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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517954/fatal-shark-attacks-on-divers-in-australia-1960-2017
#1
John Lippmann
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the number, location and characteristics associated with fatal shark attacks on divers in Australian waters from 1960 to 2017, inclusive. METHODS: Searches were made of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific Diving Mortality Database; the International Shark Attack File website; the Australian Shark Attack File and the Global Shark Attack File to identify cases of fatal shark attacks on divers in Australia. In addition, a systematic search of published medical and sporting literature was conducted to identify relevant reports...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517819/understanding-positive-youth-development-in-sport-through-the-voices-of-indigenous-youth
#2
Leisha Strachan, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Courtney Mason
This study aimed to understand how positive youth development through sport and physical activity is understood and experienced by urban indigenous youth. Research in positive youth development claims that structured physical activities are critical for development. The 5 Cs (i.e., confidence, competence, character, connection, caring) are a gold standard when discussing positive outcomes and are important characteristics for youth to possess to attain the sixth C-contribution. Indigenous leaders recognize the value of sport for indigenous children and youth...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513590/dynamic-balance-measurement-and-quantitative-assessment-using-wearable-plantar-pressure-insoles-in-a-pose-sensed-virtual-environment
#3
Cunguang Lou, Chenyao Pang, Congrui Jing, Shuo Wang, Xufeng He, Xiaoguang Liu, Lei Huang, Feng Lin, Xiuling Liu, Hongrui Wang
The center of plantar pressure (COP) reflects the dynamic balance of subjects to a certain extent. In this study, wearable pressure insoles are designed, body pose measure is detected by the Kinect sensor, and a balance evaluation system is formulated. With the designed games for the interactive actions, the Kinect sensor reads the skeletal poses to judge whether the desired action is performed, and the pressure insoles simultaneously collect the plantar pressure data. The COP displacement and its speed are calculated to determine the body sway and the ability of balance control...
November 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507256/hyperhydration-induced-decrease-in-urinary-luteinizing-hormone-concentrations-of-male-athletes-may-be-compensated-by-specific-gravity-adjustment-in-doping-control-analysis
#4
Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Christian Voss, Wesal El Saftawy, Hind Al-Jaber, Najib Dbes, Sameera Al-Yazedi, Waseem Samsam, Vidya Mohamed-Ali, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Georgia Valsami, Costas Georgakopoulos
Low urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) values have been discussed as a marker to detect steroid abuse. However, suppressed LH concentrations related to highly diluted urine samples could be a misleading indication of anabolic steroid abuse. One aim of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperhydration on the interpretation of LH findings during doping control analysis and to investigate different possibilities to correct volume related changes in urinary LH concentrations. Seven healthy physically active non-smoking Caucasian males were examined for a 72-hour period using water and a commercial sports drink as hyperhydration agents (20 mL/kg body weight)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506949/hair-analysis-to-discriminate-voluntary-doping-vs-inadvertent-ingestion-of-the-aromatase-inhibitor-letrozole
#5
Donata Favretto, Rossella Snenghi, Roberto Pertile, Rafi El Mazloum, Marianna Tucci, Sindi Visentin, Susanna Vogliardi
Letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor, used to treat post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive or unknown advanced breast cancer. It is prohibited in sport because it is used together with androgen anabolizing steroids to avoid their adverse effects. In case of adverse analytical finding, it may be important to distinguish between repetitive use due to voluntary administration and occasional use, possibly due to involuntary intake. With the objective to identify the dose capable of producing a positive hair testing, and to apply these results to the scenarios of letrozole inadvertent ingestion by an athlete, this study aims at investigating the urinary excretion and incorporation into hair of single doses of letrozole...
