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Sina Wang, Yuhang Ji, Haomin Fu, Huangxian Ju, Jianping Lei
DNA walkers from monopodial to multipedal types have usually one cleavage site to power the walking system along with the track. Herein, a multipedal DNA walker (m-DNA walker) with multiple DNAzyme cores was constructed with the assistance of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for highly sensitive electrochemical biosensing. Firstly, a three-component DNA complex as a swing strand was prepared by integrating a padlock, an RCA primer and a block DNA as a recognition element in the DNA walker system. After ferrocene-labeled track DNA (trDNA) and capture DNA were fixed on a gold electrode, the three-component DNA complex was imported onto the electrode as a swing arm to form a m-DNA walker...
December 5, 2018: Analyst
C W Martin Wong, Inga Conti-Jerpe, Laurie J Raymundo, Caroline Dingle, Gonzalo Araujo, Alessandro Ponzo, David M Baker
Reef-based tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades yet its impacts on reef ecosystems are often overlooked. In Tan-awan, Oslob, Philippines, whale sharks are attracted to the shallow reefs where they are provisioned up to 50 tons y-1 of feed and this phenomenon in turn attracts >300,000 y-1 visitors. Given the intensive provisioning and concentrating tourism activities, we hypothesized that the whale shark tourism-impacted site (IS) will have greater impacts on reef degradation and higher anthropogenic nitrogen pollution level compared to its reference site (RS)...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Management
Shoujuan Wang, Zhen Xu, Yongyi Fang, Zhongming Liu, Xin Zhao, Guihua Yang, Fangong Kong
Titration method (dropping-on method) was introduced as an efficient approach for determining the mercury ion (Hg2+ ) concentration in aqueous solution by using fabricated cellulosic paper-based test strips. In this study, dithizone used as a recognition reagent was physically loaded on cellulosic paper-based test strips for Hg2+ selective recognition. The sensing mechanism was established on the spectral absorption rate of the coordination compound that was formed by dithizone and Hg2+ under strong acidic conditions...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Marcos Renato de Assis, Valdair Pinto
Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living systems and manufactured by modern biotechnological methods that differ widely from the traditional synthetic drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are the most rapidly growing type of biologic. They are much larger and more complex molecules with inherent diversity; therefore, different manufacturers cannot produce identical biological products, even with the same type of host expression system and equivalent technologies. Thus, legal follow-on biologics manufactured and marketed after patent expiration are usually referred to as biosimilars...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Edward Meinert, Michelle Van Velthoven, David Brindley, Abrar Alturkistani, Kimberley Foley, Sian Rees, Glenn Wells, Nick de Pennington
BACKGROUND: Demands on health services across are increasing because of the combined challenges of an expanding and aging population, alongside complex comorbidities that transcend the classical boundaries of modern health care. Continuing to provide and coordinate care in the current manner is not a viable route to sustain the improvements in health outcomes observed in recent history. To ensure that there continues to be improvement in patient care, prevention of disease, and reduced burden on health systems, it is essential that we adapt our models of delivery...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Thorsten H Ecke, Sarah Weiß, Carsten Stephan, Steffen Hallmann, Christian Arndt, Dimitri Barski, Thomas Otto, Holger Gerullis
OBJECTIVES: UBC® Rapid Test measures soluble fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicenter study using an updated version of UBC® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients, patients with urinary bladder cancer positive history, and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 530 urine samples have been included in this study. Clinical urine samples were used from 242 patients with tumors of the urinary bladder (134 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumors (NMI-LG), 48 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumors (NMI-HG), and 60 muscle-invasive high-grade tumors (MI-HG)), 62 patients with non-evidence of disease (NED), and 226 healthy controls...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Flávia A P de Morais, Renato S Gonçalves, Bruno H Vilsinski, Évelin L de Oliveira, Nicola L Rocha, Noboru Hioka, Wilker Caetano
Hypericin (Hyp) is a potential photosensitizer drug for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). However, the high lipophilicity of Hyp prevents its preparation in water. To overcome the Hyp solubility problem, this study uses the liposomal vesicle of DPPC. Otherwise liposome is also one of the most employed artificial systems that mimetizes cell membranes. Our present focus is the interaction of Hyp into DPPC liposome as biomimetic system. We studied the loading, interaction, and localization of Hyp (2.8 μmol L-1 ) in DPPC (5...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Margarida C Gomes, Yara Tasrini, Sujatha Subramoni, Kirsty Agnoli, Joana R Feliciano, Leo Eberl, Pamela Sokol, David O'Callaghan, Annette C Vergunst
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia is particularly life-threatening for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Chronic lung infections with these bacteria can rapidly develop into fatal pulmonary necrosis and septicaemia. We have recently shown that macrophages are a critical site for replication of B. cenocepacia K56-2 and the induction of fatal pro-inflammatory responses using a zebrafish infection model. Here, we show that ShvR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator that is important for biofilm formation, rough colony morphotype and inflammation in a rat lung infection model, is also required for the induction of fatal pro-inflammatory responses in zebrafish larvae...
