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ATP synthesis

Anthony Asher, Iniyan Ganesan, Laura Klasek, Steven M Theg
Chloroplasts are the organelles in green plants responsible for carrying out numerous essential metabolic pathways, most notably photosynthesis. Within the chloroplasts, the thylakoid membrane system houses all the photosynthetic pigments, reaction center complexes, and most of the electron carriers, and is responsible for light-dependent ATP synthesis. Over 90% of chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus, translated in the cytosol, and subsequently imported into the chloroplast. Further protein transport into or across the thylakoid membrane utilizes one of four translocation pathways...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Annie Lee, Yusuke Hirabayashi, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Tommy L Lewis, Franck Polleux
Mitochondria play numerous critical physiological functions in neurons including ATP production, Ca2+ regulation, lipid synthesis, ROS signaling, and the ability to trigger apoptosis. Recently developed technologies, including in vivo 2-photon imaging in awake behaving mice revealed that unlike in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), mitochondrial transport decreases strikingly along the axons of adult neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, the improvements of genetically-encoded biosensors have enabled precise monitoring of the spatial and temporal impact of mitochondria on Ca2+ , ATP and ROS homeostasis in a compartment-specific manner...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Michael Maher, Jeannine Diesch, Raquel Casquero, Marcus Buschbeck
In recent years fatty acid metabolism has gained greater attention in haematologic cancers such as acute myeloid leukaemia. The oxidation of fatty acids provides fuel in the form of ATP and NADH, while fatty acid synthesis provides building blocks for cellular structures. Here, we will discuss how leukaemic cells differ from healthy cells in their increased reliance on fatty acid metabolism. In order to understand how these changes are achieved, we describe the main pathways regulating fatty acid metabolism at the transcriptional level and highlight the limited knowledge about related epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sai Sachin Divakaruni, Adam M Van Dyke, Ramesh Chandra, Tara A LeGates, Minerva Contreras, Poorna A Dharmasri, Henry N Higgs, Mary Kay Lobo, Scott M Thompson, Thomas A Blanpied
Synaptic transmission is bioenergetically demanding, and the diverse processes underlying synaptic plasticity elevate these demands. Therefore, mitochondrial functions, including ATP synthesis and Ca2+ handling, are likely essential for plasticity. Although axonal mitochondria have been extensively analyzed, LTP is predominantly induced postsynaptically, where mitochondria are understudied. Additionally, though mitochondrial fission is essential for their function, signaling pathways that regulate fission in neurons remain poorly understood...
October 9, 2018: Neuron
Matthew J Bird, Silvia Radenkovic, Pieter Vermeersch, David Cassiman
Here, we offer you a high-throughput assay to measure the ATP synthesis capacity in cells or isolated mitochondria. More specifically, the assay is linked to the mitochondrial' electron transport chain components of your interest being either through complex I (with or without a linkage to pyruvate dehydrogenase activity), through complex II, or through the electron transport flavoprotein and complex I (β-oxidation of fatty acids).
