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Strength AND Training

Α Dasioti, G Kolaitis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bullying and mental Health in schoolchildren with special educational needs (SEN). Random sampling was used to select two groups of children aged 11-12 years, attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary school and integration classes in urban and rural locations in Greece. The final sample comprised a group of 80 children with SEN and a control group of 81 children. The participants completed The Revised Olweus Bullying Victim Questionnaire and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F Cabral, Timothy P Morris, Katalina McInerney, Lawrence P Cahalin, Tatjana Rundek, Augusto Oliveira, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Purpose of review: We systematically appraised randomized controlled trials proposing exercise to influence cognition in older adults to (1) assess the methodologic quality using Cochrane criteria; (2) describe various exercise dose measures and assess their relationship with improved cognitive performance; and (3) identify consistent patterns of reported effects on cognition. Recent findings: There was overall good methodologic quality in all 98 included studies...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Caio Victor Sousa, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
The sub-2-hour marathon is a new barrier in endurance running performance, and it has been widely debated in the scientific community. In this review we present a mathematical model to estimate the possible year when a male could break through the sub-2-hour barrier, and also an estimation of when a female could break Paula Radcliffe's marathon running record. Further, we present several aspects (ie, physiology, nationality, age, biomechanics, pacing, and drafting) that are associated with marathon running performance in elite runners and, finally, the possible characteristics of the male to break the sub-2-hour barrier...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Trygve Johannes Lereim Sævareid, Lillian Lillemoen, Lisbeth Thoresen, Reidun Førde, Elisabeth Gjerberg, Reidar Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Close to half of all deaths in Norway occur in nursing homes, which signals a need for good communication on end-of-life care. Advance care planning (ACP) is one means to that end, but in Norwegian nursing homes, ACP is not common. This paper describes the protocol of a project evaluating an ACP-intervention in Norwegian nursing homes. The aims of this research project were to promote the possibility for conversations about the end of life with patients and relatives; promote patient autonomy; create a better foundation for important decisions in the case of medical emergencies and at the end of life; and gain experiences in order to find out what characterizes good ACP and good implementation strategies...
August 13, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
Joel T Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Joseph Hamill, Jonathan D Buckley
This study investigated whether male runners improve running performance, running economy, ankle plantar flexor strength, and alter running biomechanics and lower limb bone mineral density when gradually transitioning to using minimalist shoes for 100% of weekly running. The study was a planned follow-up of runners (n = 50) who transitioned to minimalist or conventional shoes for 35% of weekly structured training in a previous 6-week randomised controlled trial. In that trial, running performance and economy improved more with minimalist shoes than conventional shoes...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Tommy R Lundberg, Glyn Howatson
Over-the-counter analgesics, such as anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol, are widely consumed by athletes worldwide to increase pain tolerance, or dampen pain and reduce inflammation from injuries. Given that these drugs also can modulate tissue protein turnover, it is important to scrutinize the implications of acute and chronic use of these drugs in relation to exercise performance and the development of long-term training adaptations. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the studies investigating the effects of analgesic drugs on exercise performance and training adaptations relevant for athletic development...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Angelika Więckowska, Olga Gajewska-Woźniak, Anna Głowacka, Benjun Ji, Kamil Grycz, Julita Czarkowska-Bauch, Małgorzata Skup
Complete thoracic spinal cord transection (SCT) impairs excitatory cholinergic inputs to ankle extensor (Soleus; Sol) but not to flexor (Tibialis Anterior; TA) α-motoneurons (MNs) modifiable by locomotor training applied post-transection. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sol and TA MNs adapt to changes in cholinergic environment by differential regulation of their muscarinic receptors M2 (M2R). We examined Chrm2 (M2R gene) transcript level, high-affinity [3 H]QNB ligand binding, distribution and density of M2R immunolabeling in lumbar (L) segments in intact and SCT rats, with or without inclusion of 5-week treadmill locomotor training...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Takaki Yamagishi, John Babraj
Yamagishi, T and Babraj, J. Active recovery induces greater endurance adaptations when performing sprint interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study sought to determine effects of recovery intensity on endurance adaptations during sprint interval training (SIT). Fourteen healthy young adults (male: 9 and female: 5) were allocated to 1 of 2 training groups: active recovery group (ARG, male: 4 and female: 3) or passive recovery group (PRG, male: 5 and female: 2). After having completed a 2-week control period, both groups performed 6 sessions of 4- to 6 30-second sprints interspersed with 4-minute recovery over 2 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marwa Khammassi, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Said, Moncef Feki, Yosra Khammassi, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, Anissa Bouassida
