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Xinfeng Guo, Cui Liu, Nian Li, Shudong Zhang, Zhenyang Wang
Classical dye absorption-based pH test papers are widely used to measure the degree of acidity of media for quantification or semi-quantification by the observation of the naked eye on the variation of colour. However, it remains a challenging task to extend portable and cheap methods to a wide range of analytes for accurate quantification. Here, we report a dosage-sensitive test paper for the assay of mercury ions (Hg2+ ) with wide colour evolution. The ratiometric fluorescent probe was prepared by mixing blue-emission silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) and red-emission carbon dots (r-CDs)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Samantha Cambray, Jianmin Gao
Biocompatible and bioorthogonal conjugation reactions have proven to be powerful tools in biological research and medicine. While the advent of bioorthogonal conjugation chemistries greatly expands our capacity to interrogate specific biomolecules in situ, biocompatible reactions that target endogenous reactive groups have given rise to a number of covalent drugs as well as a battery of powerful research tools. Despite the impressive progress, limitations do exist with the current conjugation chemistries. For example, most known bioorthogonal conjugations suffer from slow reaction rates and imperfect bioorthogonality...
August 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Radoslav Krivák, David Hoksza
BACKGROUND: Ligand binding site prediction from protein structure has many applications related to elucidation of protein function and structure based drug discovery. It often represents only one step of many in complex computational drug design efforts. Although many methods have been published to date, only few of them are suitable for use in automated pipelines or for processing large datasets. These use cases require stability and speed, which disqualifies many of the recently introduced tools that are either template based or available only as web servers...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
Elaissa T Hardy, Yannan J Wang, Sanathan Iyer, Robert G Mannino, Yumiko Sakurai, Thomas H Barker, Taiyun Chi, Yeojoon Youn, Hua Wang, Ashley C Brown, Wilbur A Lam
Hemorrhage or uncontrolled bleeding can arise either due to a medical condition or from a traumatic injury and are typically controlled with the application of a hemostatic agent. Hemostatic agents are currently derived from animal or human products, which carry risks of blood borne infections and immune dysregulation. Therefore, the need exists for novel biomedical therapies not derived from animal or human products to achieve hemostasis. Accordingly, we created an interdigitated microelectronic bandage that applies low voltage electrical stimulation to an injury site, resulting in faster clot formation without excessive heating, accelerated fibrin formation, and hemostasis overall...
August 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Shaolei Guo, Shahid Iqbal, Ruijuan Ma, Juan Song, Mingliang Yu, Zhihong Gao
BACKGROUND: Peach (Prunus persica) is an important fruit crop that generally softens rapidly after harvest resulting in a short shelf-life. By contrast, stony hard (SH) peach fruit does not soften and hardly produces ethylene. To explore the candidate genes responsible for the SH phenotype, a high-density genetic map was constructed by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technology. RESULTS: In the present study, the linkage map consisted of 1310 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, spanning 454...
August 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fang Liu, Ke Zheng, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is a prevalent technique used to obtain the 5' ends of transcripts. Several different 5' RACE methods have been developed, and one particularly simple and efficient approach called CapFinder relies on the 5' cap-dependent template-switching that occurs in eukaryotes. However, most prokaryotic transcripts lack a 5' cap structure. Here, we report a procedure to capture primary transcripts based on capping the 5' triphosphorylated RNA in prokaryotes. Primary transcripts were first treated with vaccinia capping enzyme to add a 5' cap structure...
August 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Anil K Madugundu, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Chandra Bhavani, Jyoti Sharma, Bankatesh Kumar, Krishna R Murthy, Raju Ravikumar, Akhilesh Pandey
Next-generation sequencing approaches have revolutionized genomic medicine and enabled rapid diagnosis for several diseases. These approaches are widely used for pathogen detection in several infectious diseases. Lyme disease is a tick-borne infectious disease, which affects multiple organs. The causative organism is a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease can be treated easily if detected early, but its diagnosis is often delayed or is incorrect leading to a chronic debilitating condition...
