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ATP synthesis

Xin Zhong, Yuting Li, Xingkai Che, Zishan Zhang, Yiman Li, Binbin Liu, Qingming Li, Huiyuan Gao
Oxybenzone (OBZ), an active ingredient in most sunscreens, was recently shown to be toxic to humans, corals and other animals. This study is the first to demonstrate that OBZ can significantly inhibit photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves of a higher plant, cucumber. An OBZ suspension content as low as 0.228 mg/L obviously inhibited the photosynthesis and respiration of cucumber. OBZ instantly inhibits the electron transport of chloroplasts and mitochondria in cucumber leaves. Probit analysis demonstrated that the effective content for 20% inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was 11...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Eugene P Sokolov, Stephanie Markert, Tjorven Hinzke, Claudia Hirschfeld, Dörte Becher, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Inna M Sokolova
Mitochondria are key intracellular targets of hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) stress due to their central role in generation of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intertidal oysters Crassostrea gigas are adapted to frequent H/R cycles and maintain aerobic function despite frequent oxygen fluctuations. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of H/R tolerance, we assessed changes in mitochondrial respiration and (phospho)proteome of C. gigas during hypoxia and recovery. Oyster mitochondria maintained OXPHOS capacity despite a decline in cytochrome c oxidase activity during H/R stress...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
V N Titov, T A Rozhkova, A V Aripovsky, V A Amelyushkina, M Yu Karganov
According to phylogenetic theory of general pathology, when living in ocean all were carnivorous (piscivorous) fatty acids transferring to cells in form of non-polar triglycerides nitially began apoB-48 chylomicrons, continued lipoproteins of very low and low density and fnalized its apoB-100 endocytosis. The fatty acids are transferred by chylomicrons + lipoproteins of very low density + lipoproteins of low density and non-polar triglycerides are hydrolyzed by hepatic glycerolhydrogenase and co-enzyme apoC-III; according WHO classifcation, hyperlipoproteinemia corresponds to type V...
2018: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Shawn Kant, Edward G Stopa, Conrad E Johanson, Andrew Baird, Gerald D Silverberg
BACKGROUND: The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF production and turnover in moderate-to-severe AD. Moreover, reduced CP function and CSF turnover lead to impaired clearance of toxic metabolites, likely promote neuroinflammation, and may facilitate neuronal death during AD progression. We analyzed CP gene expression in AD compared with control subjects, specifically considering those genes involved with CSF production and CP structural integrity...
December 12, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Jussa-Pekka Virtanen, Riikka Keto-Timonen, Kaisa Jaakkola, Noora Salin, Hannu Korkeala
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a bacterium that not only survives, but also thrives, proliferates, and remains infective at cold-storage temperatures, making it an adept foodborne pathogen. We analyzed the differences in gene expression between Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 grown at 3 and 28°C to investigate which genes were significantly more expressed at low temperature at different phases of growth. We isolated and sequenced the RNA from six distinct corresponding growth points at both temperatures to also outline the expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Maura Calvani, Lorenzo Cavallini, Annalisa Tondo, Valentina Spinelli, Luisa Ricci, Amada Pasha, Gennaro Bruno, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Bigagli, Marina Vignoli, Francesca Bianchini, Laura Sartiani, Maura Lodovici, Roberto Semeraro, Filippo Fontani, Francesco De Logu, Massimo Dal Monte, Paola Chiarugi, Claudio Favre, Luca Filippi
The early phases of embryonic development and cancer share similar strategies to improve their survival in an inhospitable environment: both proliferate in a hypoxic and catecholamine-rich context, increasing aerobic glycolysis. Recent studies show that β 3-adrenergic receptor ( β 3-AR) is involved in tumor progression, playing an important role in metastasis. Among β -adrenergic receptors, β 3-AR is the last identified member of this family, and it is involved in cancer cell survival and induction of stromal reactivity in the tumor microenvironment...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Maximilien Tailler, Lisa M Lindqvist, Leonie Gibson, Jerry M Adams
Drugs targeting various pro-survival BCL-2 family members (''BH3 mimetics'') have efficacy in hemopoietic malignancies, but the non-targeted pro-survival family members can promote resistance. Pertinently, the sensitivity of some tumor cell lines to BH3 mimetic ABT737, which targets BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BCL-W but not MCL-1, is enhanced by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG). We found that 2DG augmented apoptosis induced by ABT737 in 3 of 8 human hemopoietic tumor cell lines, most strongly in pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia cell line NALM-6, the focus of our mechanistic studies...
December 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yanlian Xiong, Yanlei Xiong, Yueming Wang, Zhuoya Wang, Aiping Zhang, Nannan Zhao, Dongmei Zhao, Zhenhai Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Junzhu Yi, Xiying Luan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusions can be lifesaving, they are not without risk. RBCs storage is associated with the abnormal metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which may increase the risk of the oxidative damage of RBCs after transfusion. The responsible mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx by evaluating the changes of free -SH concentrations in stored RBCs. The glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activities and protein content in stored RBCs was determined by fluorescence assay and western blotting...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Cunzhi Peng, Lili Chang, Qian Yang, Zheng Tong, Dan Wang, Yanhua Tan, Yong Sun, Xiaoping Yi, Guohua Ding, Junhan Xiao, Ying Zhang, Xuchu Wang
Sesuvium portulacastrum, an important mangrove-associated true halophyte belongs to the family Aizoaceae, has excellent salt tolerance. Chloroplasts are the most sensitive organelles involved in the response to salinity. However, the regulation mechanism of chloroplasts of S. portulacastrum under salinity stress has not been reported. In this study, morphological and physiological analyses of leaves and comparative proteomics of chloroplasts isolated from the leaves of S. portulacastrum under different NaCl treatments were performed...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Woo-Young Kim
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to have an essential role in tumor resistance and metastasis; however, no therapeutic strategy for the selective elimination of CSCs has been established. Recently, several studies have shown that the metabolic regulation for ATP synthesis and biological building block generation in CSCs are different from that in bulk cancer cells and rather similar to that in normal tissue stem cells. To take advantage of this difference for CSC elimination therapy, many studies have tested the effect of blocking these metabolism...