December 2, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505809/youth-violence-and-related-risk-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-in-2800-adolescents
#6
Parastoo Golshiri, Ziba Farajzadegan, Anita Tavakoli, Kamal Heidari
Background: Youth violence is an important public health challenge, and the literature on this problem in developing countries has been limited. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of violence its related risk factors in in a sample of students in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 2800 middle and high school, aged 11-18 years in urban and rural areas selected in a multistage sampling procedure and were questioned using a self-administered questionnaire...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504941/the-association-between-physical-activity-with-cognitive-and-cardiovascular-deconditioning-in-age-related-decline-of-college-students
#7
Mehran Akram, Misbah Ghous, Iqbal Tariq, Haseeb Khan, Mohsin Paracha, Bilal Hussain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between physical activity and cognition in age-related decline of college students and to find the correlation between physical activity with cardiovascular deconditioning. METHODS: The analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to May 1, 2017, in different medical and engineering colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan.Data was collected through non-probability purposive sampling method. Demographic data was recorded and standardized assessment tools, including physical activity index and stroop colour word test for cognition, were used...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503355/classifying-motor-coordination-impairment-in-para-swimmers-with-brain-injury
#8
Luke Hogarth, Carl Payton, Vaughan Nicholson, Jemima Spathis, Sean Tweedy, Mark Connick, Emma Beckman, Peter Van de Vliet, Brendan Burkett
OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501387/influence-of-aging-on-lower-extremity-sagittal-plane-variability-during-5-essential-sub-phases-of-stance-in-male-recreational-runners
#9
Jacqueline Morgan, Yong Ung Kwon, D S Blaise Williams
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. BACKGROUND: Inter-joint coordination variability measures the ability of the human system to regulate multiple movement strategies. Normal aging may reduce variability resulting in a less adaptive system. Additionally, when older runners are asked to run at speeds greater than preferred, this added constraint may place older runners at greater risk for injury. OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of normal aging on coordination variability across five distinct phases of stance in runners during preferred and fixed speeds...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496944/physiological-kinematic-and-electromyographic-responses-to-kinesiology-type-patella-tape-in-elite-cyclists
#10
Kim Hébert-Losier, Ngieng Siew Yin, C Martyn Beaven, Chris Chow Li Tee, Jim Richards
Kinesiology-type tape (KTT) has become popular in sports for injury prevention, rehabilitation, and performance enhancement. Many cyclists use patella KTT; however, its benefits remain unclear, especially in uninjured elite cyclists. We used an integrated approach to investigate acute physiological, kinematic, and electromyographic responses to patella KTT in twelve national-level male cyclists. Cyclists completed four, 4-minute submaximal efforts on an ergometer at 100 and 200 W with and without patella KTT...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489208/evaluation-of-brain-response-during-head-impact-in-youth-athletes-using-an-anatomically-accurate-finite-element-model
#11
Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Mireille E Kelley, Alexander K Powers, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian, Steven Rowson, Joel D Stitzel
During normal participation in the sport, football players are exposed to repetitive subconcussive head impacts, or impacts that do not result in signs and symptoms of concussion. To better understand the effects of repetitive subconcussive impacts, the biomechanics of on-field head impacts and resulting brain deformation needs to be well-characterized. The current study evaluates local brain response to typical youth football head impacts using the atlas-based brain model (ABM), an anatomically-accurate brain finite element (FE) model...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485148/the-first-decade-of-web-based-sports-injury-surveillance-descriptive-epidemiology-of-injuries-in-us-high-school-girls-volleyball-2005-2006-through-2013-2014-and-national-collegiate-athletic-association-women-s-volleyball-2004-2005-through-2013-2014
#12
Zachary Y Kerr, Andrew J Gregory, Jill Wosmek, Lauren A Pierpoint, Dustin W Currie, Sarah B Knowles, Erin B Wasserman, Thomas P Dompier, R Dawn Comstock, Stephen W Marshall
CONTEXT:  The advent of Web-based sports injury surveillance via programs such as the High School Reporting Information Online system and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program has aided in the acquisition of girls' and women's volleyball injury data. OBJECTIVE:  To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained in high school girls' volleyball in the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years and collegiate women's volleyball in the 2004-2005 through 2013-2014 academic years using Web-based sports injury surveillance...
