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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551123/aerobic-exercise-training-alleviates-renal-injury-by-interfering-with-mitochondrial-function-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#1
Lin-Xia Tang, Bin Wang, Zhi-Kun Wu
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy was one of the most serious and harmful diabetic complications, characterized by progressive loss of renal function and renal fibrosis. Aerobic exercise training is an important non-pharmacologic method to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozocin (STZ) was used to construct a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Renal function and mitochondrial function were measured by urinary protein level, Masson staining and ATP, superoxide production, and membrane potential, respectively...
December 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550883/the-protective-effect-of-zeranol-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-via-p-creb-overexpression
#2
Shimaa K Mohamed, Amany A E Ahmed, Engy M El Morsy, Shahira Nofal
AIMS: Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is a neurovascular disease leading to cerebral damage. It was found that postmenopausal women are liable to more dangerous effects than men at same age in stroke. The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of zeranol against cerebral ischemia reperfusion in ovariectomized rats. MAIN METHODS: 36 female wistar rats divided in to 3 groups: sham group, I/R group (where I/R was induced 7 weeks after ovariectomy), zeranol group (0...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550357/nanoparticle-mediated-lysosomal-reacidification-restores-mitochondrial-turnover-and-function-in-%C3%AE-cells-under-lipotoxicity
#3
Essam A Assali, Dovi Shlomo, Jialiu Zeng, Evan P Taddeo, Kyle M Trudeau, Karel A Erion, Aaron H Colby, Mark W Grinstaff, Marc Liesa, Guy Las, Orian S Shirihai
Chronic exposure of pancreatic β cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids leads to lipotoxicity (LT)-mediated suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is in part caused by a decline in mitochondrial function as well as by a reduction in lysosomal acidification. Because both mitochondria and lysosomes can alter one another's function, it remains unclear which initiating dysfunction sets off the detrimental cascade of LT, ultimately leading to β-cell failure. Here, we investigated the effects of restoring lysosomal acidity on mitochondrial function under LT...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550341/distinction-of-sporadic-and-familial-forms-of-als-based-on-mitochondrial-characteristics
#4
Jarosław Walczak, Grażyna Dębska-Vielhaber, Stefan Vielhaber, Jędrzej Szymański, Agata Charzyńska, Jerzy Duszyński, Joanna Szczepanowska
Bioenergetic failure, oxidative stress, and changes in mitochondrial morphology are common pathologic hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in several cellular and animal models. Disturbed mitochondrial physiology has serious consequences for proper functioning of the cell, leading to the chronic mitochondrial stress. Mitochondria, being in the center of cellular metabolism, play a pivotal role in adaptation to stress conditions. We found that mitochondrial dysfunction and adaptation processes differ in primary fibroblasts derived from patients diagnosed with either sporadic or familial forms of ALS...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548066/co-determination-of-sphingomyeline-and-cholesterol-in-cellular-plasma-membrane-in-sphingomyeline-depletion-induced-cholesterol-efflux
#5
Shuohan Huang, Kang Liu, Dechen Jiang, Danjun Fang
The quantification of multiple lipids with different contents in plasma membrane at single cells is significant, but challenging, for the investigation of lipid interactions and the role of the dominant protein transporters. In this paper, co-monitoring the alteration of low-content sphingomyelin (SM) and high-content cholesterol in plasma membrane atone living cell is realized using luminolelectrochemiluminescence (ECL) at the first time. The concentration of SM as low as 0.5 µM is detectedthat permits the measurement of low-content membrane SM at single cells...
December 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545933/ginsenosides-act-as-positive-modulators-of-p2x4-receptors
#6
Kshitija Dhuna, Matthew Felgate, Stefan M Bidula, Samuel Walpole, Lucka Bibic, Brett A Cromer, Jesus Angulo, Julie Sanderson, Martin J Stebbing, Leanne Stokes
We investigated the selectivity of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides from Panax ginseng acting as positive allosteric modulators on P2X receptors. ATP-induced responses were measured in stable cell lines over-expressing human P2X4 using a YOPRO-1 dye uptake assay, intracellular calcium measurements, and whole cell patch clamp recordings. Ginsenosides CK and Rd were demonstrated to enhance ATP responses at P2X4 by ~2-fold, similar to potentiation by the known positive modulator ivermectin. Investigations into the role of P2X4 in mediating a cytotoxic effect showed that only P2X7 expression in HEK-293 cells induces cell death in response to high concentrations of ATP, and that ginsenosides can enhance this process...
December 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544754/a-novel-synthetic-dihydroindeno-1-2-b-indole-derivative-ls-2-3j-reverses-abcb1-and-abcg2-mediated-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer-cells
#7
Chao Guo, Fangyuan Liu, Jie Qi, Jiahui Ma, Shiqi Lin, Caiyun Zhang, Qian Zhang, Hangyu Zhang, Rong Lu, Xia Li
10-oxo-5-(3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl) propyl)-5,10-dihydroindeno [1,2-b] indol-9-yl propionate (LS-2-3j) is a new chemically synthesized indole compound and some related analogues are known to be inhibitors (such as alectinib and Ko143) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, especially the ABC transporter subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and the ABC transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). This study aimed to evaluate the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal effects and associated mechanisms of LS-2-3j in drug-resistant cancer cells...
