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Prolactin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627372/regulatory-role-of-melatonin-and-bmp-4-in-prolactin-production-by-rat-pituitary-lactotrope-gh3-cells
#2
Kanako Ogura-Ochi, Satoshi Fujisawa, Nahoko Iwata, Motoshi Komatsubara, Yuki Nishiyama, Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release...
June 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626987/prolactinomas-diagnosed-in-the-postmenopausal-period-clinical-phenotype-and-outcomes
#3
Sandhya Santharam, Metaxia Tampourlou, Wiebke Arlt, John Ayuk, Neil Gittoes, Andrew Toogood, Rachel Webster, Niki Karavitaki
OBJECTIVE: Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period. DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with prolactinoma after menopause and followed-up in a large UK pituitary center...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626863/prolactin-correction-for-adequacy-of-petrosal-sinus-cannulation-may-diminish-diagnostic-accuracy-in-cushing-s-disease
#4
Sunita Mc De Sousa, Ann I McCormack, Shaun McGrath, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: Petrosal venous prolactin concentrations have been promoted to improve the diagnostic accuracy of inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS), beyond that achieved with ACTH measurement alone, in diagnosing a pituitary ACTH source, and determining corticotrophinoma side (L/R). Our objective was to assess the effect of using prolactin to confirm adequacy of petrosal cannulation in a cohort of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619389/the-promising-effect-of-linagliptin-and-or-indole-3-carbinol-on-experimentally-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-oxidative-stress-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#5
Ahmed M Kabel, Aisha H Al-Shehri, Rehab A Altalhi
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common medical condition that leads to female infertility worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin and/or indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on PCOS in female rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five equal groups: Control group; Letrozole induced PCOS group; Letrozole + Linagliptin group; Letrozole + I3C group and Letrozole + Linagliptin + I3C group. Body weight, body mass index, Lee index and ovarian indices were determined...
June 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615773/cabergoline-induced-mania-in-a-patient-of-pituitary-microadenoma
#6
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak
Cabergoline, a dopamine agonist agent, is commonly used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. It is generally well tolerated as compared to other dopamine agonist agents due to its more selective D2 receptor agonistic effect. We present a case of a 25-year-old female who developed manic episode, following the use of cabergoline for treatment of pituitary microadenoma. We suggest that physicians should carefully screen patients before initiating cabergoline therapy and at-risk patients may benefit from more frequent monitoring and cessation of therapy at the earliest safe juncture...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611445/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-protein-3-are-regulators-of-lactation-and-maternal-responsiveness
#7
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605125/isoflavones-and-their-metabolites-influence-the-milk-component-synthesis-ability-of-mammary-epithelial-cells-through-prolactin-stat5-signaling
#8
Yusaku Tsugami, Kota Matsunaga, Takahiro Suzuki, Takanori Nishimura, Ken Kobayashi
SCOPE: Isoflavones are a class of polyphonic compounds present in legumes and are called phytoestrogens because of their estrogen-like activity. Estrogen influences the behavior of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) during pregnancy and lactation. In this study, we investigated the direct influences of isoflavones and their metabolites in milk production ability of MECs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mouse MECs were cultured with prolactin and dexamethasone (glucocorticoid analog) to induce milk production ability...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601073/role-of-na-k-atpase-in-natriuretic-effect-of-prolactin-in-a-model-of-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#9
P A Abramicheva, T A Balakina, O A Bulaeva, A A Guseva, O D Lopina, O V Smirnova
Participation of Na+/K+-ATPase in the natriuretic effect of prolactin in a cholestasis of pregnancy model was investigated. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity in rat kidney medulla, where active sodium reabsorption occurs, decreased in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other hyperprolactinemia types compared with intact animals. This effect was not connected with the protein level of α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase measured by Western blotting in the kidney medulla. Decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the kidney cortex was not significant, as well as decrease in the quantity of mRNA and proteins of the α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599454/differential-expression-of-the-notch1-receptor-and-its-ligands-dll1-dll3-and-dll4-in-distinct-human-pituitary-adenoma-subtypes
#10
Jianfu Zhang, Hua Gao, Yazhuo Zhang
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common type of benign tumor of the pituitary gland that is characterized by specific signs and symptoms, primarily associated with hypersecretion of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (thyroid-stimulating, growth and adrenocorticotrophic hormones, and prolactin). Surgery is the first-line treatment, although postoperative residual tissues/cells and subsequent recurrence remain notable complications. Gene therapy is an effective approach for treatment, as previous studies have demonstrated that the Notch signaling pathway participates in the pathogenesis of PA...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598268/effects-of-pulmonary-exposure-to-chemically-distinct-welding-fumes-on-neuroendocrine-markers-of-toxicity
#11
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595953/inhalation-of-a-racemic-mixture-r-s-linalool-by-rats-experiencing-restraint-stress-alters-neuropeptide-and-mhc-class-i-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus
#12
Kazushi Yoshida, Naoto Yamamoto, Satoshi Fujiwara, Asuka Kamei, Keiko Abe, Akio Nakamura
Some odorants have physiological and psychological effects on organisms. However, little is known about the effects of inhaling them, particularly on the central nervous system. Using DNA microarray analysis, we obtained gene expression profiles of the hypothalamus from restraint stressed rats exposed to racemic (R,S)-linalool. Hierarchical clustering across all probe sets showed that this inhalation of (R,S)-linalool influenced the expression levels of a wide range of genes in the hypothalamus. A comparison of transcription levels revealed that the inhalation of (R,S)-linalool restored the expression of 560 stress-induced probe sets to a normal status...