August 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Diana M Haninger, Mehdi Nassiri, Elizabeth D Settembre, Shanxiang Zhang, Jiehao Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood smear (PBS) review is a routine laboratory test which requires pathologist's interpretation when abnormal indices, atypical cells, or critical findings are identified. Real-time remote digital microscopy (DM) can potentially facilitate rapid review when an on-site pathologist is not available. Herein, we assess intraobserver concordance of PBS evaluation with light microscopy (LM) and DM using VisionTek M6 robotic DM and TeamViewer imaging software. METHODS: Thirty-seven de-identified PBS slides were evaluated by five reviewers...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Malthe Hansen-Bruhn, Line Debois Frejlev Nielsen, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf
Rapid detection and quantification of pharmaceutical drugs directly in human plasma is of major importance for the development of relevant point of care testing devices. Here, we report a method for detection and quantification of small molecules in human plasma. An assay employing a small molecule-linked hybridization chain reaction (HCR) has been devised for the detection of the pharmaceutically relevant drugs digoxin (Dig) and methotrexate (MTX). Double modification by small molecule ligands on the initiator strand act as sites to control the rate of the HCR...
August 14, 2018: ACS Sensors
Daniel K Nomura, Thomas J Maimone
There are countless natural products that have been isolated from microbes, plants, and other living organisms that have been shown to possess therapeutic activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, or anti-inflammatory effects. However, developing these bioactive natural products into drugs has remained challenging in part because of their difficulty in isolation, synthesis, mechanistic understanding, and off-target effects. Among the large pool of bioactive natural products lies classes of compounds that contain potential reactive electrophilic centers that can covalently react with nucleophilic amino acid hotspots on proteins and other biological molecules to modulate their biological action...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Emma Maria Dunne, Ian Mark Fraser, Mitchell Liu
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) also referred to as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), is a technique which has emerged over the past two decades due to improvements in radiation technology. Unlike conventional external beam radiotherapy (cEBRT) which traditionally delivers radiation in small doses [approximately 2 Gray (Gy) per fraction] over several weeks, SBRT, typically delivered in one to eight fractions, is a technique whereby potentially ablative doses of radiotherapy (usually 7.5-20 Gy per fraction) can be delivered with steeper dose gradients and sub millimetre precision, minimising risk to surrounding normal tissues...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Juhye M Lee, John Huddleston, Michael B Doud, Kathryn A Hooper, Nicholas C Wu, Trevor Bedford, Jesse D Bloom
Human influenza virus rapidly accumulates mutations in its major surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). The evolutionary success of influenza virus lineages depends on how these mutations affect HA's functionality and antigenicity. Here we experimentally measure the effects on viral growth in cell culture of all single amino acid mutations to the HA from a recent human H3N2 influenza virus strain. We show that mutations that are measured to be more favorable for viral growth are enriched in evolutionarily successful H3N2 viral lineages relative to mutations that are measured to be less favorable for viral growth...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Roland Bamou, Lili Ranaise Mbakop, Edmond Kopya, Cyrille Ndo, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Timoleon Tchuinkam, Martin Kibet Rono, Joseph Mwangangi, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio
BACKGROUND: Increased use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) over the last decade has considerably improved the control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is still a paucity of data on the influence of LLIN use and other factors on mosquito bionomics in different epidemiological foci. The objective of this study was to provide updated data on the evolution of vector bionomics and malaria transmission patterns in the equatorial forest region of Cameroon over the period 2000-2017, during which LLIN coverage has increased substantially...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anca Ioana Paslaru, Alexander Mathis, Paul Torgerson, Eva Veronesi
BACKGROUND: Bluetongue disease, caused by bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), appeared for the first time in the northern part of Europe in 2006, and subsequently rapidly spread causing severe economic losses to the farming industry. The implicated vectors of BTV in Europe are Culicoides species within the subgenus Avaritia (C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus). Epidemiological data from Switzerland have shown that BTV, whose spread was eliminated at an early stage by vaccination campaigns, had not been circulating among livestock at higher altitudes where other species dominate the Culicoides fauna...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Elnur Garayev, Carole Di Giorgio, Gaëtan Herbette, Fathi Mabrouki, Philippe Chiffolleau, David Roux, Huguette Sallanon, Evelyne Ollivier, Riad Elias, Béatrice Baghdikian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Flowers of Inula montana L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as "Arnica de Provence", are used in the traditional medicine of Provence in France with the same indication as Arnica montana, for the relief of bruises, as an anti-inflammatory agent. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of our study is to evaluate its anti-inflammatory properties and to justify its traditional uses. Its potential valorization is evaluated in order to propose Inula montana as an alternative to Arnica montana...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Gang Hu, Lukasz Kurgan
Sequence similarity searching has become an important part of the daily routine of molecular biologists, bioinformaticians and biophysicists. With the rapidly growing sequence databanks, this computational approach is commonly applied to determine functions and structures of unannotated sequences, to investigate relationships between sequences, and to construct phylogenetic trees. We introduce arguably the most popular BLAST-based family of the sequence similarity search tools. We explain basic concepts related to the sequence alignment and demonstrate how to search the current databanks using Web site versions of BLASTP, PSI-BLAST and BLASTN...
