murine-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-cde-diet-model-of-chronic-liver-injury
#12
Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Julia Köhn-Gaone, Corey Giles, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Francis D Gratte, Caryn L Elsegood, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Grant A Ramm, John K Olynyk, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
Chronic liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are characterized by continual inflammation, progressive destruction and regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and fibrosis. The end-stage of every chronic liver disease is cirrhosis, a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. To study processes regulating disease initiation, establishment, and progression, several animal models are used in laboratories...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155473/relationship-between-hepatic-progenitor-cells-and-stellate-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4
#13
Thanaa El Sayed Ahmed Helal, Nermine Ahmed Ehsan, Nehal Ahmed Radwan, Eman Abdelsameea
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health problem in many areas of the world, especially Egypt. Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been implicated in fibrosis progression in chronic HCV. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HPCs and HSCs in chronic HCV infection and the relationship between both cell types. This retrospective study was conducted on 100 chronic HCV patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed on liver tissue sections for cytokeratin 19 (progenitor cell markers), smooth muscle actin (stellate cell markers), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)...
November 20, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155352/patient-reported-outcomes-following-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-sofosbuvir-and-velpatasvir-with-or-without-voxilaprevir
#14
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Stuart Gordon, Stefan Zeuzem, Michael P Mann, Ira Jacobson, Marc Bourliere, Curtis Cooper, Steven Flamm, K Rajender Reddy, Kris Kowdley, Issah Younossi, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has many hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, measured by patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We measured changes in PROs during HCV treatment with recently developed pangenotypic regimens and from a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment ended (SVR12). METHODS: We collected PRO data from 2 multi-center, blinded, international phase 3 trials of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir, from 748 patients previously treated with direct-acting antivirals for chronic infection with HCV of any genotype (59% HCV genotype 1, 43% with compensated cirrhosis) (POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155266/chronic-dexamethasone-exposure-markedly-decreased-the-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-growing-goats
#15
Qu Chen, Liqiong Niu, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress seriously threatens welfare and health in animals and humans. Consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used to mimic chronic stress previously. In order to investigate the effect of chronic stress on hepatic lipids metabolism, in this study, 10 healthy male goats were randomly allocated into two groups, one received a consecutive injection of Dex via intramuscularly for 3 weeks (Dex group), the other received the same volume of saline as the control group (Con group). Hepatic health and triglyceride (TG) metabolism were analyzed and compared between two groups...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155127/mdr1-gene-c3435t-polymorphism-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#16
Mehdi Parsanahad, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Shahram Jalilian, Gholamabas Kayedani, Sara Mahmoodi
BACKGROUND: MDR1 is a highly polymorphic gene that encodes P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This protein anchor to the cell membrane and transports toxins, xenobiotic, chemicals, and drugs from the intracellular to extracellular and thus protect cells. Polymorphism of the MDR1 gene seems to be effective in gene expression and response to treatment. Since one of the main mechanisms of drug resistance is the removal of the drug from the cell by ATP-dependent efflux proteins, thus MDR1, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C3435T can be used as a predictor for treatment outcomes...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154966/determinants-of-fibrosis-progression-and-regression-in-nash
#17
REVIEW
Detlef Schuppan, Rambabu Surabattula, Xiao Yu Wang
Cirrhosis has become the major liver related clinical endpoint in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, progression to cirrhosis is less predictable in NASH compared to other chronic liver diseases. This is due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of NASH, which is determined by life style and nutrition, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors, and a prominent role of hepatic and extrahepatic comorbidities. Thus modest changes in these cofactors can also induce fibrosis regression, at least in precirrhotic patients...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154701/minimally-invasive-treatment-of-mesenteric-arterioportal-fistulas-in-two-dogs
#18
Christina J Cocca, Chick Weisse, Allyson C Berent, Robert Rosen
CASE DESCRIPTION Two Pembroke Welsh Corgis with gastrointestinal signs including inappetence, diarrhea, lethargy, and hypersalivation were referred for evaluation. CLINICAL FINDINGS Diagnostic testing included abdominal ultrasonography and CT angiography. One patient had a cranial mesenteric artery-to-mesenteric vein fistula with multiple acquired extrahepatic portosystemic shunts. The second patient had both cranial and caudal mesenteric artery-to-mesenteric vein fistulas and multiple acquired extrahepatic portosystemic shunts...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153265/hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-as-prevention-in-an-extended-network-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-usa-a-modelling-study
#20
Alexei Zelenev, Jianghong Li, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sanjay Basu, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. METHODS: Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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