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Insulin Resistance AND obstructive sleep apnea

Nicolette G C Van Der Sande, Peter J Blankestijn, Frank L J Visseren, Martine M Beeftink, Michiel Voskuil, Jan Westerink, Michiel L Bots, Wilko Spiering
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of potential modifiable factors of difficult-to-control hypertension would enable clinicians to target-specific amendable causes. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of underlying medical conditions, lifestyle factors, and concomitant medication use in an integrated diagnostic evaluation in patients with difficult-to-control hypertension, referred to a tertiary center. METHODS: The study population consisted of 653 patients referred between 2006 and 2016 for difficult-to-control hypertension to the University Medical Center Utrecht...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Karla A Temple, Rachel Leproult, Lisa Morselli, David A Ehrmann, Eve Van Cauter, Babak Mokhlesi
Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more prevalent in men and is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine if there are sex differences in the impact of OSA on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic overweight and obese adults. Methods: One hundred and forty-five men and women (age 33.4 ± 0.6, BMI 37.2 ± 0.7, 70.3% blacks) from the community underwent in-laboratory polysomnography. Severity of OSA was assessed by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Glucose tolerance was assessed using fasting glucose, 1-h glucose, 2-h glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) during the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Anisha Gohil, Tamara S Hannon
Poor sleep and obesity are both extraordinarily common in the US adolescent population and often occur simultaneously. This review explores the links between obesity and sleep, outlining what is known about the relationships between sleep characteristics, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. Sleep duration is less than optimal in teens, and decreases as age increases. This is detrimental to overall well-being and is associated with obesity in children, adolescents, and young adults. Accordingly, inadequate sleep duration is associated with poor diet quality, decreased insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and prevalent cardiometabolic risk factors...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sergio Garbarino, Egeria Scoditti, Paola Lanteri, Luana Conte, Nicola Magnavita, Domenico M Toraldo
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and prevalent medical condition with major consequences for health and safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common-but not universal-accompanying symptom. The purpose of this literature analysis is to understand whether the presence/absence of EDS is associated with different physiopathologic, prognostic, and therapeutic outcomes in OSA patients. Methods: Articles in English published in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE between January 2000 and June 2017, focusing on no-EDS OSA patients, were critically reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Josko Bozic, Josip A Borovac, Tea Galic, Tina Ticinovic Kurir, Daniela Supe-Domic, Zoran Dogas
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the study were to determine plasma adropin, systemic inflammation biomarker levels, and glucose metabolism parameters in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to healthy controls. METHODS: In this study, we included 50 male patients with OSA (25 moderate and 25 severe) and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects. All subjects underwent fasting sampling of peripheral blood for laboratory analyses...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Bharat Bajantri, Dmitry Lvovsky
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a disorder of sleep breathing that is a result of recurrent and intermittent hypoxia during sleep induced by the repeated partial or complete collapse of the upper airway, eventually causing chronic intermittent hypoxia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is divided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Animal and human studies showed that obesity is associated with chronic liver hypoxia, even in the presence of systemic normoxia causing inflammation and release of cytokines...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Jan Polak, Naresh M Punjabi, Larissa A Shimoda
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been observed in OSA patients and in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). We examined whether pharmacological blockade of type A and type B ET-1 receptors (ETA and ETB ) would ameliorate glucose intolerance and IR in mice exposed to IH. Subcutaneously implanted pumps delivered BQ-123 (ETA antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day), BQ-788 (ETB antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day) or vehicle (saline or propyleneglycol [PG]) for 14 days in C57BL6/J mice (10/group)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Chen Juan Gu, Hua Hua Yi, Jing Feng, Zhi Guo Zhang, Jun Zhou, Li Na Zhou, Jian Ping Zhou, Min Li, Qing Yun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the molecular effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on hepatic insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis, and whether c-Jun NH2-terminal-kinase (JNK) contributed to metabolic responses to IH in liver cells. METHODS: The human HepG2 cells and rat FAO cells were exposed to 10, 30, 120, 240 or 360 cycles of IH (1% O2 for 60 s followed by 21% O2 for 60s, 7...
May 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Riva Tauman, Shlomit Shalitin, Lena Lavie
PURPOSE: Obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. In adults, increased lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress, was found in both metabolic syndrome and OSA. Studies on oxidative stress in children with T2DM and OSA are scarce. METHODS: Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) levels were evaluated in obese children and adolescents with/without T2DM, and the contribution of OSA to oxidative stress was investigated...