Khammassi, M, Ouerghi, N, Said, M, Feki, M, Khammassi, Y, Pereira, B, Thivel, D, and Bouassida, A. Continuous moderate-intensity but not high-intensity interval training improves immune function biomarkers in healthy young men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Effects of endurance running methods on hematological profile are still poorly known. This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 training regimes; high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) performed at the same external load on hematological biomarkers in active young men...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Fawn M Weihl, Gary P Van Guilder
Weihl, FM and Van Guilder, GP. Endothelial vasodilation after a high-volume training load and tapered training in collegiate female swimmers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-volume endurance training loads have been linked to adverse remodeling of the heart and large arteries; yet, data on the vascular endothelial function are unclear. Moreover, although collegiate-level endurance athletes often perform high-volumes of vigorous endurance training and resistance training as part of their strength and conditioning programs, it is unknown whether they also experience vascular abnormalities, particularly changes in endothelial function...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ellen K Mahoney, Lori Simon-Rusinowitz, Dawn M Loughlin, Kathy Ruben, Kevin J Mahoney
Representatives enact their role as decision-making partners across the intersection of participant direction (PD) and dementia care. Self-rated preparedness for key dimensions of the role endorsed by a panel of experts in PD and dementia was assessed by telephone survey of 30 representatives of persons with dementia in a PD program. The sample (daughters 60%; Black 50%; rural 70%) was diverse in length of time in the role and additional responsibilities. They represented participants with moderate to advanced dementia and ≥ two additional chronic illnesses...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Álvaro Bustamante-Sánchez, Miguel Delgado-Terán, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Hypoxia remains the most important hazard in high altitude flights, but there is still a need for deeper analysis of the effect of hypoxia exposition in the psychophysiological and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to study the effect of hypoxia training in cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, muscle strength and cognitive function. We analysed 23 male aircrew personnel of the Spanish Army and Air Force (10 Helicopter Pilots, 7 Transport Aircrew, 3 Transport Pilots and 3 F-18 Fighter Pilots) before, during and after a normobaric hypoxia exposition...
August 13, 2018: Ergonomics
Yuze Yang, Stacy Ward-Charlerie, Nitu Kashyap, Richelle DeMayo, Thomas Agresta, James Green
Objective: To illustrate the need for wider implementation of the CancelRx message by quantifying and characterizing the inappropriate usage of new electronic prescription (NewRx) messages for communicating discontinuation instructions to pharmacies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis on a nationally representative random sample of 1 400 000 NewRx messages transmitted over 7 days to identify e-prescriptions containing medication discontinuation instructions in NewRx text fields...
August 7, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Sheila S Gagnon, Bradley C Nindl, Jani P Vaara, Matti Santtila, Keijo Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen
Purpose: Few large-scale population-based studies have adequately examined the relationships between steroid hormones, health status and physical fitness. The purpose of the study was to describe the relationship of serum basal endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, TES; empirical free testosterone, EFT; cortisol, COR) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical fitness in young healthy men. Methods: Male reservists (25 ± 4 years, N = 846) participated in the study...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Christina Wraw, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale, Ian J Deary
Objective: We investigated the association between intelligence in youth and a range of health-related behaviours in middle age. Method: Participants were the 5347 men and women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) 2012 survey. IQ was recorded with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when participants were aged 15 to 23 years of age. Self-reports on exercise (moderate activity, vigorous activity, and strength training), dietary, smoking, drinking, and oral health behaviours were recorded when participants were in middle age (mean age = 51...
July 2018: Intelligence
Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Regis Radaelli, Fernando Diefenthaeler
The aim of this study was to investigate whether 12 weeks of leg press strength training exercise could affect the conventional and functional hamstring:quadriceps ratios in the elderly. Twelve elderly participants were submitted to a 12 week progressive training protocol (two sessions/week) using a 45° leg press exercise. A significant increase in the one repetition maximum was observed after 4, 8, and 12 weeks (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively) compared to week 0 and after 8 (p = 0...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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