December 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541648/-regulatory-effect-of-hemichannels-protein-pannexin-1-on-p2x7-receptor-activity-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-lung-injury
#8
Na Li, Jia Jia, Xingmao Wu, Yang Zhao, Bin Zang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulative effect of hemichannels protein Pannexin-1 on P2X7 receptor activation and caspase-1 mediated inflammatory response in the lungs of mice with lung injury. METHODS: Sixty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups with 12 mice in each group: sham operation group (Sham group), mechanical ventilation (MV) group, MV + low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (MLL group), MV + medium and high dose LPS group (MML group) and MV + high dose LPS group (MHL group)...
November 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539817/ethanol-exposed-maturing-rat-cerebellar-granule-cells-show-impaired-energy-metabolism-and-increased-cell-death-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#9
Ana Spataru, Diana Le Duc, Leon Zagrean, Ana-Maria Zagrean
Alcohol, a widely abused drug, has deleterious effects on the immature nervous system. This study investigates the effect of chronic in vitro ethanol exposure on the metabolism of immature rat cerebellar granular cells (CGCs) and on their response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Primary CGC cultures were exposed to ethanol (100 mM in culture medium) or to control ethanol-free medium starting day one in vitro (DIV1). At DIV8, the expression of ATP synthase gene ATP5g3 was quantified using real-time PCR, then cultures were exposed to 3 hours of OGD or normoxic conditions...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539499/anti-obesity-effects-of-kaempferol-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-and-increasing-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
D Torres-Villarreal, A Camacho, H Castro, R Ortiz-Lopez, A L de la Garza
Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid widely found in fruits, vegetables, and tea. Kaempferol possesses beneficial biological properties such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Positive energy balance during obesity correlates with a pro-inflammatory chronic state. In this context, we hypothesized that kaempferol might promote anti-obesity effects by modulating adipogenesis and lipolytic pathways. Adipocyte viability at 24, 48, and 72 h was measured by an ATP-based assay. Pre-adipocytes (day 0) or mature adipocytes (day 12) were treated with 60 μM kaempferol until day 21 to evaluate its potential anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effect, respectively...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539274/surface-contamination-in-the-operating-room-use-of-adenosine-triphosphate-monitoring
#11
Alex Ramirez, Sanjay Mohan, Rebecca Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Joshua C Uffman, Joseph D Tobias
PURPOSE: We prospectively investigated contamination of high-contact surfaces in the operating room (OR) using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) monitoring. We tested whether contamination would increase from morning (AM) to afternoon (PM), despite cleaning between cases. Second, we compared the degree of OR contamination to non-OR control sites. METHODS: ORs with high case volumes were selected for the study. Ten sites in each OR were swabbed using the AccuPoint® HC ATP Sanitation Monitoring device, which provided a numerical measure of contamination (relative light units, RLUs)...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538629/-in-vivo-x-nuclear-mrs-imaging-methods-for-quantitative-assessment-of-neuroenergetic-biomarkers-in-studying-brain-function-and-aging
#12
Xiao-Hong Zhu, Wei Chen
Brain relies on glucose and oxygen metabolisms to generate biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for supporting electrophysiological activities and neural signaling under resting or working state. Aging is associated with declined mitochondrial functionality and decreased cerebral energy metabolism, and thus, is a major risk factor in developing neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is an unmet need in the development of novel neuroimaging tools and sensitive biomarkers for detecting abnormal energy metabolism and impaired mitochondrial function, especially in an early stage of the neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538498/quaternized-chitosan-promotes-the-antiproliferative-effect-of-vemurafenib-in-melanoma-cells-by-increasing-cell-permeability
#13
Min Li, Ying Yang
Background: As one of the most invasive cutaneous carcinomas among all types of skin cancer, malignant melanoma remains a severe challenge in oncology and plastic surgery. Selective small-molecule inhibitors of V600E-mutant B-Raf (vemurafenib, for instance) have demonstrated satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in melanoma patients. However, acquired resistance during the period of drug administration has limited their clinical application. Materials and methods: In the present study, human melanoma cells with the B-RafV600E mutation were treated with the indicated concentrations of vemurafenib, quaternized chitosan, or a combination of vemurafenib and quaternized chitosan...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537727/inhibition-of-glutathione-synthesis-via-decreased-glucose-metabolism-in-stored-rbcs
#14
Yanlian Xiong, Yanlei Xiong, Yueming Wang, Zhuoya Wang, Aiping Zhang, Nannan Zhao, Dongmei Zhao, Zhenhai Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Junzhu Yi, Xiying Luan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusions can be lifesaving, they are not without risk. RBCs storage is associated with the abnormal metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which may increase the risk of the oxidative damage of RBCs after transfusion. The responsible mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx by evaluating the changes of free -SH concentrations in stored RBCs. The glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activities and protein content in stored RBCs was determined by fluorescence assay and western blotting...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532749/microbially-mediated-hydrogen-cycling-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents
