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Shang-Ling Xiong, Gyu Tae Lim, Shang-Jun Yin, Jinhyuk Lee, Yue-Xiu Si, Jun-Mo Yang, Yong-Doo Park, Guo-Ying Qian
Pyrogallol is naturally found in aquatic plant and has been proposed as a substrate of tyrosinase. In this study, we evaluated the dual effect of pyrogallol on tyrosinase as an inhibitor in the presence of L‑DOPA simultaneously via integrating methods of enzyme kinetics and computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Pyrogallol was found to be a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase in the presence of L‑DOPA and its induced mechanism was the parabolic non-competitive inhibition type (IC50  = 0.772 ± 0...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shan Gao, Wei Liu, Zhichun Liu
Vapor condensation is widespread in natural and industrial applications. Rapid and efficient condensation plays an essential role in improving energy efficiency. Despite numerous efforts over the past few decades, the fundamental mechanism of condensation and the microscopic features of condensed droplets are not well understood. Moreover, designing a nanostructured surface with wetting contrast to enhance dropwise condensation remains unclear. Herein, through molecular dynamics simulation, we characterized the condensation processes on various nanopillar surfaces, including the nucleation, growth and coalescence of nanodroplets...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jin Shun Bai, Wei Dong Cao, Nao Hua Zeng, Song Juan Gao, Lu Yang, Guo Peng Zhou
Understanding the responses of winter green manure February orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) to different levels of nitrogen (N) supply in Northern China and determining the optimal soil N supply level to meet N demands of green manure production with high yield and efficiency, could provide a theoretical foundation and practice reference for maximizing ecological effects of green manure and optimizing N management for spring maize-green manure rotation system in intensive farmland in Northern China. We carried out a field experiment in a site which had received no fertilizer for many years...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Eva Turicchia, Marco Abbiati, Michael Sweet, Massimo Ponti
Mediterranean gorgonian forests are species-rich habitats, and like many other marine habitats they are threatened by anthropogenic disturbances and mass mortality events. These mortality events have often been linked to anomalies in the temperature profiles of the Mediterranean region. On 5 September 2017, colonies of the gorgonians Eunicella singularis and Eunicella cavolini exhibited rapid tissue loss, down to a depth of 30 m along the steep cliffs of Montecristo Island, Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Joshua S Everhart, Moneer M Abouljoud, Sarah G Poland, David C Flanigan
PURPOSE: To determine: (1) rates and risk factors for progression of lateral and medial full-thickness cartilage defect size in older adults without severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (2) whether risk factors for defect progression differ for knees with Kellgren-Lawrence OA grade 3 (moderate) OA versus grades 0-2 (none to mild) OA. METHODS: Three-hundred and eighty adults enrolled in the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included (43% male, mean age 63.0 SD 9.2 years)...
October 15, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Krajana Tainchum, Sharif Shukri, Gérard Duvallet, Lucas Etienne, Philippe Jacquiet
Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important vector of lumpy skin disease and bovine besnoitiosis in Europe. Control of this biting fly could represent a keystone in the containment of this emerging disease. Reports of insecticide resistance in S. calcitrans are scarce in Europe. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic susceptibility to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and phoxim of five wild S. calcitrans populations from southwestern France, where transmission of bovine besnoitiosis is very prevalent...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yebin Zhou, Ling-Ling An, Raghothama Chaerkady, Nanette Mittereder, Lori Clarke, Taylor S Cohen, Bo Chen, Sonja Hess, Gary P Sims, Tomas Mustelin
Neutrophils are critical for the defense against pathogens, in part through the extrusion of extracellular DNA traps, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the activation of protein arginine deiminases (PADs) that citrullinate proteins that subsequently act as autoantigens. We report that PAD4 is physically associated with the cytosolic subunits of the oxidative burst machinery, p47phox (also known as neutrophil cytosol factor 1, NCF1) and p67phox (NCF2)...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chaoqi Zhang, Yamin Qiao, Lan Huang, Feng Li, Zhen Zhang, Yu Ping, Zhibo Shen, Jingyao Lian, Feng Li, Lixuan Zhao, Yi Zhang
Skeletal muscle injury is a common symptom in daily life. After injury, a distinct population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) will infiltrate skeletal muscle in acute and chronic injury sites. However, the mechanism by which Tregs rapidly accumulate to the site of acute injury remains unclear. BALB/c mice were used to establish a cryo-injured model. Percentage of Tregs in the normal and cryo-injured tissues was detected on different days by flow cytometry. Then, the major factors that contribute to the repair of skeletal muscle by Tregs and the chemokines associated with the chemotaxis of Tregs in the paired muscle were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 12, 2018: Immunology Letters
Wing Ki Wong, Guy Georges, Francesca Ros, Sebastian Kelm, Alan P Lewis, Bruck Taddese, Jinwoo Leem, Charlotte M Deane
Motivation: Canonical forms of the antibody complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) were first described in 1987 and have been redefined on multiple occasions since. The canonical forms are often used to approximate the antibody binding site shape as they can be predicted from sequence. A rapid predictor would facilitate the annotation of CDR structures in the large amounts of repertoire data now becoming available from next generation sequencing experiments. Results: SCALOP annotates CDR canonical forms for antibody sequences, supported by an auto-updating database to capture the latest cluster information...
