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Hai Yan Huang, Shao Jian Lin, Wei Guo Zhao, Zhe Bao Wu
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of bromocriptine (BRC) versus cabergoline (CAB) in patients with giant prolactinomas. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Clinical for studies dated before March 1st, 2016, that used BRC or CAB for the treatment of patients with giant prolactinomas. Specific eligibility criteria were set to identify articles and cases. The selected articles were reviewed, and the data were extracted for analysis. The compared outcomes included tumor shrinkage, tumor response, normalization of prolactin (PRL) level, and visual field defect (VFD) improvement...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paulina A Santander Pérez, Álvaro P Ceschin, Daniela M P de Moraes, Lucileine K S N de Oliveira, Nathan I Ceschin, Nathan Ichikawa
OBJECTIVE: To analyze progesterone and prolactin plasma levels nine days after oocyte retrieval and evaluate their correlation with pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization cycles. To achieve pregnancy, several factors are analyzed before and during the in vitro fertilization cycle. Progesterone supplementation for adequate luteal phase support is indicated despite the presence of multiple corpus luteum in IVF stimulation cycles because of blockage caused by hypothalamic agonists and antagonists...
March 15, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
F Popescu, C R Jaslow, W H Kutteh
STUDY QUESTION: Will the addition of 24-chromosome microarray analysis on miscarriage tissue combined with the standard American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) evaluation for recurrent miscarriage explain most losses? SUMMARY ANSWER: Over 90% of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) will have a probable or definitive cause identified when combining genetic testing on miscarriage tissue with the standard ASRM evaluation for recurrent miscarriage...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Olivia Ihedioha, Anne A Blanchard, Jyoti Balhara, Ifeoma Okwor, Ping Jia, Jude Uzonna, Yvonne Myal
The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is considered a valuable biomarker that is associated with both benign and malignant pathological conditions of the mammary gland. The function of PIP in breast tumorigenesis remains unknown; however, evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that it regulates host immunity. Studies with PIP-deficient (PIP-/- ) mice demonstrated significantly lower numbers of CD4+ T cells in their secondary lymphoid organs, impaired Th1 response, and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production...
March 13, 2018: Immunologic Research
Yves Cherel, Charline Parenteau, Paco Bustamante, Charles-André Bost
The poorly known winter foraging ecology of the king penguin, a major Southern Ocean consumer, was investigated at the subantarctic Crozet Islands where the largest global population breeds. Blood δ13 C and δ15 N values were used as proxies of the birds' foraging habitat and diet, respectively, and circulating prolactin levels helped in determining the birds' reproductive status. Plasma prolactin concentrations showed that king penguin adults of unknown breeding status ( n  = 52) that were present at the colony in winter were in fact breeders and failed breeders, but were not non -breeders...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaohai Liu, Yang Liu, Jun Gao, Ming Feng, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Renzhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas, and dopamine agonists (DAs) are the primary therapy. However, some patients are resistant to DAs. Recently, metformin has been proposed as a cancer treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: This study is a retrospective review of two cases, including one patient with prolactinoma who was resistant to bromocriptine, diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance and administered metformin. Surprisingly, combining the patient's treatment with metformin decreased prolactin (PRL) levels to 12 ng/ml and had significantly decreased the size of the tumor after one year of combination therapy...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Metformin was found to decrease serum levels of prolactin and thyrotropin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis activity in postmenopausal women with recently diagnosed and untreated glucose metabolism abnormalities. METHODS: The study included three matched groups of postmenopausal women: patients with type 2 diabetes (group A, n=16), women with prediabetes (group B, n=14), and individuals with normal glucose metabolism (group C, n=14)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Cedric W Pluguez-Turull, Jennifer E Nanyes, Cristina J Quintero, Hamza Alizai, Daniel D Mais, Kenneth A Kist, Nella C Dornbluth
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast entity characterized by lobulocentric granulomas. IGM has a persistent or recurrent disease course and affects parous premenopausal women with a history of lactation. It has also been associated with hyperprolactinemia. The most common clinical sign is a palpable tender mass. However, the nonspecific manifestations and varied demographic features of this condition, as well as the other similar-appearing and superimposed breast entities, pose substantial diagnostic challenges...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Laercio R Porto-Neto, Derek M Bickhart, Antonio J Landaeta-Hernandez, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Melvin Pagan, Esbal Jimenez, Peter J Hansen, Serdal Dikmen, Steven G Schroeder, Eui-Soo Kim, Jiajie Sun, Edward Crespo, Norman Amati, John B Cole, Daniel J Null, Jose F Garcia, Antonio Reverter, William Barendse, Tad S Sonstegard
Evolutionary adaptations are occasionally convergent solutions to the same problem. A mutation contributing to a heat tolerance adaptation in Senepol cattle, a New World breed of mostly European descent, results in the distinct phenotype known as slick, where an animal has shorter hair and lower follicle density across its coat than wild type animals. The causal variant, located in the 11th exon of prolactin receptor , produces a frameshift that results in a truncated protein. However, this mutation does not explain all cases of slick coats found in criollo breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Gabriela Recalde, Tamara Moreno-Sosa, Florencia Yudica, Cristian A Quintero, Belén Sanchez, Graciela A Jahn, Alexis M Kalergis, Juan Pablo Mackern-Oberti