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yusuke Kurihara, Ryota Itoh, Akinori Shimizu, Nirwana Fitriani Walenna, Bin Chou, Kazunari Ishii, Toshinori Soejima, Aya Fujikane, Kenji Hiromatsu
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that scavenges host metabolic products for its replication. Mitochondria are the power plants of eukaryotic cells and provide most of the cellular ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Several intracellular pathogens target mitochondria as part of their obligatory cellular reprogramming. This study was designed to analyze the mitochondrial morphological changes in response to C. trachomatis infection in HeLa cells. Mitochondrial elongation and fragmentation were found at the early stages and late stages of C...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoît Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e. histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules that are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal–maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
J Brooks Crickard, Kyle Kaniecki, Youngho Kwon, Patrick Sung, Eric C Greene
Cross-over recombination products are a hallmark of meiosis because they are necessary for accurate chromosome segregation and they also allow for increased genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. However, cross-overs can also cause gross chromosomal rearrangements and are therefore normally down-regulated during mitotic growth. The mechanisms that enhance cross-over product formation upon entry into meiosis remain poorly understood. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the Superfamily 1 (Sf1) helicase Srs2, which is an ATP hydrolysis-dependent motor protein that actively dismantles recombination intermediates, promotes synthesis-dependent strand annealing, the result of which is a reduction in cross-over recombination products...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Liang Wang, Shu Li, Junjie Zhao, Yongjuan Liu, Xusheng Chen, Lei Tang, Zhonggui Mao
ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a food additive produced by Streptomyces and is widely used in many countries. Working with Streptomyces albulus FEEL-1, we established a method to activate ε-PL synthesis by successive introduction of multiple antibiotic-resistance mutations. Sextuple mutant R6 was finally developed by screening for resistance to six antibiotics and produced 4.41 g/L of ε-PL in a shake flask, which is 2.75-fold higher than the level produced by the parent strain. In a previous study, we constructed a double-resistance mutant, SG-31, with high ε-PL production of 3...
October 8, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Katarzyna Kornicka, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Jolanta Szłapka-Kosarzewska, Jennifer M Irwin Houston, Michael Roecken, Krzysztof Marycz
Endocrine disorders are becoming an increasing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, more and more horses worldwide have been suffering from equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). This metabolic disorder is characterized by pathological obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Although metabolic disorders, including diabetes, have been extensively studied, there are still no data on the molecular effects of EMS in horses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis, oxidative stress, autophagy and microRNA (miR) expression in multipotent intestinal epithelial stem cells (IECs) and pancreatic islets (PIs) isolated post mortem form healthy and EMS diagnosed horses...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
An Ning Cheng, Yu-Kang Lo, Yi-Sheng Lin, Tswen-Kei Tang, Chun-Hua Hsu, John T-A Hsu, Alan Yueh-Luen Lee
BACKGROUND: Cdc7-Dbf4 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in initiation of DNA replication and DNA damage tolerance in eukaryotic cells. Cdc7 has been found overexpressed in human cancer cell lines and tumor tissues, and the knockdown of Cdc7 expression causes an p53-independent apoptosis, suggesting that Cdc7 is a target for cancer therapy. Only a handful Cdc7 kinase inhibitors have been reported. All Cdc7 kinase inhibitors, including PHA-767491, were identified and characterized as ATP-competitive inhibitors...
October 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
L Magri-Tomaz, L Melbouci, J Mercier, Ya Ou, N Auclair, F S Lira, J-M Lavoie, D H St-Pierre
Metabolic disorders are often associated with liver steatosis and increased plasma cholesterol levels. However, the link between excessive lipid accumulation and impairments in cholesterol metabolism remains uninvestigated in the liver. Short term of high-fat diet (HFD) was previously shown to promote excessive lipid accumulation prior to the development of metabolic disorders. The present study intended to characterize how increases in liver fat alter the expression of several key regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in response to a short-term HFD...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jenelle A Patterson, Ian J Tetlow, Michael J Emes
Starch synthase 2 (SS2) is an important enzyme in leaf starch synthesis, elongating intermediate-length glucan chains. Loss of SS2 results in a distorted starch granule phenotype and altered physiochemical properties, highlighting its importance in starch biosynthesis, however, the post-translational regulation of SS2 is poorly understood. In this study, a combination of bioinformatic and in vitro analysis of recombinant SS2 was used to identify and characterize SS2 post-translational regulatory mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sandra M Kerbler, Nicolas L Taylor, A Harvey Millar
The combined action of the electron transport chain (ETC) and ATP synthase is essential in determining energy efficiency in plants and so is important for cellular biosynthesis, growth and development. Due to the sessile nature of plants, mitochondria must operate over a wide temperature range in the environment, necessitating a broad temperature tolerance of their biochemical reactions. We investigated the temperature response of mitochondrial respiratory processes in isolated mitochondria and intact plants of Arabidopsis thaliana and considered the effect of instantaneous responses to temperature and acclimation responses to low temperatures...