October 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Elisabeth Kaiser, Qinghai Tian, Michael Wagner, Monika Barth, Wenying Xian, Laura Schroeder, Sandra Ruppenthal, Lars Kaestner, Ulrich Boehm, Philipp Wartenberg, Huiyan Lu, Sara M McMillin, Derek B Bone, Jürgen Wess, Peter Lipp
Aims: Signaling via Gq-coupled receptors is of profound importance in many cardiac diseases such as hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Nevertheless, owing to their widespread expression and the inability to selectively stimulate such receptors in vivo, their relevance for cardiac function is not well understood. We here use DREADD technology to understand the role of Gq-coupled signaling in vivo in cardiac function. Methods and Results: We generated a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a Gq-coupled DREADD (Dq) in striated muscle under the control of the MCK promotor...
October 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Tae Gon Kim, Kyu Jin Chung, Jin Ho Lee, Yong-Ha Kim, Jun Ho Lee
The number of elderly patients with mandibular fracture is rapidly increasing. To improve outcome, it is important to understand the age-related characteristics of mandibular fracture. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of atrophic change on mandibular fracture in elderly patients. The retrospective study was conducted in patients aged ≥65 years old, who underwent surgery for the treatment of mandibular fracture in our hospital from March 2006 until March 2015. Patient characteristics, such as age and gender, causes of injury, anatomic location of fracture, height of mandibular body, extent of atrophy, location of surgical sites, postoperative outcomes, and the follow-up period, were examined...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Edgar Guevara, Juan Carlos Torres-Galván, Miguel G Ramírez-Elías, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Francisco Javier González
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases worldwide and is currently screened by invasive techniques based on enzymatic assays that measure plasma glucose concentration in a laboratory setting. A promising plan of action for screening DM2 is to identify molecular signatures in a non-invasive fashion. This work describes the application of portable Raman spectroscopy coupled with several supervised machine-learning techniques, to discern between diabetic patients and healthy controls (Ctrl), with a high degree of accuracy...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Aditya Sengar, Rutger A van Santen, Erik Steur, Johannes A M Kuipers, Johan Padding
Differences in catalyst deactivation kinetics in solid acid catalysis are studied with catalyst models that allow for lateral interaction between protons. Deactivation of a solid acid catalyst with laterally interacting protons induces inhomogeneity of proton reactivity that develops with time. As a consequence, product selectivity changes and deactivation will accelerate. This is demonstrated by simulations of the deactivation kinetics of the alkylation reaction of propylene with isobutane. The effect of lateral interactions between protons arises because initial catalyst deactivation is not caused by pore blocking or coke deposition but by a molecular mechanism where protons are consumed due to the formation of stable nonreactive carbenium ions...