In this review we discuss how sex steroids and prolactin affect regulation and responsiveness of B and T cells. Sex hormones exert profound effects on several physiological processes of non- reproductive tissues. In the immune system, several studies with experimental models for SLE have shown a noticeable pro-inflammatory role for ERα, contributing to disease development reflected in proteinuria and renal pathology. On the other hand, ERβ appears to have an anti- inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
A Goutte, A Meillère, C Barbraud, H Budzinski, P Labadie, L Peluhet, H Weimerskirch, K Delord, O Chastel
Population consequences of chronic exposure to multiple pollutants at low environmental doses remain speculative, because of the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring surveys. This study integrates proximate and ultimate aspects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) burden in free-living vertebrates, by coupling hormonal and behavioral endpoints, life-history traits, and population dynamics. Blood samples (N=70) were collected in South polar skuas during two breeding periods, in 2003 and 2005, and individuals were annually monitored until 2011...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shanshan Shao, Zhenyu Yao, Jiayu Lu, Yongfeng Song, Zhao He, Chunxiao Yu, Xiaoming Zhou, Lifang Zhao, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
Increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of it and expanded the scope of research in this field. Women are more resistant to NAFLD than men despite equal exposure to major risk factors, such as obesity or hyperlipidemia. Female resistance is hormone-dependent, as evidenced by the sharp increase in NAFLD incidence in post-menopausal women who do not take hormone replacement therapy. Here, we found that the estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos, Paulo Roberto Haidamus de Oliveira Bastos, Igraíne Helena Scholz Osório, Sérgio Augusto Monteiro Pinheiro, Décio Iandoli, Giancarlo Lucchetti
Mediumship and spirit possession are cultural phenomena found in many societies worldwide. In Brazil, Spiritism (a tradition in which mediumship is emphasized) is the third largest religious denomination. The present study aimed to investigate physiologic correlates of nonpathological dissociative experiences by comparing 20 female spiritist mediums with several years of socially sanctioned practice to 20 female nonmedium control subjects from the same religious context. We measured plasma levels of hormones and neuroactive substances, as well as vital signs and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, before and immediately after spirit communication...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki, Roxane Tenta, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Mechanically overloaded muscle and its subsequent damage are strong stimuli for eliciting acute hormonal changes, while the muscle adaptation which occurs following exercise-induced muscle damage may involve complex hormonal responses before the completion of muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic responses of various hormones, as well as secreted proteins that are exercise-regulated and associated with muscle adaptation, for several days after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Heike Künzel, Katja Held, Dagmar Schmidt, Marc Ziegenbein, Harald Murck, Axel Steiger
Changes in sleep-EEG after endocrine stimulation tests in patients with schizophrenia include reduced sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep latency and increased awaking after sleep onset Findings on sleep associated growth hormone (GH) secretion were ambiguous. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sleep-endocrine activity especially in the GH system of patients with schizophrenia after repeated administration of GHRH. The effect of repetitive injections of 4 × 50 μg GHRH between 22.00 and 01.00 h on sleep endocrine parameters was investigated in 9 patients diagnosed for schizophrenia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Matthias K Auer, Mareike R Stieg, Alexander Crispin, Caroline Sievers, Günter K Stalla, Anna Kopczak
BACKGROUND: Empty sella is the neuroradiological or pathological finding of an apparently empty sella turcica containing no pituitary tissue. The prevalence of primary empty sella, i.e., empty sella without any discernible cause, is not precisely known; estimates range from 2% to 20%. Technical advances in neuroradiology have made empty sella an increasingly common incidental finding. It remains unclear whether, and to what extent, asymptomatic adult patients with an incidentally discovered empty sella should undergo diagnostic testing for hormonal disturbances...
February 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Elena Roca, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Teresa Porcelli, Luigi Poliani, Francesco Belotti, Alberto Schreiber, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marco Maria Fontanella, Francesco Doglietto
INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonal adenomas (PHA) represent 10-15% of all functioning pituitary adenomas. The most frequent hormonal association is represented by prolactin and growth hormone (GH). AIM: To describe a rare case of functional ACTH and GH microadenoma, together with a systematic literature review on PHA. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "plurihormonal pituitary adenoma", "ACTH, GH pituitary adenoma", and "Acromegaly AND Cushing's disease"...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
C W Huo, C Caputo, Y Y Wang
Background: Keratinous or epidermoid cysts (ECs) are encapsulated lesions lined by squamous cell epithelium. They comprise approximately 1% of intracranial lesions. Contrary to dermoid cysts, they lack dermal elements such as sebaceous or apocrine glands and hair follicles. The sellar region is the second most common intracranial site following the cerebellopontine angle. Here, we report a case of EC in a patient who complained of endocrine disturbances. We also performed a systematic review on previously published cases to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics and report the treatment outcomes of suprasellar ECs...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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