June 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595559/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-correlation-with-prolactin-levels-and-adenoma-size-in-female-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-prolactin-secreting-adenoma
#13
Mohamed M Aboelnaga, N Abdallah, M El Shaer
OBJECTIVE: The present research explored the relationship of vitamin D status with prolactin levels and adenoma size in female patients with newly diagnosed prolactinoma and determination of hypovitaminosis D prevalence among female patients with prolactinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 67 female patients with newly diagnosed prolactinoma (41 with micro adenoma and 26 with macro adenoma) in this case-control study at the time of presentation. We selected a Control Group of 45 female subjects who were matched according to age, weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference...
June 9, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595109/effects-of-nonglycosylated-and-glycosylated-prolactin-on-basal-and-gonadotropin-stimulated-steroidogenesis-in-chicken-ovarian-follicles
#14
S Q Hu, D Zadworny
In galliformes, the circulating isoform of prolactin (PRL) significantly changes during different reproductive states. However, the role of the major isoform (glycosylated PRL [G-PRL]) in ovarian steroidogenesis is unknown. The present study aimed to compare the effects of nonglycosylated (NG-) and G-PRL on basal and gonadotropin-stimulated estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) production in granulosa cells or follicular walls of chicken of different size class follicles. In the initial experiment, granulosa cells of preovulatory F3-F1 and prehierarchical 6- to 8-mm follicles were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of NG- or G-PRL (0, 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL)...
May 10, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593164/chemiluminescence-systems-do-all-lead-to-same-results-in-prolactin-analysis
#15
Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami, Mehri Aliasgharpour
BACKGROUND: Human prolactin (PRL) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and is involved in many biological processes including lactation and reproduction. Prolactin level may be determined quantitatively in serum by many different systems including chemiluminescence systems. However, comparison of the measured values between systems is difficult. METHODS: The prolactin values obtained and compared in two chemiluminescence systems; AUTOBIO DIAGNOSTICS MICROPLATE LUMOMETER and LIAISON XL Analyzer using BioRad tri level serum quality control materials and serum samples from n = 44 female patients; (Age mean & range) = (33: 21-65) years...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592664/altered-retinoid-signaling-compromises-decidualization-in-endometriotic-stromal-cells
#16
Mary Ellen Pavone, Saurabh Malpani, Matthew Dyson, Serdar Bulun
Decidualization alters multiple molecular pathways in endometrium to permit successful embryo implantation. We have reported that paracrine factors, including retinoids, secreted from progesterone treated endometrial stromal cells act on nearby epithelial cells to induce the estradiol metabolizing enzyme HSD17B2. This same induction is not seen in endometriotic stromal cells. We have also shown significant differences in retinoid uptake, metabolism and action in endometriotic tissue and stromal cells compared to normal endometrium...
June 7, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588552/commentary-prolactin-alters-blood-pressure-by-modulating-the-activity-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#17
COMMENT
Jakob Triebel, Carmen Clapp, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Thomas Bertsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585780/the-effects-of-l-dopa-and-sulpiride-on-growth-hormone-secretion-at-different-injection-times-in-holstein-steers
#18
Etsuko Kasuya, Madoka Sutoh, Ken-Ichi Yayou
The effects of l-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine (DA), and sulpiride, a D2 -type DA receptor blocker, on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion were investigated in steers. Eight Holstein steers (212.8 ± 7.8 kg body weight) were used. Lighting conditions were 12:12 L:D (lights on: 06.00-18.00 hours). Blood samplings were performed during the daytime (11.00-15.00 hours) and nighttime (23.00-03.00 hours). Intravenous injections of drugs or saline were performed at 12.00 hour for the daytime and 00...
June 6, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584695/neuroendocrine-autonomic-and-metabolic-responses-to-an-orexin-antagonist-suvorexant-in-psychiatric-patients-with-insomnia
#19
Masaru Nakamura, Takahiko Nagamine
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and metabolic system responses to suvorexant in psychiatric subjects with insomnia. Design: This prospective study was conducted in Kusatsu Hospital in Hiroshima, Japan and included 40 psychiatric inpatients treated with suvorexant from December 2014 to April 2016. Methods: Questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores were checked at baseline, Week 2, and Week 4, and fasting serum levels of prolactin, insulin, cortisol, noradrenaline, white blood cell count, and average pulse rate were measured at baseline and Week 4 and Week 8 after suvorexant initiation...
March 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583920/idiopathic-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-reversal-after-testosterone-replacement-in-a-34-year-old-male
#20
Owais Rashid, Nanik Ram, Saad Farooq, Zareen Kiran
A 34-year-old male presented to the endocrinology clinic with the complaint of the absence of facial, axillary and pubic hairs. Further history revealed absent ejaculations and decreased early morning erections. The patient had no history of headaches, visual problems or anosmia. On physical examination, there were sparse facial, axillary and pubic hairs, bilateral gynaecomastia, stretch penile length of 5 cm and bilateral testicular volume of 10 mL. Laboratory investigations showed low luteinising hormone, follicular stimulating hormone and testosterone with normal prolactin and thyroid profile...
June 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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