October 5, 2018: ACS Catalysis
Jannick Prentoe, Jens Bukh
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the cause of about 400,000 annual liver disease-related deaths. The global spread of this important human pathogen can potentially be prevented through the development of a vaccine, but this challenge has proven difficult, and much remains unknown about the multitude of mechanisms by which this heterogeneous RNA virus evades inactivation by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The N-terminal motif of envelope protein 2 (E2), termed hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), changes rapidly in immunoglobulin-competent patients due to antibody-driven antigenic drift...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ricardo G Pastorello, Camila Destefani, Pedro H Pinto, Caroline H Credidio, Rafael X Reis, Thiago de A Rodrigues, Maryane C de Toledo, Louise De Brot, Felipe de A Costa, Antonio G do Nascimento, Clóvis A L Pinto, Mauro A Saieg
BACKGROUND: The impact of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on thyroid aspirates has been a matter of extensive debate. In the current study, the authors reviewed all thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) performed in their service in recent years to evaluate the impact of ROSE on final adequacy and diagnostic rates. METHODS: All ultrasound-guided FNABs of the thyroid performed between July 2015 and July 2017 were included retrospectively. ROSE was performed by experienced cytopathologists, with production of Romanowsky-stained slides for immediate evaluation...
October 14, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Gustavo Deza, Jaime Notario, Anna Lopez-Ferrer, Eva Vilarrasa, Marta Ferran, Elena Del Alcazar, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Marina Corral, Montserrat Salleras, Miquel Ribera, Lluís Puig, Ramon M Pujol, David Vidal, Fernando Gallardo
BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab (anti-IL17A) is effective as treatment for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, but real-life data on effectiveness and safety are currently very limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ixekizumab in a cohort of real-life plaque psoriasis patients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 100 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis treated with ixekizumab at 7 Spanish dermatological centers...
October 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Qianru Li, Yuexi Yang, Fei Hu, Yanxue Cai, Xiaoyun Liu, Xiaowei He
To ensure food safety and avoid infections by Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), we developed a novel fluorescent microsphere (FM)-based immunochromatography assay (FM-ICA). FMs were conjugated to anti-E. coli O157:H7 monoclonal antibody (MAb) as an ICA probe, Immunomagnetic beads (IM-beads) were prepared by conjugating functionalized magnetic microspheres with the antibody for enrichment and separation of pathogenic bacteria from complex food matrices. Under selected conditions, a standard curve of FM-ICA measurement of E...
October 10, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Siqi Qiao, Xiaoyan Peng, Lidan Wang, Shukai Duan, Jin Chu, Pengfei Jia
In this work, we fabricated three carbon nanoplume structured samples under different temperatures using a simple hot filament physical vapor deposition (HFPVD) process, and investigated the role of surface morphology, defects, and graphitic content on relative humidity (RH) sensing performances. The Van der Drift growth model and oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique of growing a large area of uniformly aligned and inclined oblique arrays of carbon nanoplumes (CNPs) on a catalyst-free silicon substrate was demonstrated...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Kay Van Damme
The first record of Triops Schrank, 1803 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca: Triopsidae) from Socotra Island is presented herein. Besides Madagascar and the current note, the genus is unknown from Indian Ocean islands. A brief morphological exploration indicates that the Socotran Triops cf. granarius (Lucas, 1864) (trachyaspis form) belongs to an African clade within this widespread Old World species complex and not to T. granarius s.str. from East Asia. Detailed morphological and molecular revision of the poorly studied Middle Eastern and Northern African populations in comparison to East Asian populations are needed to understand this group and the phylogenetic position and status of the Socotran tadpole shrimp...
July 19, 2018: Zootaxa
Marie Grenier, CÉsar Ruiz, Maia Fourt, Mathieu Santonja, Maude Dubois, Michelle Klautau, Jean Vacelet, Nicole Boury-Esnault, Thierry PÉrez
Mediterranean sponges represent about 10 % of the world sponge biodiversity, with these sessile organisms dominating in terms of diversity and biomass in most of the rocky bottoms shaded from light. After 60 years of intensive study of the sponge diversity along the French coast, we present the first comprehensive reference-list for this biogeographic area. A total of 389 sponge species was recorded, of which 222 known in the Marseille region. In this area, special attention was paid to species from underwater caves...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
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