October 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484439/association-of-sports-and-physical-activity-with-obesity-among-teenagers-in-poland
#13
Bożena Glinkowska, Wojciech M Glinkowski
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between the body mass index and sports and physical activities in an unbiased, simple, random sample of teenagers from mid-northeastern Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 10-19 years old were surveyed. The Internet-based survey was conducted to collect information on physical activity, leisure time, studying hours, weight, and height. RESULTS: Obesity was found to be low in the study population...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482355/the-modern-landscape-of-sport-related-concussion-research-key-achievements-and-future-directions
#14
Breton M Asken, Dallas C Hack, Michael A McCrea
The study of contact and collision sport athletes at risk for concussion began approximately three decades ago. Since then, sport-related concussion (SRC) research across several medical specialties has helped to develop consensus guidelines for clinical management through interdisciplinary efforts. The modern landscape of SRC research includes large-scale investigations to define the natural history of concussion and identify factors that should guide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment specific to the individual patient...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482351/measuring-head-impacts-accelerometers-and-other-sensors
#15
Bethany Rowson, Abigail Tyson, Steven Rowson, Stefan Duma
Understanding the biomechanics of head injuries is essential for the development of preventive strategies and protective equipment design. However, there are many challenges associated with determining the forces that cause injury. Acceleration of the skull is often measured because it is relatively easy to quantify and relates to severity of impact, but it is difficult to relate those measurements to the type and extent of injury that occurs. Experimental work in the laboratory has used either human cadavers or volunteers...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481829/seasonal-difference-in-bone-characteristics-and-body-composition-of-elite-speed-skaters
#16
Ian Varley, Julie P Greeves, Craig Sale
We investigated the changes in bone characteristics and body composition of elite speed skaters across two competitive seasons. Twelve elite speed skaters (age 23±4 years; height 1.73±0.09 m; body mass 68.5±8.8 kg; mean±1 SD) were assessed by DXA and pQCT for Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Bone Mineral Content (BMC), area, bone strength, cortical thickness and density at four points over the course of four competitive seasons. Body composition data was also collected. A main effect of time was shown for whole body BMC, right leg BMC, and trabecular area (P<0...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480599/clinical-and-mri-outcomes-of-fresh-osteochondral-allograft-transplantation-after-failed-cartilage-repair-surgery-in-the-knee
#17
Tim Wang, Dean X Wang, Alissa J Burge, Mollyann Pais, Blake Kushwaha, Scott A Rodeo, Riley J Williams
BACKGROUND: Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation is an appealing option to address a failed cartilage repair surgical procedure, given the ability to treat large lesions and to address the subchondral osseous changes commonly seen in the revision setting. We hypothesized that osteochondral allograft transplantation after failed cartilage repair would result in low failure rates and improved function and that improved graft incorporation on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would correlate with a superior clinical outcome...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478124/study-of-concussion-in-rugby-union-through-micrornas-scrum-a-study-protocol-of-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#18
Kamal M Yakoub, Patrick O'Halloran, David J Davies, Conor Bentley, Callum N Watson, Mario Forcione, Ugo Scarpa, Jonathan R B Bishop, Emma Toman, Douglas Hammond, Matthew J Cross, Keith A Stokes, Simon P T Kemp, David K Menon, Valentina Di Pietro, Antonio Belli
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury or sports-related concussion is a challenge for all clinicians, players, coaches and parents involved in contact sports. Currently, there is no validated objective biomarker available to assess the presence or severity of concussion in sport, and so it is necessary to rely on subjective measures like self-reporting of symptoms which depend on the cooperation of the athlete. There is a significant health risk associated with repetitive injury if the diagnosis is missed, and so there is great value in an objective biomarker to assist diagnostic and prognostic decisions...
November 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468794/identifying-opportunities-to-develop-the-science-of-implementation-for-community-based-non-communicable-disease-prevention-a-review-of-implementation-trials
#19
REVIEW
Luke Wolfenden, Kathryn Reilly, Melanie Kingsland, Alice Grady, Christopher M Williams, Nicole Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, John Wiggers, Jannah Jones, Rebecca Hodder, Meghan Finch, Tameka McFadyen, Adrian Bauman, Chris Rissel, Andrew Milat, Taren Swindle, Sze Lin Yoong
Implementation of interventions in community organisations such as schools, childcare centres, and sporting clubs are recommended to target a range of modifiable risks of non-communicable diseases. Poor implementation, however, is common and has contributed to the failure of non-communicable disease interventions globally. This study aimed to characterise experimental research regarding strategies to improve implementation of chronic disease prevention programs in community settings. The review used data collected in three comprehensive systematic reviews undertaken between August 2015 and July 2017...
November 20, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461294/athletic-trainers-effect-on-population-health-improving-access-to-and-quality-of-care
#20
Ellen Shanley, Charles A Thigpen, Cole G Chapman, John Thorpe, Robert G Gilliland, W Franklin Sease
CONTEXT: The scope of athletic training practice combined with the magnitude of scholastic athletic injuries means that the scholastic athletic trainer (AT) is uniquely positioned to positively affect the overall health care of this population. The AT is equipped to serve in the prevention and primary management of injuries and return to activity of scholastic athletes. However, to optimize the musculoskeletal health of all athletes within a given setting, the gaps in clinical care must be continuously evaluated...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
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