August 13, 2018: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Qiyu Wang, Zhian Zhang, Mengran Wang, Fangyang Liu, Liangxing Jiang, Bo Hong, Jie Li, Yanqing Lai
Laccase is one of the most effective biocatalysts for oxygen reduction under physiological conditions. Its unique Cu- and N-based active sites with direct electrical pathways for electrons can guarantee rapid oxygen exchange and reduction. Inspired by this specific structure, we designed and fabricated porous fiber-like Cu/N/C based on MOFs as an ORR catalyst. Precision morphology control of fibers contributed to an increase in the electron transport rate compared with that of Cu/N/C nanoparticles, which could minimize interparticle ohmic contacts and provide direct electrical pathways along with sufficient active sites to catalyze oxygen reduction...
August 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Tanja Ve Kral, Jesse Chittams, Chyrise B Bradley, Julie L Daniels, Carolyn G DiGuiseppi, Susan L Johnson, Juhi Pandey, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Neloufar Rahai, AnnJosette Ramirez, Laura A Schieve, Aleda Thompson, Gayle Windham, Whitney York, Lisa Young, Susan E Levy
We examined associations between child body mass index at 2-5 years and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and rapid weight gain during infancy in children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delays, or population controls. The Study to Explore Early Development is a multi-site case-control study of children, aged 2-5 years, classified as autism spectrum disorder ( n = 668), developmental delays ( n = 914), or population controls ( n = 884). Maternal gestational weight gain was compared to the Institute of Medicine recommendations...
August 13, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Hitoshi Mizuguchi, Ryota Ishida, Yasushi Kouno, Tadahiko Tachibana, Tomomi Honda, Tatsuro Kijima, Yuhei Yamamoto, Toshio Takayanagi
A new method for the rapid enrichment and highly sensitive determination of nickel ion has been developed by using a nanofiber-composite membrane filter, which was fabricated by stacking a nanofibrous material made of nylon 6 over a water-permeable membrane filter. The noncharged nickel-α-furil dioxime complex was adsorbed on a nanofibrous layer of the membrane filter under significantly higher flow rates than those used for conventional solid-phase extraction techniques. Highly sensitive determinations with detection limits at sub-parts per billion levels were achieved by enrichment from 50 mL of the complex solution, and the enrichment was completed within 3 min...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Alexander W Fischer, Kirstin Albers, Lucia M Krott, Britta Hoffzimmer, Markus Heine, Hartwig Schmale, Ludger Scheja, Philip L S M Gordts, Joerg Heeren
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is associated with impaired receptor dependent hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), promoting hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Next to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and syndecan-1, the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) stimulated by insulin action contributes to the rapid clearance of TRL in the postprandial state. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the adaptor protein phosphotyrosine interacting domain-containing protein 1 (PID1) regulates LRP1 function, thereby controlling hepatic endocytosis of postprandial lipoproteins...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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