December 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Mingzhe Zhang, Raynald Liu, Hongli Xing, Huixuan Luo, Leiting Cui, Zhaosheng Sun
We present a patient with pontine hemorrhage. On admission, the patient was in a comatose state (Glasgow coma scale, 3). Due to rapid deterioration of his breathing, we immediately performed a direct puncture to the hematoma site. We present a simple and rapid puncture method for drainage of hematomas. The method is described and discussed in detail in this article. The described technique may be beneficial in emergency situations where the condition of the patient, particularly their respiration is declining rapidly...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Bryony A Caswell, Miranda Paine, Christopher L J Frid
Climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment are driving rapid increases in ocean deoxygenation. These changes cause biodiversity loss and have severe consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and in turn the delivery of ecosystem services upon which humanity depends (e.g. fisheries). We seek to understand how such changes will impact seafloor functioning using biological traits analysis. Results from a sewage-sludge disposal site in the Firth of Clyde, UK spanning 26 years of monitoring showed that substantial changes in macrobenthic nutrient cycling and the provision of food for predators occurred, with elevated functioning on the margins 1-2 km from the centre of the disposal grounds...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Guanghua Li, Lin Xu, Du Wang, Jun Jiang, Xiaomei Chen, Wen Zhang, Saranya Poapolathep, Amnart Poapolathep, Zhaowei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Peiwu Li
Multiclass chemical contamination of food has aroused ever-increasing attention due to the increasingly common findings of the co-occurrence of multiclass contamination, such as mycotoxin (aflatoxin M1, AFM1) and illegal additives (melamine, MEL). In the present study, a rapid, ultra-sensitive detection paper was developed based on a unique bridge-antibody label to realize on-site simultaneous detection of AFM1 and MEL in milk. This detection paper used the bridge-antibody label on fluorescent particles (i...
December 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Robert J Torphy, Zhen Wang, Aisha True-Yasaki, Keith E Volmar, Naim Rashid, Benjamin Yeh, Judy M Anderson, Julia S Johansen, Michael A Hollingsworth, Jen Jen Yeh, Eric A Collisson
Purpose: Desmoplastic stroma is a cardinal feature of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but its effects on the biology, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes are not known. We developed an automated method to assess tumor stroma density (TSD) and investigated computed tomography (CT)-correlates of stroma in PDAC. Patients and Methods: We collected PDAC samples from rapid autopsy and resection series and digitally annotated samples to quantify TSD. A series of resected patients also underwent preoperative multiphasic CT...
2018: JCO Precision Oncology
Vincenzo Russo, Anna Rago, Vincenzo Tavoletta, Valter Bianchi, Cristina Carella, Giuseppe Ammirati, Aniello Viggiano, Stefano De Vivo, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Gerardo Nigro, Antonio D'Onofrio
Background: Remote Monitoring (RM) has been introduced for several years and nowadays most pacemakers are equipped with such a technology. RM can provide early detection of high atrial rate episodes (AHREs) onset and enable prompt medical intervention. However, there are still little data on the clinical reactions triggered by the AHRE detected by RM of pacemaker recipients and on their possible benefit on patients' outcome. Methods/Design: The RAPID study is a multicenter, prospective, non-interventional study designed to compare the time from onset to first physician's evaluation of AHRE episode with arrhythmic burden ≥5% (72 minutes) for pacemaker recipients without atrial fibrillation history, between patients followed with RM or conventionally with annual in-hospital visits...