December 8, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Vikas Kumar, T R Santhosh Kumar, C C Kartha
Mitochondrial dysfunction is widely recognized as a major factor for the progression of cardiac failure. Mitochondrial uptake of metabolic substrates and their utilization for ATP synthesis, electron transport chain activity, reactive oxygen species levels, ion homeostasis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and dynamics as well as levels of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria are key factors which regulate mitochondrial function in the normal heart. Alterations in these functions contribute to adverse outcomes in heart failure...
December 10, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Baishali Alok Jana, Pavan Kumar Chintamaneni, Praveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy, Ashish Wadhwani, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar
Mitochondria play a central role in the energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells by generating ATP via oxidative metabolism of nutrients. Excess lipid accumulation and impairments in mitochondrial function have been considered as putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of lipids in tissues occurs due to either excessive fatty acid uptake, decreased fatty acid utilization or both. Consequently, elevated levels cytosolic lipid metabolites, triglycerides, diacylglycerol and ceramides have been demonstrated to adversely affect glucose homeostasis...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Yanshan Ge, Yuehua Long, Songshu Xiao, Lin Liang, Zhengxi He, Chunxue Yue, Xiong Wei, Yanhong Zhou
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common malignant tumor type in Southern China and South‑East Asia. Cluster of differentiation (CD)38 is highly expressed in the human immune system and participates in the activation of T, natural killer and plasma cells mediated by CD2 and CD3 through synergistic action. CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, which was observed to mediate diverse activities, including signal transduction, cell adhesion and cyclic ADP‑ribose synthesis. However, the significance of CD38 in NPC biological behavior and cellular energy metabolism has not been examined...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Nicole Adam, Mirjam Perner
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents may provide one of the largest reservoirs on Earth for hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms. Depending on the type of geological setting, hydrothermal environments can be considerably enriched in hydrogen (up to millimolar concentrations). As hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids ascend to the seafloor they mix with entrained cold, oxygenated seawater, forming thermal and chemical gradients along their fluid pathways. Consequently, in these thermally and chemically dynamic habitats biochemically distinct hydrogenases (adapted to various temperature regimes, oxygen and hydrogen concentrations) from physiologically and phylogenetically diverse Bacteria and Archaea can be expected...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sehwan Jang, Sabzali Javadov
Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) plays a central role in ATP synthesis, and its dysfunction is associated with human diseases. Recent studies revealed that individual ETC complexes are assembled into supercomplexes. The main supercomplex, respirasome composed of complexes I, III, and IV has been suggested to improve electron channeling and control ROS production, maintain the structural integrity of ETC complexes and prevent protein aggregation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, many questions related to the structural organization of the respirasome, particularly, a possible role of complexes I and II in respirasome formation remain unclear...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lluís Ribas de Pouplana
Since the origin of life, metabolism and protein synthesis have evolved together to balance the vast amounts of ATP and amino acids required for genetic translation with the rest of the cell's energy needs. A new study offers satisfying insights into a long-standing evolutionary mystery surrounding a fused, bifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. To avoid depleting cells from an essential amino acid generated by the Krebs cycle, harvesting for Glu and Pro by the translation machinery was unified in animals, thus preventing a Pro-hungry translational apparatus from depleting the cell of essential Glu reserves...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fangjie Cao, Christopher L Souders, Pengfei Li, Sen Pang, Xuefang Liang, Lihong Qiu, Christopher J Martyniuk
Broad applications and exposure to the fungicide maneb can lead to toxicity in non-target organisms. Maneb is also associated with neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of maneb to zebrafish by measuring mitochondrial bioenergetics, locomotor activity, and the expression of genes related to the oxidative damage response, as well as those related to dopamine signaling due to its association with PD. Zebrafish embryos at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to either solvent control (0...
December 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kento Tokuyama, Yoshihiro Toya, Fumio Matsuda, Brady Cress, Mattheos A G Koffas, Hiroshi Shimizu
Starvation of essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, magnesium, and phosphorus, leads cells into stationary phase and potentially enhances target metabolite production because cells do not consume carbon for the biomass synthesis. The overall metabolic behavior changes depend on the type of nutrient starvation in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we determined the optimum nutrient starvation type for producing malonyl-CoA-derived metabolites such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) and naringenin in E...
December 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Sanjiv Kumar, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Siong Meng Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Vasudevan Mani, Syed Adnan Ali Shah
A library of 6, 6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine) derivatives has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and its chemical structure was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR spectral and elemental analyses. The molecular docking study was carried to find the interaction between active bis-pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the synthesized compounds was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria species as well fungal species by tube dilution technique...
December 10, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Michael K Georgieff, Lorene M Lanier
During development, neurons require highly integrated metabolic machinery to meet the large energy demands of growth, differentiation, and synaptic activity within their complex cellular architecture. Dendrites/axons require anterograde trafficking of mitochondria for local ATP synthesis to support these processes. Acute energy depletion impairs mitochondrial dynamics, but how chronic energy insufficiency affects mitochondrial trafficking and quality control during neuronal development is unknown. Since iron deficiency (ID) impairs mitochondrial respiration/ATP production, we treated mixed-sex embryonic mouse hippocampal neuron cultures with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) to model chronic energetic insufficiency and its effects on mitochondrial dynamics during neuronal development...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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