May 26, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
C B Xie, X Q Huang, P Wu, X Luo, J He, J F Zeng, W Wang, Y Y Tang
Objective: To investigate the expression and significance of serum insulinlike growth factor-1(IGF-1) in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS). Method: One hundred and seven patients of OSAHS diagnosed with PSG were included in the observation group,which were divided into heavy, medium and light group according to AHI.Fifty case of healthy people without OSAHS were included in control group.Serum IGF-1 were measured by ELISA. Thirty patients of heavy OSAHS received surgery and CPAP treatment for three months,and were retested the levels of IGF-1 and PSG six months later...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Min Li, Xiaoying Li, Yan Lu
With the rapid changes in lifestyle in modern society, including the high nutritional intake and reduced physical activity, the incidence of metabolic diseases has been increasing year by year. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder, usually characterized by sudden pauses of breathing during sleep and an interrupted sleep rhythm. Although the pathological mechanism remains poorly understood, it has been strongly associated with metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
July 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Alejandro Castaneda, Edgar Jauregui-Maldonado, Iqbal Ratnani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani
The so-called "metabolic syndrome" (MS), constitutes a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, including fasting glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and waist circumference that arise from insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, involving cessation or significant decreased airflow, with intermittent hypoxemia, frequent arousals from sleep and recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations that interfere with normal sleep patterns generating difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep and loud snoring...
April 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
D Quilliot, M-A Sirveaux, C Nomine-Criqui, T Fouquet, N Reibel, L Brunaud
The decision to perform a bariatric surgical procedure, the conclusion of a clinical pathway in which management is individually adapted to each patient, is taken after multidisciplinary consultation. Paradoxically, the patients who would most benefit from surgery are also those who have the highest operative risk. In practice, predictive factors of mortality and severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo>III) must be used to evaluate the benefit/risk ratio most objectively. The main risk factors are age, male gender, body mass index, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes, tobacco abuse, cardiovascular disease, ability to lose weight before surgery, hypoalbuminemia and functional disability...
June 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of the present review was to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes, while more than half of type 2 diabetes patients suffer from OSA. Similar to Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Renae C Fernandez, Vivienne M Moore, Emer M Van Ryswyk, Tamara J Varcoe, Raymond J Rodgers, Wendy A March, Lisa J Moran, Jodie C Avery, R Doug McEvoy, Michael J Davies
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Juanjuan Zou, Yunyan Xia, Huajun Xu, Yiqun Fu, Yingjun Qian, Xinyi Li, Xiaolong Zhao, Jianyin Zou, Lili Meng, Suru Liu, Huaming Zhu, Hongliang Yi, Jian Guan, Bin Chen, Shankai Yin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with abnormal glycometabolism; however, the cardinal features of OSA, such as sleep fragmentation (SF) and intermittent hypoxia (IH), have yet to show clear, independent associations with glycometabolism. METHODS: We enrolled 1834 participants with suspected OSA from July 2008 to July 2013 to participate in this study. Polysomnographic variables, biochemical indicators, and physical measurements were collected for each participant...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Indra Narang, Brian W McCrindle, Cedric Manlhiot, Zihang Lu, Suhail Al-Saleh, Catherine S Birken, Jill Hamilton
PURPOSE: There is conflicting data regarding the independent associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with metabolic risk in obese youth. Previous studies have not consistently addressed central adiposity, specifically elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR), which is associated with metabolic risk independent of body mass index. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the independent effects of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) and associated indices of nocturnal hypoxia on metabolic function in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR...
January 22, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Xin Liu, Yuyang Miao, Fan Wu, Tingting Du, Qiang Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may play an important role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, the first-line therapy for OSA, on liver disease in OSA patients is still debated. We provide this review of previous studies to summarize the effects of CPAP treatment on liver disease in OSA patients in aspects of liver function, liver steatosis, fibrosis, and incidence of liver disease. CPAP treatment may be beneficial to liver disease in subjects with OSA independent of metabolic risk factors, but a sufficiently long therapeutic duration (perhaps greater than 3 months) may be needed to achieve these positive effects...
January 11, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Y B Wang, X F Li, R Chen, J H Shen, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigate the association between serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) level and insulin resistance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS). Methods: Eighty patients with snoring were monitored by overnight polysomnography (PSG) from September 2015 to July 2017, and there were 59 males and 21 females, aged from 22 to 77 years old (mean age 47±14 years old). Based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), these patients were divided into three groups: primary snoring group (AHI<5/h, n =19), mild-moderate OSAS groups (5/h≤AHI≤30/h, n =23) and severe OSAS groups (AHI>30/h, n =38)...
December 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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