August 2018: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Melanie Salvermoser, Daniela Begandt, Ronen Alon, Barbara Walzog
Cell migration is indispensable for various biological processes including angiogenesis, wound healing, and immunity. In general, there are two different migration modes described, the mesenchymal migration mode and the amoeboid migration mode. Neutrophils rapidly migrate toward the sites of injury, infection, and inflammation using the amoeboid migration mode which is characterized by cell polarization and a high migration velocity. During site-directed trafficking of neutrophils from the blood stream into the inflamed tissue, neutrophils must first withstand shear stress while migrating on the 2-dimensional endothelial surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christopher K E Bleck, Yuho Kim, T Bradley Willingham, Brian Glancy
Mapping biological circuit connectivity has revolutionized our understanding of structure-function relationships. Although connectomic analyses have primarily focused on neural systems, electrical connectivity within muscle mitochondrial networks was recently demonstrated to provide a rapid mechanism for cellular energy distribution. However, tools to evaluate organelle connectivity with high spatial fidelity within single cells are currently lacking. Here, we developed a framework to quantitatively assess mitochondrial network connectivity and interactions with cellular sites of energy storage, utilization, and calcium cycling in cardiac, oxidative, and glycolytic muscle...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Takayuki Takahashi, Yukitoshi Mine, Tadashi Okamoto
2,3-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone is a common chemical structure of coenzyme Q (CoQ) that conjugates different lengths of an isoprenoid side chain at the 6-position of the p-benzoquinone ring. In a series of studies to explore the cytotoxic mechanism of CoQ homologues with a short isoprenoid side chain, we found that a CoQ analogue without an isoprenoid side chain, CoQ0 , showed marked toxicity against HeLa cells in comparison with cytotoxic homologues. Therefore, we examined the cytotoxic mechanism of CoQ0 ...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yosuke Moteki, Masatoshi Yamada, Atsushi Shimizu, Naoki Suzuki, Tomonori Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: We present a case report of a male patient with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which occurred in a burr-hole site for chronic subdural hematoma covered with hydroxyapatite material. LCH is a rare dendritic histiocytic disorder that affects the bones, especially the skull. Until now, the association with foreign-body reaction has rarely been reported by any author. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old man underwent a burr-hole irrigation for chronic subdural hematoma and the burr hole was covered with a burr-hole button made up of hydroxyapatite...
November 29, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jikui Wu, Ruinan Wang, Yunfei Lu, Min Jia, Juan Yan, Xiaojun Bian
The effective identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria is essential for addressing serious public health issues. Here we demonstrate a simple and universal impedimetric sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria based on the recognition by a bacteria-imprinted polypyrrole (BIP) film. The BIP film was facilely prepared via one-step electro-polymerization followed by in-situ removal of the bacterial template. The film structure is novel with non-cavity-like imprinted sites situated at the surface of the polypyrrole (PPy) matrix, which are more accessible for the target bacteria and should enhance the mass transfer and the binding kinetics...
December 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Duraipandy Natarajan, Manikantan Syamala Kiran
The effective wound management strategies depends on identification and manipulation of the molecular defects in the pathophysiology of wound. Poor vascularization, protease susceptibility and microbial invasion at wound site affect the early wound closure. Hence, an efficient wound dressing material needs to promote angiogenesis, control proteolytic activity and microbial attack. The present study, describes designing and developing a novel wound dressing material by stabilization of collagen with juglone functionalized silver nanoparticle...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jian Deng, Fang Liu, Lina Wang, Yang An, Min Gao, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
Triggered drug release from anti-tumor nanomedicine is an efficient approach to address the dilemma of systemic nanocarrier stability and on-demand drug liberation in tumor sites. Combinational drug delivery has been a useful means to enhance antitumor efficacy and reduce adverse effects. We report a multifunctional micelle for dually hypoxia- and singlet oxygen-responsive integration of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. The micelles were made of a nitroimidazole (NI)-bearing polymer; doxorubicin (Dox) and chlorin e6 (Ce6) were selected as the model chemodrug and photosensitizer, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Biomaterials Science
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