October 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Kristian Parey, Ulrich Brandt, Hao Xie, Deryck J Mills, Karin Siegmund, Janet Vonck, Werner Kühlbrandt, Volker Zickermann
Mitochondrial complex I has a key role in cellular energy metabolism, generating a major portion of the proton motive force that drives aerobic ATP synthesis. The hydrophilic arm of the L-shaped ~1 MDa membrane protein complex transfers electrons from NADH to ubiquinone, providing the energy to drive proton pumping at distant sites in the membrane arm. The critical steps of energy conversion are associated with the redox chemistry of ubiquinone. We report the cryo-EM structure of complete mitochondrial complex I from the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica both in the deactive form and after capturing the enzyme during steady-state activity...
October 2, 2018: ELife
Huizhen Guo, Chunlin Huang, Liang Jiang, Tingcai Cheng, Tieshan Feng, Qingyou Xia
Bombyx mori is a poikilothermic insect and is economically important for silk production. Drastic changes in the ambient temperature have a negative impact on sericulture. However, the reason as to why high temperature is associated with the occurrence of diseases in silkworm and the response of silkworm to low temperature remain unclear and were the focus of the present study. Dazao silkworm exposed to 13 °C (DZ-13), 25 °C (DZ-25), and 37 °C (DZ-37) were used for RNA-seq analysis. There were 478 and 194 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DZ-13 and DZ-37 while 49 and 273 downregulated DEGs in DZ-13 and DZ-37, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
David Kamoun, Joachim Behar, Joseph M Leichner, Yael Yaniv
In the heart, mitochondria are arranged in pairs sandwiched between the contractile machinery, which is the major ATP consumer. Thus, in response to the contraction-relaxation cycle of the cell, the mitochondrial membrane should deform accordingly. Membrane deformations in isolated ATP synthesis or in isolated mitochondria affect ATP production. However, it is unknown whether physiological deformation of the mitochondrial membrane in response to the contraction-relaxation cycle can act as a bioenergetic signaling mechanism between ATP demand to supply...
September 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Koji Yamano, Michael Lazarou
The 1st International Mitochondria Meeting for Young Scientists (International YoungMito 2018) was held at Hotel Co-op Inn Kyoto in Kyoto, Japan, from 20 to 22 April 2018. The meeting was attended by 130 mitochondrial researchers from 15 countries. International YoungMito 2018 was the first international mitochondria meeting held in Japan organized by and for young mitochondrial researchers. Over the 3-day period, there were 28 oral presentations including two keynote lectures, 20 presentations from invited speakers, and six short talks selected from abstract submissions...
October 1, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Roberta S Santos, Aaron P Frank, Luciana A Fátima, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and BAT-like adipose tissues, referred to as 'beige' adipose tissues uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis via uncoupling protein one (UCP-1). There is a sexual dimorphism with respect to beige and BAT tissues; pre-menopausal women have more BAT and are more sensitive to BAT activation than men or postmenopausal women. We hypothesized selective activation of adipose tissue estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) induces beiging of WAT through induction of lipolysis mediated by adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
September 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Izabela Sibilska, Yu Feng, Lingjun Li, John Yin
The biochemical activation of amino acids by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drives the synthesis of proteins that are essential for all life. On the early Earth, before the emergence of cellular life, the chemical condensation of amino acids to form prebiotic peptides or proteins may have been activated by inorganic polyphosphates, such as tri metaphosphate (TP). Plausible volcanic and other potential sources of TP are known, and TP readily activates amino acids for peptide synthesis. But de novo peptide synthesis also depends on pH, temperature, and processes of solvent drying, which together define a varied range of potential activating conditions...
September 29, 2018: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
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