#15
REVIEW
Nicole Adam, Mirjam Perner
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents may provide one of the largest reservoirs on Earth for hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms. Depending on the type of geological setting, hydrothermal environments can be considerably enriched in hydrogen (up to millimolar concentrations). As hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids ascend to the seafloor they mix with entrained cold, oxygenated seawater, forming thermal and chemical gradients along their fluid pathways. Consequently, in these thermally and chemically dynamic habitats biochemically distinct hydrogenases (adapted to various temperature regimes, oxygen and hydrogen concentrations) from physiologically and phylogenetically diverse Bacteria and Archaea can be expected...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529917/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-maneb-notochord-defects-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-hypoactivity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos-and-larvae
#16
Fangjie Cao, Christopher L Souders, Pengfei Li, Sen Pang, Xuefang Liang, Lihong Qiu, Christopher J Martyniuk
Broad applications and exposure to the fungicide maneb can lead to toxicity in non-target organisms. Maneb is also associated with neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of maneb to zebrafish by measuring mitochondrial bioenergetics, locomotor activity, and the expression of genes related to the oxidative damage response, as well as those related to dopamine signaling due to its association with PD. Zebrafish embryos at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to either solvent control (0...
December 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528280/preadipocytes-of-obese-humans-display-gender-specific-bioenergetic-responses-to-glucose-and-insulin
#17
Michaela Keuper, Lucia Berti, Bernhard Raedle, Stephan Sachs, Anja Böhm, Louise Fritsche, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Martin Jastroch, Susanna M Hofmann, Harald Staiger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders is increasing in both sexes, the clinical phenotype differs between men and women, highlighting the need for individual treatment options. Mitochondrial dysfunction in various tissues, including white adipose tissue (WAT), has been accepted as a key factor for obesity-associated comorbidities such as diabetes. Given higher expression of mitochondria-related genes in the WAT of women, we hypothesized that gender differences in the bioenergetic profile of white (pre-) adipocytes from obese (age- and BMI-matched) donors must exist...
November 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528164/8-hydroxy-2-1h-1-2-3-triazol-1-yl-1-4-naphtoquinone-derivatives-inhibited-p2x7-receptor-induced-dye-uptake-into-murine-macrophages
#18
P A F Pacheco, R M S Galvão, A F M Faria, N L Von Ranke, M S Rangel, T M Ribeiro, M L Bello, C R Rodrigues, V F Ferreira, D R da Rocha, R X Faria
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) triggers the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) ionic channel to stimulate the release of the interleukin-IL-1β cytokine into macrophages. The current study explored the reaction of six structurally diverse triazole derivatives on P2X7-mediated dye uptake into murine peritoneal macrophages. P2X7R activity determined by ATP-evoked fluorescent dye uptake. Triazole derivatives toxicity measured using dextran rhodamine exclusion based colorimetric assay. A740004 and BBG, both P2X7R antagonist, inhibited ATP-induced dye uptake...
November 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527744/non-canonical-control-of-neuronal-energy-status-by-the-na-pump
#19
Felipe Baeza-Lehnert, Aiman S Saab, Robin Gutiérrez, Valeria Larenas, Esteban Díaz, Melanie Horn, Miriam Vargas, Ladina Hösli, Jillian Stobart, Johannes Hirrlinger, Bruno Weber, L Felipe Barros
Neurons have limited intracellular energy stores but experience acute and unpredictable increases in energy demand. To better understand how these cells repeatedly transit from a resting to active state without undergoing metabolic stress, we monitored their early metabolic response to neurotransmission using ion-sensitive probes and FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo. A short theta burst triggered immediate Na+ entry, followed by a delayed stimulation of the Na+ /K+ ATPase pump. Unexpectedly, cytosolic ATP and ADP levels were unperturbed across a wide range of physiological workloads, revealing strict flux coupling between the Na+ pump and mitochondria...
November 27, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527447/architectural-dynamics-of-camkii-actin-networks
#20
Shahid Khan, Kenneth H Downing, Justin E Molloy
Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has an important role in dendritic spine remodeling upon synaptic stimulation. Using fluorescence video microscopy and image analysis, we investigated the architectural dynamics of rhodamine-phalloidin stabilized filamentous actin (F-actin) networks cross-linked by CaMKII. We used automated image analysis to identify F-actin bundles and crossover junctions and developed a dimensionless metric to characterize network architecture. Similar networks were formed by three different CaMKII species with a 10-fold length difference in the linker region between the kinase domain and holoenzyme hub, implying linker length is not a primary determinant of F-actin cross-linking...
November 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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